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Reconfigurable/Adaptable Systems

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OS reconfigures its resource management policies based on application needs ... The hardware came with dip switches, and/or jumpers to configure their settings. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Reconfigurable/Adaptable Systems


1
Reconfigurable/Adaptable Systems OS
  • Michelle Grieco

Charles Huntington
2
Reconfigurable/Adaptable Systems
  • OS reconfigures its resource management policies
    based on application needs
  • System components change and OS must adjust

3
Reconfigurable OS
  • Trends in Dynamically Reconfigurable Operating
    Systems include
  • Plug and Play
  • Hot Swappable Devices (PCMCIA and USB devices)
  • Object Oriented Operating Systems

4
Legacy Devices
  • Prior to 1995 traditional computer cards had to
    be manually configured. This type of hardware is
    categorized as legacy devices.
  • The hardware came with dip switches, and/or
    jumpers to configure their settings.
  • The problem A user had to understand extensively
    how their computers resources were allocated to
    setup new hardware.
  • Another problem A legacy devices default
    settings caused conflicts in resource allocation
    (ex sound cards, network adapters IRQ 5).

5
Plug and Play
Devices now work out of the box.
6
Plug and Play
  • Microsoft, Intel, and a few other hardware
    manufacturers developed the Plug and Play (PnP)
    standard to combat the problems with Legacy
    Devices.
  • A PnP OS stores the device drivers for many
    peripheral devices.
  • PnP works with the BIOS to determine the
    necessary resources for new hardware.

7
How PnP works...
  • The BIOS first searches the PCI and ISA busses to
    determine if the current hardware matches the
    existing configuration.
  • If the configuration has changed then the BIOS
    will assign resources to the legacy devices
    first.
  • The PnP devices are update with the leftover
    resources.
  • The ESCD (Extended System Configuration Data) is
    updated with the new configuration settings.

8
PnP Problems
  • After Windows 95 was out problems with PnP became
    apparent.
  • Stubborn IRQ assignments
  • PnP could not handle the complicated jobs.
  • Plug and Pray?

9
Hot Swapping
  • Hot Swapping is the act of connecting/disconnectin
    g a device without stopping the host operations.
  • Hot Swapping requires specially designed hardware
    and software.
  • Hot Swapping requires that both the OS and the
    connecting peripheral support it.

10
USB
  • Universal Serial Bus is truly a PnP connector.
  • USB is very fast, with a maximum bandwidth of 12
    Mbps
  • USB is Hot-Swappable.

11
Reconfigurable OS
12
Dynamic Reconfiguration of OS using Objects
  • Traditional systems use fixed management policies
  • They can not expand (or contract) in order to run
    under new hardware environments.
  • They can not implement a new feature just because
    the hardware made it available.
  • Dynamic reconfiguration welcomes new
    implementations of hardware where traditional OS
    ignore it.

13
Reconfiguration of OS using Objects
  • One example of an OO Reconfigurable OS is
    Choices.
  • Choices can run on many different hardware
    platforms.
  • Choices uses three main abstract classes
    MemoryObject, Process and Domain.
  • These classes define the rest of the OS.

14
Choices steps to a new OS
  • The automatic development of a subframework, like
    a file system, is handled in the following
    manner.
  • The abstract properties of the subsystem are
    collected (file permissions, containing data
    structure and compression techniques).
  • A subframework is developed that is consistent
    with the absract properties and the lower level
    requirements.
  • Finally a subsystem is created with concrete
    classes that exemplifies the subframework.

15
Choices three abstract classes
16
Choices constraints
17
Choices subframework
18
Reconfigurable System Components
19
Wearable Reconfigurable Computers
Quantum3D
20
Requirements
  • Occasionally execute bursts of computation-intensi
    ve tasks that carry real-time constraints
    (reading sensor position, cryptography and
    communication) high energy efficiency and
    performance
  • Fixed base performance for running tasks that
    have neither high computation demands nor
    stringent timing constraints.
  • Low power consumption force components into
    power-down modes
  • Highly flexible components of systems are
    dynamically added (put on or removed from the
    body system)
  • Adapt to emerging/changing communication
    standards/protocols

21
High Performance Reconfigurable Computer Systems
- Example
  • Wearable Configurable Systems
  • Embedded into mobile environment that interacts
    with to events occurring in the area
  • Composed of a set of distributed nodes and a
    communication network surrounded by a general
    purpose main module
  • Performance intensive parts are implemented in
    FPGAs (reconfigurable), but the system also
    contains low power CPUs
  • Wireless is the predominant technology of
    communication with outside networks

22
FPGAs
  • Field Programmable Gate Arrays
  • Programmable logic blocks which are
    interconnected by programmable routing channels
  • SRAM based cells control the functionality of the
    logic blocks and routing
  • Reprogrammed in-circuit arbitrarily by
    downloading configuration data to the device

23
Components of Reconfigurable Systems
Reconfigurable Hardware
CPU
Sensors Interface
Memory
Wireless Link
  • Integration of CPU and FPGAs allows for low
    latency and low power communication
  • Energy savings of moving kernels to FPGA instead
    of CPU
  • Computation intensive functions are loaded into
    reconfigurable hardware as needed. It can also
    run communication function protocol functions to
    relieve the CPU
  • The reconfigurable hardware is known as ASIC
    on-demand.
  • Application-Specific Integrated Circuit - a chip
    designed for a particular application (as opposed
    to the integrated circuits that control functions
    such as RAM in a PC).
  • ASICs are built by connecting existing circuit
    building blocks in new ways. Since the building
    blocks already exist in a library, it is much
    easier to produce a new ASIC than to design a new
    chip from scratch.

24
Reconfigurable System Software Architecture
25
Pros Cons of High Performance Reconfigurable
Computing
  • Pros
  • Exponential improvement of capabilities and
    performance using FPGAs
  • Flexibility
  • Modest Cost
  • Cons
  • Programming HP computers is time consuming
  • Must be expert in parallel computing
    architecture, programming tools and target
    application

26
Reconfigurable Systems
  • Demand paged hardware similar to virtual memory
    used for software
  • Each computation task can be supported by the
    notion of virtual hardware.
  • Different hw tasks could share portions of the
    FPGA physically or temporally and operate like a
    hardware cache.
  • By using the reconfigurable components as virtual
    hardware, fewer resources are needed for an
    application since the RC units can be dynamically
    reconfigured and reused to implement multiple
    functions.

27
References
  • Supporting Dynamic Reconfiguration of Operating
    System using Object and Meta Objects. Yoo,
    Kwanghun and Choo, Yookun. Department of Computer
    Engineering. University of Seoul. IEEE. 1995.
    p727-733.
  • When Virtual is Better than Real. Chen, Peter M.
    and Noble, Brian D. Department of Electrical
    Engineering and Computer Science. University of
    Michigan. IEEE. 2001. p133 138.
  • What next? A Hardware Operating System? Groza,
    V., Abielmona, R. School of Information
    Technology Engineering, University of Ottawa,
    Canada. IEEE. 2004. p1496 1501.
  • High Performance Reconfigurable Computing
    Systems. Smith, M., Drager, S., Pochet, L.,
    Peterson, G. University of Tennessee Electrical
    and Computer Engineering. Air Force Research
    Laboratory. IEEE. 2001. p 462 465.
  • Reconfigurable Hardware in Wearable Computing
    Nodes. Plessl, C., Enzler R., Walker, H.,
    Beutel, J., Platzner, M., Thiele, L. Swiss
    Federal Institute of Technology. IEEE.
    Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on
    Wearable Computers. 2002.

28
References
  • How does USB Work?. Ken Jacobs. August 5, 2004.
    Http//www.pcmech.com/show/internal/681/.
  • Plug and Play, A how to manual.
    http//www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Plug-and-Play-HOWTO.html
    toc4.
  • On Adaptable Aspect-Oriented Operating Systems.
    Daniel Lohmann, Wasif Gilani and Olaf Spinczyk.
    Friedrich-Alexander-Unversity Eriangen-Nuremberg,
    Germany.
  • Choices, Frameworks and Refinement. Roy H.
    Campbell, Nayeem Islam, Ralph Johnson, Panos
    Kougiouris and Peter Madany. Department of
    Computer Science. University of Illinois at
    Urbana-Champaign.
  • Java Tip 30 Polymorphism and Java, What to do
    when switch statements start reappearing in your
    code. Philip Bishop. Http//www.javaworld.com/java
    tips/jw-javatip30_p.html.
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