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AEROSOL FORUM HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES for the COMING DECADE

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for the COMING DECADE. Paris, April 3, 2007. Aerosol Forum ... Pierre MEURICE L'OREAL. Tel : 01.47.56.41.70. E-mail: PMEURICE_at_rd.loreal.com ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AEROSOL FORUM HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES for the COMING DECADE


1
AEROSOL FORUMHEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
for the COMING DECADE
2
  • BACKGROUND those involved
  • CHALLENGES major themes
  • EMERGING ISSUES
  • PROSPECTS and CONCLUSIONS

3
BACKGROUND those involved
4
BACKGROUND those involved
  • After several major phases, we have entered the
    era of Sustainable Development for the long
    term
  • 1972 United Nations summit in Stockholm
  • From Economic Growth to Eco-Development
  • 1987 "Our Common Future report or the
    Brundtland Report
  • From Eco-Development to Sustainable Development
  • 1992 Earth Summit /Rio de Janeiro (UN)
  • Agenda 21 programme of action for Sustainable
    Development signed by 173 Countries
  • 2002 Johannesburg World Summit
  • Businesses invited

5
BACKGROUND those involved (cont.)
  • Sustainable Development is the point where good
    economic management, social progress and
    preservation of the environment converge.
  • It is based on certain fundamental principles of
  • precaution we cannot wait until the situation is
    irreparable before acting
  • prevention active and anticipatory prudence
  • responsibility the polluter pays
  • involvement everyone is affected/ everyone is
    involved
  • solidarity between generations / with the most
    powerless
  • Thrifty management preservation of natural
    resources
  • Continual improvement and innovation
  • Thus, we are all affected and business is at the
    heart of the system

6
BACKGROUND those involved (cont.)
  • For business, success founded on 3 pillars -
    economic, social and environmental can be
    illustrated by a few key words
  • Economic growth, profitability, solvency
  • Social employment, diversity, training,
    healthcare, safety .
  • Environment consumption of raw materials,
    emissions, effluent, waste
  • The direct circle of business (internal
    external) pushes for a continual improvement in
    the various criteria and in particular healthcare
    and the environment
  • personal
  • customers (consumers/distributors)
  • shareholders
  • investors (Rating agencies)
  • competitors
  • suppliers

7
BACKGROUND those involved (cont.)
  • Beyond the direct circle of business can be added
    national and international constraints
    (opportunities)
  • Regulation (Fr, EU, etc.)
  • Standardisation (AFNOR, CEN, ISO)
  • International Agency Programmes (UNEP, WHO, etc.)
  • NGO
  • Media
  • Scientific community
  • General public

8
BACKGROUND those involved (cont.)
  • When the EU strategy on Sustainable Development
    was revised , the European Council renewed its
    commitment to the issue (in June 2006) with the
    emphasis on sustainable production and
    consumption.
  • Health and environment issues must thus be
    considered throughout the product life-cycle
    (production of raw materials, product
    manufacturing, consumption and waste/effluent
    processing)
  • An attitude of anticipation and continual
    progress should always be adopted.

9
BACKGROUND those involved (cont.)
  • This is a fundamental phenomenon that should
    enable business to convert constraints into
    opportunities and use eco-design as a means to
    position themselves as having a competitive
    advantage.

10
CHALLENGES major themes
11
CHALLENGES major themesENSURING THE SUCCESS OF
THE REACH PROGRAMME
  • Regulation 1907/2006 by the European Parliament
    and the European Council on December 18th 2006
    tackling the Registration, Evaluation and
    Authorisation for CHemical substances.
  • Aims
  • Ensure a high level of protection for human
    health and the environment
  • Ensure free circulation of substances on the
    internal market
  • Increase competitiveness and innovation
  • Principles
  • A single system for new and existing substances
  • Pre-registration and the sharing of data,
    avoiding duplicate tests
  • Registration of substances 1T/year per
    producer/importer
  • Assessment of files/substances by Agency/Member
    States
  • Authorisation for Substances of Very High
    Concern
  • Restrictions where necessary on any substance

12
ENSURING THE SUCCESS of the REACH PROGRAMME (cont)
Pre-registration Registration timetable for
phase-in substances
1 June 2007 REACH comes into force 1 June 2018
Pre-registration 18 months All substances
1 Jun 2008
1 Dec 2008
1 Dec 2010
1 Jun 2013
3.5 years Registration 1000 t/y CMR 1 2
R50-53 gt 100 t/y
2.5 years Registration 100 - 1000 t/y
5 years Registration 1 - 100 t/y
3.5 years
6 years
11 years
13
ENSURING THE SUCCESS of the REACH PROGRAMME (cont)
REACH and the supply chain
  • Registration
  • gt1t and inside scope

European Chemical Agency
SDS dangerous or PBT or vPvB Exposure
Scenario(s) gt 10 t Specific conditions
  • Use outside exposure
  • scenario gt 1 t

Downstream Users
  • Users can obtain Chemical Safety Reports from
    suppliers and implement Risk Management
    Measures or carry out their own assessment for
    use gt 1T/year and notify the Agency

14
CHALLENGES major themes (cont) FIGHTING
INCREASES in the GREENHOUSE EFFECT
  • The greenhouse effect involves the retention of
    some of the earths heat, notably from infrared
    radiation.
  • The greenhouse effect is essential as without it,
    the average temperature on the Earths surface
    would be 20C
  • At the meeting of IPCC experts (Intergovernmental
    Panel on Climate Change) in February 2007 in
    Paris, the forecast temperature increase was
    estimated at between 1.8C and 4.0C by 2100
  • Above 2C irreversible and certainly
    catastrophic consequences
  • Human activity is responsible for the majority of
    changes observed in the last 50 years
  • Need for strong action on a worldwide level

15
FIGHTING INCREASES in the GREENHOUSE EFFECT (cont)
  • The major greenhouse gases are CO2 , CH4, N2O,
    PFC, SF6 and HFC
  • The Kyoto Protocol (1997) called for a global
    reduction of 5 by 2012 compared with 1990
  • Aerosols were affected through their use of HFC
    (134a, 152a) as propellants
  • The European Aerosol Federation annually monitors
    the quantities used in European production and
    sends the figures to the DG Environment and DG
    Enterprise
  • Regulation (EC) No.842/2006 of 17th May 2006 on
    fluoridated gases
  • HFCs will be banned in novelty aerosols from 4th
    July 2009
  • More generally the aerosol industry is affected
    like any other industrial sector by its CO2
    emissions (- industrial processes, heating of
    premises, transport supplies, deliveries, etc.)
  • The scientific approach to greenhouse gases will
    be presented by Pr ZELLNER.

16
CHALLENGES major themes (cont) REDUCING THE
IMPACT of TROPOSPHERIC OZONE
  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) react with
    nitrogen oxides in the presence of light to form
    tropospheric ozone
  • Increases in ozone concentration can have
    consequences for human health (irritation,
    respiratory problems, etc) as well as for plant
    life
  • For the aerosol industry, VOCs are used as
    propellants and solvents hydrocarbons, dimethyl
    ether, ethyl alcohol, etc.
  • There is regulatory pressure on the use of VOCs
    that began with industrial and transport
    activities, but now affects products themselves
    (such as paint)

17
REDUCING THE IMPACT of TROPOSPHERIC OZONE (cont)
  • At EU level, a Thematic Strategy on Air
    Pollution was published (COM 2005 (446)) on
    21st September 2005
  • It will form the basis for the revision of the
    Directive on National Emissions Ceilings
    (2001/81/EC) which set VOC quotas for each Member
    State that must not be exceeded in 2010.
  • Proposals for revisions for 2020 are scheduled
    for mid 2007
  • This revision will itself affect the Directive
    relating to paint (2004/41/EC) initial proposals
    for which are expected mid-2008
  • It is highly likely that at this time other
    product families besides paint will be considered
    for VOC reductions
  • The subject of VOCs will be covered in more
    detail in the presentations by Pr ZELLNER and Mr
    Jean Philippe RICARD

18
CHALLENGES major themes (cont)PRESERVATION of
RESOURCES
  • Resources must be considered at global level
    water, energy, raw materials, etc.
  • Preserving resources firstly involves using less
    for the same service
  • Cold process, insulating premises, reducing
    weight of packaging, etc.
  • It can also involve 
  • Re-use
  • Recycling
  • Recovery (energy, composting)
  • Renewable sources (wind and solar power,
    vegetal-derived raw materials, etc.)
  • Reference texts
  • EU Thematic Strategy on the Prevention and
    Recycling of Waste (COM (2005) 666 of 21st
    December 2005)
  • EU Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of
    Natural Resources (COM (2005) 670 of 21st
    December 2005)

19
PRESERVATION of RESOURCES (cont)
  • The aerosol industry has always aimed at reducing
    the weight of cans whether in aluminum or tin
    plate
  • Furthermore, used aerosols are recyclable
  • In France, the Eco-Emballages programme has
    enabled the rate of recycling of packaging
    materials to rise
  • At European level, Directive 2004/12/EC of 11th
    February 2004, relating to Packaging and
    Packaging Waste sets minimum recycling targets
    for 31st December 2008
  • 50 for metals
  • 60 for glass
  • 60 for paper/card
  • 22.5 for plastics (only including those that
    return to plastic form)
  • The recycling theme will be developed in greater
    depth by Mme Annie CHATRY

20
EMERGING ISSUES
21
EMERGING ISSUESINDOOR AIR QUALITY
  • Aerosol use has been associated with several
    studies attempting to correlate human health
    symptoms ? indoor air quality (Bristol
    University, 1999 Brunel University, 2003
    Presentation to European Respiratory Society
    conference Sept 2005, etc)
  • Among EU research priorities for the 7th
    framework programme human health and the
    environment, the Scientific Committee on Health
    and Environmental Risks (SCHER) put calculation
    of the quantitative contribution of consumer
    products to the pollution of the indoor
    environment (SCHER opinion 30th October 2006)
  • Pr ZELLNER will also deal with this issue

22
EMERGING ISSUES (cont) FINE PARTICLES
  • By definition, most aerosols that deliver their
    product in spray form, release (fine) particles
    into the air
  • Correlation between particle size ? pulmonary
    penetration ? toxicity on inhalation
  • The subject of fine particles is tackled
    generally at EU level in the Thematic Strategy on
    Air Pollution COM (2005) 446 of 21st September
    2005.
  • A 20 reduction target to be achieved between
    2010 and 2020 has been put forward for all Member
    States for particles of 2.5 µm diameter and less
  • This subject is also included in the presentation
    by Pr ZELLNER.

23
  • EMERGING ISSUES (cont) NANOTECHNOLOGIES
  • Working with objects with a size of the order
    10-9m (nanometric) should be clearly
    differentiated from fine particles, which are of
    the order of 10-6m (micrometric)
  • A booming sector, with many applications
    medical, electronics, etc.
  • Assessment methods need to be harmonized and
    approved at international level (SCHER opinion,
    30th October 2006)
  • With immediate effect the use of products in
    aerosols containing nanotechnologies should be
    subject to an in-depth risk assessment
  • ENDOCRINE MODULATORS
  • Some substances are suspected of producing a
    hormonal-type effect on people or the
    environment these are called endocrine
    modulators
  • As part of REACH, these substances are considered
    Substances of Very High Concern and are subject
    to authorizations
  • Assessment methods need to be approved at
    international level

24
  • EMERGING ISSUES (cont) BIOMONITORING
  • A tool that enables the total exposure of a human
    being (for example) to pollutants including
    those from food - to be assessed
  • Methodologies require harmonization (SCHER
    opinion, 30th October 2006)
  • Time saving in implementing essential risk
    management measures (which naturally include
    aerosols and inhalation)
  • ALTERNATIVES to ANIMAL TESTING
  • Contradiction between always more safety and
    reduced animal testing
  • Need to develop QSAR ( Quantitative Structure
    Activity Relationship) and methodologies in vitro
  • For instance Congress on Alternative Test
    Methods in Inhalation Toxicology 7-9 May
    2007-Berlin

25
PROSPECTS and CONCLUSIONS
26
PROSPECTS and CONCLUSIONS
  • It is beyond doubt that worldwide pressure on the
    themes of Human Health and Environment will only
    increase
  • Areas covered are broadening (Indoor air, fine
    particles, etc)
  • New effects are taken into account (Endocrine
    modulators, etc)
  • New technologies cause concern (Nanotechnologies,
    etc)
  • Methods of investigation are developing
    (Biomonitoring, better analytical detection, etc.)

But Animal testing will become increasingly
restricted, or even banned for cosmetics (7th
amendment to the Directive on Cosmetics) when
assessing the hazards .  Thus it is essential to
invest heavily in the development of modeling and
in vitro methods.
27
  • THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
  •  
  • If you would like to join us
  •  Pierre MEURICE LOREAL
  • Tel  01.47.56.41.70
  • E-mail PMEURICE_at_rd.loreal.com
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