Sow Herd Management Conference Biosecurity and Herd Health Thomas J Fangman DVM, MS, Dipl ABVPSHM Un - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Sow Herd Management Conference Biosecurity and Herd Health Thomas J Fangman DVM, MS, Dipl ABVPSHM Un

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Title: Sow Herd Management Conference Biosecurity and Herd Health Thomas J Fangman DVM, MS, Dipl ABVPSHM Un


1
Sow Herd Management ConferenceBiosecurity and
Herd HealthThomas J Fangman DVM, MS, Dipl
ABVP-SHMUniversity of Missouri, College of
Veterinary MedicineColumbia, MO
2
Reproductive Performance
Costs associated with the breeding herd
generally remain constant. Therefore,
pigs/sow/year (PSY) becomes a very important
determinant of economic returns to a swine
farrowing enterprise. - David G. McLaren 1992
3
Farrowing Rate Optimization
Maximizing farrowing rate is the best on-farm
procedure to minimize nonproductive days (NPD).
(Leman 1992)
4
Factors Affecting Pigs/Sow/Year(Dial, 1992)
1) Nonproductive Sow Days 2) Preweaning
Mortality 3) Farrowing Rate 4) Born Alive 5)
Still born
Major contributing factors as to why the real
cost per weaned pig ranges from 22 to 36
5
Pig Champ Performance Monitor
6
Reproductive Herd Critical Control
Points(factors limiting throughput)
The ability to produce and maintain a steady
through put determines the long term
sustainability of a profitable pork production
unit.
7
Through put GOAL 500 pigs needed/week
Number of sows bred 78-58
Number of pigs weaned 370-675
I) Farrowing Rate (75-87.2) a)
Conception rate (85-90) b) Seasonal
infertility c) BCS i) Gestation
nutrition d) Health/abortion i)
Parvo, Lepto, PRRS, SIV,
other bacterial inf e) Nutrition
f) sows bred by 7 days (80-94.8) i)
AI technician ii) Semen quality iii)
Estrus detection iv) Envir temp
v) Wean to 1st service interval (5.2
days) Lactation
nutrition Sanitation (behind
sows) Parity
Health (uterine-environmental bacteria)
II) Weaning Average (8.5-9.9 pigs) a)
Born Live (10-11.1) Genetics
Farrowing interval Parity
Management (intervention) Health (Parvo,
PRRS) b) Death Loss (11-15)
Crate design (crushing) Environ control
Lactation quality Puerperal diseases
8
Weaned Per Month 1992--1993
9
Economically Significant Reproductive Disease
Gestational Health
Sanitation (behind sows)
Lactation Nutrition
Conception Rate
AI Technician
Semen Quality
Health
Weaning to first service Interval
(5.2 days)
of Sows Bred by 7 days (94.8)
Farrowing Rate (87.2)
Health
Environment
BCS (nutrition)
Season (environment)
Health
Lactation length
Estrus detection
Parity
Number of sows that farrow per group
NPSD (15.2)
10
Biosecurity Defined
Biosecurity- The precautionary measures taken by
each production unit to limit the spread of
endemic pathogens within the farm and to
prevent the introduction of non- endemic
pathogens onto the farm.
11
Biosecurity Encompasses
Pig Flow
Isolation People Flow
Dead Animal Removal Feed Deliveries
Visitors Load Out
Sanitation New Arrivals
Rodent control
Shower in / Shower out
12
Pathogens That May be Spread by People Include
Escherichia coli
Erysipelas Salmonella
Pseudorabies Streptococcus
Swine Influenza
Tuberculosis TGE S
erpulina (Dysentery) PRRS ???
13
Isolation
Serves 2 purposes 1) Prevent new arrivals from
spreading pathogens to the existing
breeding herd. 2) Allow new arrivals to be
exposed to existing pathogens and mount a
protective immune response away from the
breeding herd. The isolation process is
critical in establishing an effective SEW
production system!!!
14
Isolation/Acclimation
  • Isolation
  • Minimum of 60 days
  • Allows for serological evaluation
  • Allows the animals to be observed for signs of
    disease
  • Acclimation
  • Should begin 14 days after arrival. This will
    allow 45 days
  • for gilts to be exposed to existing farm
    pathogens and
  • develop a protective immune response.
  • Best accomplished one group at a time
  • Manure from the main herd, cull sows, or
    failure-to-thrive
  • nursery pigs are good sources of
    endemic pathogens for
  • biofeedback.

15
Acclamation
Level of serum antibody production (IgG, IgA, IgM)
Disease Level in herd
2nd Exposure (natural exposure from herd) 45-60
days enter into herd
1st Exposure (biofeedback)
14-21 days
Receive Gilts Day 1
16
Circulating Serum Antibodies
17
Maternal antibodies are absorbed in tact by the
pigs for the first 12 hrs after birth.
Piglets Immune Protection
Maternal Antibodies
Sow Pathogens
DISEASE
Birth
21d
16 d
28 d
18
Management practices are aimed at securing the
health of the pigs on the farm. Artificial
Insemination (AI) has been identified as one of
the management tools that can be used to aid in
preventing the introduction of non-endemic
pathogens onto a pig farm.
19
The use of artificial insemination allows for
increased productivity and production efficiency
by
Decreasing health risk through proper
isolation!!
20
Genetic selection should be approached with the
goal of minimizing the risk of introducing
disease into your herd
It is possible for those managers who are not
committed to proper isolation and acclimation of
replacement animals to close their herds and
introduce the new genetics required to make
production improvement through the use of
Artificial Insemination (AI).
21
Before choosing a boar stud you should be sure
that the stud utilizes proper isolation
techniques (applies to on-farm boar studs as
well)
All reputable boar studs allow a 45-60 day
isolation period to assure that if new boars are
incubating infectious disease at the time of
delivery then the boar will develop clinical
signs and diagnosis and treatments can be
implemented.
22
The minimum health concern of most boar studs
would include
Pseudorabies (PRV) Brucellosis Porcine
Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome
(PRRS) Porcine Respiratory Corona virus
(PRCV) Transmissible Gastroenteritis
(TGE) Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) Swine
Influenza (SI) Leptospirosis.
23
The health status and pathogen profile of boar
studs are typically monitored on a monthly basis
if not more frequently.
All routine serological, tissue, and fecal
records are to be included in the monitoring
protocol.
24
Individual doses of semen are generally extended
with a low inclusion level of antibiotics to
limit the spread of bacterial pathogens in the
semen.
It is important to note that there are some
bacterial pathogens that are commonly found in
boar semen. This risk of bacterial exposure is
considerably less when using AI semen then it is
with live boars.
25
Bacteria found in Boar Semen
Commonly Found
Infrequently Found Staphylococcus spp
Corynebacterium spp Pseudomonas
spp Streptococcus
spp Escherichia spp
Proteus spp Klebsiella spp
Serratia spp Citrobacter spp
Bacillus spp Micrococcus spp
Enterobacter spp Eubacterium spp
Aerobacter spp
Bordetella
spp
Mycoplasma spp Spirochete
Brucella suis Leptospirosis
Actinobacillus
Pasteurella spp
Erysipelothrix
rhusiopathiae
Salmonella spp
26
Viruses Identified in Boar Semen
Semen Contaminant Adenovirus Cytomegalovirus enter
ovirus Foot and Mouth Disease Hog
Cholera Japanese Encephalitis Reovirus Swine
Influenza Swine Vesicular Disease Transmissible
Genital Papilloma
Transmitted through Semen Pseudorabies PRRS Porcin
e Parvo virus African Swine fever
27
Conclusion
There are many factors and critical control
points that need to be considered when evaluating
the performance and productivity of the sow
herd. Proper isolation and acclimation of the
gilts combined with high health boars or semen
sources is important to assure that the overall
health of the breeding herd is maintained at a
high level to prevent pathogen proliferation and
spread.
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