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Title: Botswana


Elephant in Chobe Afternoon
rest The Bushmen Botswana
National assembly building Okavango Delta
  • Boitshwarelo, Bopelo
  • (PhD Candidate)Deakin University,

  • Overview
  • Botswana Govt is fully committed to adoption of
    ICT in all sectors of society hence a National
    ICT Policy
  • http//
  • Principles upon which the ICT Policy is built
  • Providing easy access to valuable information on
    health, jobs and education
  • Connecting all schools and libraries to the
  • Increasing ICT related education for students-
    both children and adults
  • Providing Internet Access Centres and Training in
    rural Villages

  • Goals of the paper
  • Provide a rationale for technology supported
    distance education
  • Outline Thutonet recommendations
  • Implications of the recommendations for delivery
    of quality HDE incl. considerations for effective

Background rationale
  • Access to Higher education in Africa
  • Higher education in Africa characterized by
    limited number of HEIs most with limited
  • In Botswana one University with another one
    expected in a few years several colleges and
    institutes offering Diplomas.
  • Therefore limited access for pple fresh from
    schools and for further training.
  • Thus the situation in Botswana is consistent with
    the observation by Mackintosh (2005) when he
    says, It is unlikely that countries in the SSA
    Sub-Saharan Africa will have adequate funds to
    expand access using the conventional campus-based
    model p.226

  • Access, Distance education and ICT
  • Distance education is increasingly being
    recognized as having a potential to increase
    access (RNPE, 1993)? an increase in DE
  • The DE programmes primarily use traditional
    methods of delivery.
  • Mackintosh (2005), however proposes that the
    continent will need to explore the potential of
    technology-mediated education notwithstanding the
    challenges associated with the infrastructure
    problem (p.226).
  • ICT can greatly enhance the quality of DE
    programmes(Benson, 2003, Epps and Stacey, 2003,
    Weigel, 2004)

  • UB vision with regard to ICT and open and
    distance learning.
  • UB hopes to become more innovative and intends to
    Extend access to higher education through the
    utilization of Information and Communications
    Technologies within the framework of lifelong and
    open learning, (University of Botswana, 2004)
  • And through CCE hopes to extend the Universitys
    programmes beyond the boundaries of its campuses
    by open and distance learning methods.
  • This is the background against which the policy
    recommendations are discussed

Thutonet recommendations
  • Computers for Schools and School connectivity
  • Increase number of computers in schools
  • Achieve universal school connectivity provide
    affordable and efficient infrastructure for
    schools and learning centres

  • ICT skills in children and young adults
  • Introduction of ICT throughout the curriculum
  • ICT and the adult Population
  • Generate new and additional skills for the adult
    population using both formal and non-formal
    methods of education

  • Public Libraries
  • Provision of Computers and high speed Internet
  • Professional Development Programmes for Teachers.
  • Basic and applied skills in ICT for teachers esp.
    integration into the curriculum

Other recommendations
  • Connecting communities Programme
  • Provide people in all localities with affordable
    access to computers and the Internet
  • Community Access Centres and Mobile Internet
    Units(For the remotest parts of the country)
  • Connecting Botswana
  • Infrastructure enhancement programme which is a
    fast track initiative that aims to strengthen
    Botswana technical infrastructure that will
    support all the programmes.

Importance of these recommendations for HDE
  • Taken collectively these recommendations have a
    potential to transform HDE.
  • Community Access Centres and Mobile Internet
    Units will increase access to quality education.
  • Blended learning approaches with online learning
    environments as part of the package-gtrich
    content(current and interactive).
  • ( Lewin, 2000, Debande and Ottersten, 2004 )
  • Opportunities for dialogue and collaboration
    ((Geelan and Taylor, 2003).

  • Connecting Botswana
  • Strengthening of Botswanas technical
    infrastructure? efficiency and reliability of
  • Infusion of ICT into the whole curriculum
  • Children and youth will ensure the next
    generation of youth is ICT literate and therefore
    candidates for lifelong learning.
  • Adults can also easily engage in their lifelong
    learning pursuits.

  • Professional Development Programme for teachers
  • Teachers need to be competent if they are to
    drive acquisition of ICT literacy.

Some considerations for effective implementation
in HDE
  • Policy will not necessarily translate into
    educational outcomes
  • Interplay between Policy and existing realities
    determines the extent of success for
    implementation (Dale, Robertson and Shortis,

  • 3 considerations
  • Pedagogical issues
  • Management of change and innovations
  • Collaborations and partnerships
  • (See Hammond 1994, Baggot la Velle et al, 2003,
    Unwin, 2005, Davis, 2005)

  • Summary
  • Rationale for ICT in education
  • UBs aspiration to extend access
  • Recommendations and their importance
  • Considerations for successful implementation.
  • Concluding remarks and recommendations to HEI in
  • Proper positioning of DE providers
  • Other developing countries may learn smth from

  • Baggott la Velle, l. , McFarlane, A., Brawn, R.
    (2003). Knowledge transformation through ICT in
    science education a case study in teacher-driven
    curriculum development-Case Study 1. British
    Journal of Educational Technology, 34(2),
  • Benson, R. (2003). Improving the quality of
    distance education through online learning. In G.
    Davies E. Stacey (Eds.), Quality Education _at_ a
    Distance IFIP TC3/WG3.6 Working Conference on
    Quality Education _at_ a Distance February 3-6,
    Geelong, Australia (pp. 169-178). Boston Kluwer
    Academic Publishers.
  • Clark, R. (1983). Reconsidering the research on
    learning form media. Review from Educational
    Research, 53(4), 445-459.
  • Davis, N. (2005). Critical success factors for
    ICT building capacity in information societies
    Outcomes from UNESCO's world conference IFIP.
  • Debande, O., Ottersten, E. K. (2004).
    Information and Communication Technologies A
    Tool Empowering and Developing the Horizon of the
    Learner. Higher Education Management and Policy,
    16(2), 31-61.
  • Dale, R., Robertson, S., Shortis, T. (2004).
    'You can't not go with the technological flow,
    can you?' Constructing 'ICT' and 'teaching and
    learning'. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning,
    20, 456-470.
  • Epps, J., Stacey, E. (2003). Establishing
    quality online supporting productive academic
    teams. In G. Davies E. Stacey (Eds.), Quality
    Education _at_ a Distance IFIP TC3/WG3.6 Working
    Conference on Quality Education _at_ a Distance
    February 3-6, Geelong, Australia (pp. 289-298).
    Boston Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Editorial. (2003). Rhetoric and reality-the
    present and future of ICT in education. British
    Journal of Educational Technology, 34(2),
  • Geelan, D. R., Taylor, P. C. (2001). Embodying
    Our Values in Our Teaching Practices Building
    Open and Critical Discourse through Computer
    Mediated Communication. Journal of Interactive
    Learning Research, 12(4), 375-401.
  • Hammond, M. (1994). Measuring the impact of IT on
    learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning,
    10, 251-260.
  • Jackson, A. C., Fletcher, B. C., Messer, D.
    (1998). Effects of experience in microcomputer
    use in primary schools results of a second
    survey. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 4,
  • Kompf, M. (2005). Book Reviews Information and
    Communications Technology and the Seduction of
    Knowledge, Teaching, and Learning What Lies
    Ahead for Education. Curriculum Inquiry, 35(2),
  • Kortweg, L. (2001). Inverted Hollywood the Pitch
    for e-Knowledge meets Pre-Service Teacher
    Education. In B. Barrel (Ed.), Technology,
    teaching and learning Issues in the integration
    of technology. Calgary, Alberta Detslig
  • Lewin, K. M. (2000). New Technologies and
    Knowledge Acquisition and Use in Developing
    Countries. Compare, 30(3), 313-321.
  • MacFarlane, A., Sakellariou, S. (2002). The
    Role of ICT in Science Education. Cambridge
    Journal of Education, 32(2), 219-232.
  • Mackintosh, W. (2005). Can You Lead From Behind?
    Critical Reflections on the Rhetoric of
    E-LEARNING, Open Distance Learning and, ICTs for
    Development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In A. A.
    Carr-Chellman (Ed.), Global Perspectives on
    E-LEARNING Rhetoric and Reality (pp. 222-240).
    Thousand Oaks, California SAGE Publications.
  • Maeroff, G. I. (2003). How online learning is
    changing our schools and colleges A classroom of
    one. New York Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Melton, R. F. (2002). Planning and Developing
    Open and Distance Learning a quality Assurance
    Approach. London Routledge Falmer.
  • Ministry of Communication Science and Technology
    (MCST). (2005, 20/04/2005). Draft National
    Information and Communications Technology Policy.
    Retrieved 13/12/05, 2005, from http//www.maitlamo