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Mars Exploration Future

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Title: Mars Exploration Future


1
Mars Exploration Future
Mars Sample Return 2020
Human Mars Mission 2030
Mars Science Lab 2011
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Mars Phoenix (2007) Arrival May 2008
Phoenix will land at Mars icy north polar
region, dig with a robotic arm into arctic
terrain for clues on the history of water, and
search for environment suitable for microbes.
Second try Mars Polar Lander
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Mars Science Laboratory 2011
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Assessment of Mars Science and Mission Priorities
(2003)
Recommendation. Because returned samples will
advance Mars science to a new level of
understanding, COMPLEX endorses the high priority
given to sample return by earlier advisory
panels, and it recommends that a sample-return
mission be launched at the 2011 launch
opportunity.
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Assessment of Mars Science and Mission Priorities
(2003)
No other single strategy can answer so many of
the questions about martian chemistry, geology,
climatology, and the presence of or potential for
life, past or present. Irrespective of the number
of orbiters or rovers sent to Mars, we will not
come to grips with these fundamental issues until
documented samples are available for study in
terrestrial laboratories. from the Executive
Summary
11
NASA Annual Budget
NASA 16.5 billion for FY 2006 Dept.of Defense
426 billion (26 NASAs) Federal Budget 2547
Billion NASA 0.65 total
  • Space Operations 6.8 Billion
  • Space Shuttle 4.5 Billion
  • Space Station 1.9 Billion
  • Science 5.5 Billion
  • Robotic Exploration Mars 0.5-0.7 Billion

Mars Sample Return Mission total cost 2-4
Billion (2 launch windows and 4 FYs of Mars
Program)
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Why Sample Return?
Search for life on Mars, past or
present. Understand the origin and evolution of
Mars.
Mars Meteorite ALH84001
  • No need to prejudge what we will find -- dilemma
    of deciding which instruments to fly is avoided.
  • Ability to design experiments in real time as
    sample characteristics are revealed.
  • Research on Mars samples can follow many paths
    and the studies may evolve as hypotheses are
    tested and refined.

Mars Ascent Vehicle
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Why Sample Return?
  • The worlds best labs can study the samples for
    years if needed.
  • No restrictions on power, size, data rates,
    consumables, component life etc.
  • Preserved samples available for instruments not
    yet invented.
  • Can conduct elaborate sample preparation before
    analysis.
  • Micro-, nano-, atomic scale characterization.

NanoSIMS, Washington University
High precision multi-collector ICP-MS, ETH, Zurich
Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Lab
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Martian Science Best Done by Robotic Spacecraft
  • Meteorology
  • Surface geology and morphology
  • Subsurface geophysics
  • Space and atmospheric physics
  • Atmospheric photochemistry and intermediate trace
    species
  • Bulk geochemical analyses of major elements in
    soil and rock
  • Bulk organic carbon analyses
  • Basic rock and mineral identification

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Martian Science Best Done on Earth with Returned
Samples
  • Precise isotopic measurements of atmospheric
    gases, soil, and rock
  • Age dating of rock
  • Trace element chemistry of soil and rock
  • Characterization of very small phases
  • Characterization of complex weathering products
  • Detailed rock mineralogy and petrology
  • Detailed organic/biological analyses
  • Search for biomarkers and microfossils

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Mars Sample Return Schedule (2013 Launch 2016
Return)
Technology Program 2005-2009 Receiving Facility
Site Selection 2007 Mission Start
2009 Receiving Facility Certified 2011 Mars
Landing Site Selection 2013 Launch 2013 Samples
Landed on Earth 2016 Samples Delivered to
Receiving Facility 2016 Samples Released to JSC
Curation Facility 20??
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Orbit Rendezvous at Mars -- Ballistic Earth
Entry Cost 2-4 Billion
MEV and MSM Separate prior to Entry
MEV performs deorbit maneuver
MEVs separate from SEP Cruise Vehicle
Entry
SEP transfer from Earth to Mars and spiral to
1250 x 500 Ellipse
Second Stage Circularization
SEP spirals down to 500 km circ
MAV 2nd Stage
Heat shield jettison and chute deploy
Second Stage Coast to Apogee
Rendezvous and Capture
SEP separates from EEVs and performs divert
maneuver
Launch
Sample transferred and MAV jettisoned
SEP spirals up and transfers to Earth
Planetary Protection Shield jettisoned
First stage separation
First stage ascent
Chute Separation and powered descent
Surface Operations
EEVs perform ballistic Earth entry
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Groundbreaking MSR ScenarioCost 1 Billion
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Direct to Mars -- Space Shuttle Rendezvous at LEO
3) Ascent to Low Mars Orbit (Chemical Propulsion)
5) Heliocentric Ballistic Return Targeted to
Miss Earth (by a lot)
4) Ion Propulsion to Earth Transfer Trajectory
6) Ion Propulsion Targets Capture into Very High
Earth Orbit (HEO)
2) Direct Mars Entry (Mid L/D Aeroshell),
Precision Landing w/Hazard Avoidance
1) Injection to Minimum-Energy Mars Transfer
Trajectory
9) Shuttle Entry and Landing
7) Ion Propulsion Performs Gradual Orbit
Transfer from HEO to LEO
8) LEO Rendezvous Acquisition by Shuttle
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Mars Receiving Facility (MRF)
"Samples returned from Mars should be contained
and treated as though potentially hazardous until
proven otherwise." -- Space Studies Board of NRC
Mars Sample Return Vehicle Approaching Earth
  • The MRF should be a quarantine facility that
    combines biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) requirements
    with sample protection requirements.
  • In other words, the MRF should be designed to
    protect humans and Earth's environment from
    potential biohazards in the Mars samples, and it
    should protect the Mars samples from organic and
    inorganic contamination from the Earth's
    environment.
  • Currently, there is no existing facility that
    meets MRF requirements.

21
Sample Collection at Mars
1. Sample Retrieval on Earth
2. Mars Receiving Facility
  • A) Receiving Unit
  • Protect Earth Protect Samples
  • Examination, cataloging and processing
  • Sterilization capability
  • B) Hazard Testing Unit
  • Life/hazard testing
  • Certification

Transfer of sterilized sub-samples
Transfer of non-hazardous sub-samples
  • 3. Mars Curation Facility
  • Detailed cataloging
  • Isolation and preservation
  • Processing
  • Distribution

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Mars Receiving Facility - Preliminary Examination
Lab
  • Protect Earth's environment from sample.
  • Protect sample from terrestrial contamination.
  • Maintain samples under conditions that preserve
    scientific integrity.
  • Perform basic identification, documentation and
    processing of sample.
  • Decision on subsample transfer to Biological
    Examination Lab (BEL).
  • Package and/or sterilize subsample for transfer
    to other facilities.

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Mars Receiving Facility - Biological Examination
Lab
  • Detection of life (Anything living? Is it
    non-terrestrial?)
  • Search for biohazard (any undesirable effects on
    tissue or organisms?)
  • Characterize any organic compounds (no organics
    no life)

Some Life Detection Tests
DNA from a meteorite
  • Complex organic compounds
  • Chirality (amino acids, proteins, peptides)
  • Cultures to detect growth /metabolism/chemical
    disequilibrium
  • Fluorescent staining
  • Immunoassays
  • Microscopy for biomolecules metabolic products
  • Nucleic acid amplification
  • GC-MS for chemical biosignatures
  • Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry
    (ToF SIMS) for chemical biosignatures
  • Microscopy for morphological mineralogical
    biosignatures

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NASA JSC Lab for Lunar Sample Curation
Positive pressure Stainless glovebox Nitrogen Chem
ically Clean
NOT Sterile NOT Quarantine Barrier
Level D 0.15"
Restricted Materials Chemically "Clean"
Level C 0.10"
Airlock
Change Room
Level B 0.05"
Airlock
Security
Level A 0.00" H2O
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Biosafety Level 4 Lab for Medical Research
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Level 5 Lab for Mars Sample Processing Life
Testing
Level 5 0.05"
Positive Pressure Sterile Clean Cabinet
Robotic Processing
Space/Environment Suit
Negative Pressure Clean Room
Chemical Shower
Level 4 0.00"
Level 3 0.07"
Airlock 0.15
Level 2 0.07"
Level 0 0.00" H2O
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Proposed Layout for Mars Receiving Facility
PEL
BEL
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MSR Budget Items (Ground Segment)
  • Mars Receiving Facility 123 M
  • Mars Curation Facility 49 M
  • Laboratory Instrumentation 50 M
  • Mars Sample Analysis 55 M
  • Mars Returned Sample Handling Total 379 M

Mars Sample Return Mission total cost 2-4 B
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Locations of Landing Area, WSTF, JSC
Direct Entry Landing Area
Sample Receiving Facility NASA White Sands Test
Facility
Curation Facility NASA Johnson Space Center
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Lunar Sample Vault White Sands Test
Facility Installed 2002
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While the new exploration initiative may be
expensive, the trillion-dollar figure quoted in
many recent articles may be exaggerated.

In 1989, scientists were asked to estimate the
price of a manned Mars mission. They had 90 days
to do so, and their report was called the 90-day
report. They proposed and enormous spacecraft,
that was supposed to be build in orbit, that
should send a group of astronauts in orbit around
Mars to let them land on Mars, and when they come
back into the craft, it brings them back to
earth. This spacecraft was supposed to run on
liquid hydrogen ( H2 ) and liquid oxygen ( O2 ).
All supplies were supposed to be brought from
earth.  Their result 400 billion. 
The initial cost estimate for Mars Direct was put
at 20 billion, including development costs. In
today's terms, this equates to some 30-35
billion.
WHO IS RIGHT???
36
NASA Annual Budget
NASA 16.5 billion for FY 2006 Dept.of Defense
426 billion (26 NASAs) Federal Budget 2547
Billion NASA 0.65 total
Human Mission to Mars total cost 50-500
Billion 1-year of Defense Spending 20 of
Federal Budget 2006 30 years of total NASA
Spending
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Devon Island
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Human Mars Mission Scenario
A launch vehicle, using propulsion systems with
Space Shuttle heritage, boosts one stage of a
Mars spacecraft into earth orbit. Two such
launches are required to put a complete
Mars-bound vehicle in Earth orbit.
A fully assembled Mars spacecraft is checked out
in Earth orbit and made ready for its voyage to
Mars.
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Human Mars Mission Scenario
With all engines running, the crew and their
spacecraft leaves Earth orbit and begins their 6
month voyage to the red planet.
After a 125 million mile journey in space, the
cargo mission nears its rendezvous with the
planet Mars.
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Human Mars Mission Scenario
Streaking across the martian sky, the lander uses
atmospheric breaking to decelerate prior to
landing.
After landing on the martian surface, the crew
uses an unpressurized rover to unload cargo and
supplies needed for their stay on the red planet.
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Human Mars Mission Scenario
The crew attaches an inflatable laboratory to
their lander to increase the internal pressurized
volume of their martian home.
The completed outpost on Mars includes the crew's
two-story lander habitat, inflatable laboratory
and unpressurized rover.
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Human Mars Mission Scenario
In front of a fully-fueled ascent vehicle waiting
to return them to Earth, the Mars crew salutes
all of the people and nations of the world that
made the journey possible.
The crew's ascent vehicle and propellant
production facility can be seen one kilometer
away from the completed outpost.
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Human Mars Mission Scenario
The Earth-return vehicle has awaited the crew's
arrival in Mars orbit for nearly three years.
After checking out its systems, the crew embarks
on the final leg of their journey in the now
familiar Mars habitat.
Having spent nearly 900 days away from home, the
six crew members return to Earth making a
pinpoint landing at the Kennedy Space Center.
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The Viking 2 Mars Lander sparkles with an early
morning frost as visitors from Earth carefully
approach over the rock-strewn plain. The lander,
which arrived at the Utopia Planitia site in
1976, is now covered with a thin layer of Martian
dust. The flag, carried by the closest person, is
silhouetted in order to raise the question, "What
country will land on Mars first?"
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