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Finland, the Nordic Countries and European integration, POLH 1024

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16th: 1989-1995, Sweden, Finland, Norway and the. European Union ... Sweden as the linchpin of the North? History: Denmark... Gate to the Baltic sea ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Finland, the Nordic Countries and European integration, POLH 1024


1
Finland, the Nordic Countries and European
integration, POLH 1024
2
Technicalities
  • Teacher
  • loucle_at_utu.fi
  • Tuesday, 15-16
  • Department of Contemporary History T19 on the
    Campus Map
  • Exam OR essay
  • 20th April Absolute and definite deadline for
    essays
  • Essays
  • 10-15 pages
  • related to the course
  • approved by me
  • in English
  • Attendance!
  • Knowledge of ongoing events

3
Timetable
  • March
  • 2nd Entering the EEC Denmark in 1973
  • 9th NB! NO CLASS!
  • 16th 1989-1995, Sweden, Finland, Norway and the
  • European Union
  • 23rd The Nordic countries in the Communities
    Denmark, Sweden, Finland Norway and Iceland the
    outsiders
  • 30rd Introducing the Baltic States (1918 1939
    1992 2004)
  • April
  • 20th Conclusion the nature of relations between
    Northern Europe and the process of European
    Integration
  • 27th First exam
  • May
  • 4th Second exam
  • Mondays, 14-16, Pub 2
  • January
  • 19th Introduction The North and Europe before
    1945 Europeanism, neutrality, the Oslo group
    and the League of Nations
  • 26th NB! NO CLASS!
  • February
  • 2nd The Nordic countries during the war and
    after 1945
  • 9th The Nordic Defense Union, Northern Europe,
  • NATO, the USSR
  • 16th The Nordic Customs union negotiations and
    the
  • EFTA solution
  • 23rd The NORDEK negotiations

4
  • Relations between Nordic countries and the
    process of European integration
  • European integration?
  • Nordic countries?
  • 5 countries Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden,
    Finland.
  • Geographically situated in the same area
  • a number of common living conditions
  • common history, political co-operation and
    confrontation
  • religious, social, political and intellectual
    features
  • similar geopolitical problems
  • economic, commercial, human, intellectual ties
  • Common, concrete projects from the 19th century
  • Nordic solidarity, Scandinavism,
    pan-scandinavism
  • After stabilization of Nordic states, three
    circles Nordic/Scandinavian neighborhood
    Europe and the World

5
A divisive geography
  • At the same time, divisions rooted in geography
    and history
  • Geography shapes a complex pattern of external
    influences
  • Great-Britain trade, strategic influence
  • Russia/the USSR strategy, trade
  • Germany the backdoor of Germany, its margin of
    manoeuver after World War I, its trade area
  • After 1945, the United States

6
History Sweden
  • The biggest, most central Nordic
  • Great Power until 1700, the construction of
    Saint-Petersbourg
  • Poltawa, 1709 Dread Poltowas day, When
    fortune left the royal Swede, Around a
    slaughtered army lay, No more to combat and to
    bleed, The power and fortune of the War Had
    passed to the triumphant Czar. 
  • (George Gordon, Lord Byron)
  • 1809 Finland is conquered by the Czar
  • 1812 Bernadotte becomes king of Sweden
    neutrality begins
  • 1905 Norwegian independence
  • 20th century constitutionnal monarchy,
    building-up of a welfare-state
  • 1914-1918, 1939-1945 difficult neutrality
  • 1945 Neutrality continues between East and West
  • Sweden as the linchpin of the North?

7
History Denmark
  • Gate to the Baltic sea
  • As old as Sweden, the other great of Nordic
    policies wars with Sweden, trade, etc
  • As with Sweden, feels the effect of the rise of
    Russian power
  • Complex geographical position puts it at odds
    with Germany and Great-Britain
  • The Schleswig Wars (1848-51 1864)
  • 1914-1918 stuck between Great-Britain and
    Germany
  • 31 May 1 June 1916, battle of Jutland
  • Denamrk appears after 1918 as a victim of
    Germany the southern Duchies are given back

8
History Finland
  • Independence, Russia and neutrality
  • A march of Sweden and Russia
  • 1809 conquest by Russia
  • The Russian rule benefits to a national awakening
    in Finland
  • 1899-1905 the crisis years
  • Finns abroad work to present Finland as a
    European country, and to distinguish it from a.
    Russia, b. the Baltic states
  • December 1917 independence
  • 1920-1939 Finland finds its place on the map of
    Europe
  • Trade, culture, symbolic relations increasingly
    link Finland to the Nordic group
  • Development of a social legislation
  • 1939-1944 two wars against the USSR
  • In 1945, Finland claims neutrality but is under
    the influence of a victorious Soviet Union
  • Finlands margin of manoeuver, links with other
    Nordic countries and with European projects that
    Moscow is condemning neutrality in the shadow
    of power

9
Histroy Norway, Iceland
  • Isolation and independence
  • Norwegian romantic nationalism against Denmark
    and Sweden
  • 1905 peaceful independence from Sweden
  • 1914-1918 the Norwegian merchant fleet helps the
    Allies Norway gets Janmayen and the Arctic
    archipelago of Svalbard
  • The faraway island
  • Iceland as a special case
  • December 1918 Union Act signed with Denmark
    makes Iceland an independent state under a real
    union with the Danish crown

10
Reluctant Europeans?
  • What of these countries reaction to the
    post-WWII unprecedented movement of European
    integration?
  • Toivo Miljans book The Reluctant Europeans
    (Hurst, 1977)
  • Late to enter European integration
  • EFTA in the 1960s, Denmark in 1973, Sweden and
    Finland in 1995
  • How come? Developed countries, undoubtedly
    European
  • Societies that feel European, but potentially can
    feel a threat from the Community method
  • Social-democracy against threats to the Nordic
    model?
  • National identities facing threats of
    supranationality?
  • Surrendering prerogatives of the state in
    strongly state-centered societies?
  • Protestantism against Southern Europe? Rights of
    women? Environment?
  • Economic and commercial questions?
  • Small, peripheral states in a process dominated
    by central, great powers? Emphasizing the Nordic
    or the European?
  • The role of small states in the European
    communities?
  • Regional co-operations or European (or general)
    integration? The tradition of Norden as a
    functioning alternative?
  • How did the Nordic states react to a process that
    started outside their reach? The necessity of
    association?
  • How did bigger states react?

11
Main questions of the course
  • Domestic policies or a Nordic policy?
  • The overwhelming importance of domestic, national
    factors
  • Also, a measure of harmonization and common
    problems (trade with the EFTA and the EEC-zone,
    intellectual, symbolic relations with Europe)
  • Technical, trade, or symbolic, political?
  • Why did these countries decide to associate
    themselves with the various projects of European
    construction / integration?
  • Economic and commercial reasons are overwhelming
    the Nordic countries need Western European
    markets
  • Europeist, federalist convictions?
  • Political, symbolic attachment? The idea of
    Europe?
  • Do the Nordic countries share the paradigms of
    the Community method as implicitly accepted by
    the six founding states in 1951?

12
Main questions of the course
  • Nordic cooperation or European integration? Both
    of them at the same time, as complements of
    national policies?
  • Dilemma between emphasizing Nordic cooperation or
    pursuing European integration
  • The example of Denmark a delicate equilibrium
  • The example of Norway
  • The fragility and potential of Nordic
    cooperation.
  • Each country has its own interests, and its own
    agenda and timetable for integration in European
    schemes
  • Economic and commercial problems is the Nordic
    alternative a viable alternative to European
    integration? Can it go together?

13
Main questions of the course
  • EFTA, the EEA, specific free-trade agreements or
    the European communities?
  • Which sort of European cooperation?
  • European construction/European integration two
    words for two different things 1945-1949
    European construction Schuman declaration in
    May 1950 launches European integration, 1951
    treaty of Paris, 1957 treaties of Rome, 1986
    European Single Act, 1992 Treaty of maastricht
  • Relations of the Nordic countries with these two
    processes (EFTA/communities), and after 1970 with
    the one that won European integration,
    supranational, with common institutions, etc
  • What is the vision of European cooperation from
    this part of Europe? How does it differ from the
    vision French, German, Italian, British
    leadership have of European co-operation? What
    has been the policy of the Nordic countries
    inside the Communities, inside the EU?
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