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Caspian Water Quality Monitoring and Action Plan or Areas of Pollution Concerns. Title TACIS 2005/109244.


Analysis of the Project and RWQMP Strategy revision. 2 Development of Basic and Specific objectives ... Basic Hydrobiology (chlorofyl, phyto-zoo plankton. Other ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Caspian Water Quality Monitoring and Action Plan or Areas of Pollution Concerns. Title TACIS 2005/109244.

Caspian Water Quality Monitoring and Action Plan
or Areas of Pollution Concerns. Title TACIS
  • Develop and implement a regional
  • water quality-monitoring programme
  • focused on
  • critical contaminants and hotspots

Oleg Voiitsekhovitch (CMSET/Ukraine Jan
Høybye / COWI Denmark
May 2007
Inception Workshop
  • Analysis of the Project and RWQMP Strategy
  • 2 Development of Basic and Specific objectives
  • for RWQMP ( national and regional level)
  • 3. QA/QC program
  • 4. Strategy for project activity
  • (cruises, equipment, training and consulting

May 2007
  • Revised project objectives
  • During the project start-up phase, the project
    objectives were revised in order to reflect the
    developments that have taken place between
    preparation of the project document and the
    present situation.
  • SAP Target 2.1 of November 5, 2003
  • "Develop and implement a regional monitoring
    programme focused on critical contaminants and
    Areas of Pollution Concern (RWQMP)",
  • now converted per October 2006 into
  • Target 3.1 "Develop and implement a regional
    water quality-monitoring programme focused on
    critical contaminants and hotspots, (H) 1-5
  • SAP Target 3.2 "Develop and implement a regional
    action plan to remedy Areas of Pollution Concern
    identified in the near Caspian basin (Regional
    Pollution Action Plan - RPAP)",
  • now converted per October 2006 into
  • Target 1.2 "Undertake a comprehensive land-based
    source assessment and develop a regional action
    plan to remediate areas of pollution concern
    identified, (H) 1-5 years".

  • This conversion prompts the Consultant to put
    more efforts in identifying and mitigating land
    based pollution sources that affect the Caspian
  • Rather than GIWA (Global International Water
    Assessment), the Consultant therefore suggested
    applying OECD's DPSIR (Driver, Pressure, State,
    Impact and Response) approach both to RWQMP and

Documents received and read
Some important Rerences
?? ????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? (???????) ??????????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ? "?????????? ? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?? ?????, ????????? ?????? ????, ? ? ?????? ???, ????????? ? ???"// ???????????????, ?????????, 1976.
"The Caspian Sea Environment" Vol. 5 Water
Pollution, Ed. A. Kostianoy, A. Kosarev. -
Korshenko A., Gul A.G. Pollution of the Caspian
Sea. - Hdb. Env. Chem. Vol. 5, Part P,
Springer-Verlag, 2005 ???????? ??????????
?????????? ?????? ? ???????? ????????
???????????? ?????????????, ???.????. 1??
????????????? ??????-???????????? ???????????
16-18 ??????? 2005 ?., ?????????., ??-??
????????, ?????????, 2005, ?.37-45. ???? ?.?.
???????? ??????????? ??????????? ????. ????,
"??????? ??????????", 2003, 71 ?. ????????
??????? ????? ?????????-???????????????
????????, ????? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????
????????? ?????? ??????????? ????. - ?, ????,
1998 ?., 280 ?.
The analyses of the monitoring status in
Caspian countries convinced us that an existing
observational network in a region is rather
developed. However informational capacity of
the data collection system as an element of the
Environment quality management are rather weak.
Its concerns mainly to fragmental estimation of
the immission aspects of the pollutants in the
sea environment, since other important
characteristics of the land based or seaborn
impactors, their transport and effects to the
Environment can not be estimated properly
The main issues to be considered as a
part of studies in justification of
  • Inflow and water level data
  • Water quality data and
  • Bottom sediment contamination and its adsorption
    capacity and contaminants remobilization.
    Sedimentation fluxes
  • Specific Hot spots and impact area
  • Monitoring data feedback and Data exchange
  • Status of laboratory conditions and needs
  • QA/QC status in national laboratories,
    identification of the key reference laboratories
    for Proficiency testing exercises
  • Concept of the Database
  • Models validation and Model utilization as a
    tools for RWQMP optimisation

Water balance drivers
  • The main drivers of the Caspian Sea is Volga
    River, Precipitation and Evaporation.
  • Evaporation is essentially the only mechanism
    transporting water away from the Sea
  • Inflow to the Caspian Sea is dominated by
    precipitation and river discharge from Volga,
    which in total accounts for more than 90.

Comparison of the main fluxes
Volga River is main water flux contributor. It is
not a fact that Volga is a major contributor of
the pollution loading in to the Caspian Sea
Priority in Hot Spot ? ? ?
The Caspian Sea water level dynamics and
Pollution concerns
Short-term Storm Surges
Long-term trends
Flooding of the dam, Tengiz Deposit area, 2003
During Surges the water level for the short
period (some hours) can increase to 1,5 - 3,0 m.
MIKE-21 my be successfully applied for
diagnostic analyses of the impact of the
potentially polluted territories and coastal
Karaton-Teren Uzek, agriculture lands washout.
November 2004
To identify the Main Impactors on Water Quality
is one of the most important tasks for RWQMP
  • Sources
  • Source functions
  • Impact area
  • Criteria for Impact Assessment
  • Critical impactors
  • Critical pathways
  • Seasonality
  • Long-term prediction
  • Pragmatic approach based on
  • Regional screening and
  • Hot spot focused RWQMP strategy


During recent years the number of Caspian Sea
pollution Studies have been carried out. Good
basis for inception
Oil products (µg/l)
2004-2006 Legs 1-3
Bottom sediment
Priority in selection critical type of pollution

The largest Nutrients pollution source is
the rivers from the Russia (Volga River)
The second largest source of pollution comes from
municipalities (Iran, Azerbaijan). 70 of
the oil pollution originates in Russia (via
rivers) and coastal industrial activities in
Azerbaijan, Iran and Kazahkstan (?) DDT,
PCBs - comes mainly from Kura River and Iranian
  • It will not be possible to pay full attention
    to all APCs and all problem areas during the
    present project
  • Concept of the new RWQMP for the CS countries in
  • to discuss, present and propose/agree appropriate
    methodologies for
  • Monitoring selected Areas of Pollution
  • Mapping and estimation of major pollution
    sources and
  • Proposals for typical/demonstration pollution
    control and remediation actions/feasibility

Priority suggested for project activity
Azerbaijan Baku Bay and Absheron Kura River Sumgait (A1) (A-2) (A-3) Oil product municipal, BOD NORM, Nutrigen Pesticides, (DDTs), P?Bs, Heavy metals
Iran Sefid Rood River Bandar Anzali Chalus/Noshahr Gorgan Bay (I-1) (I-2) (I-3) (I-4) Municipal waste water Industrial impact ( heavy metals) CPs, P?Bs
Turkmenistan Krasnavodsk Chelekan (T1) (T2) Municipal, Heavy metals, NORM
Kazakhstan Ural River del Aterau Aktau (K1) (K2) (K3) Oil and oil products Heavy metals, P?B,s
Russia Derbent (Terek) Makhachkala Volga River delta (R1) (R2) (R3) Oil product municipal, BOD, Nitrogen NORM, Pesticides, (DDTs), P?Bs, Heavy metals
Note for RWQMP
  • This strategy will serve the two main purposes of
    the current project
  • to address the most significant pollution sources
    (main objective for the RWQMP and RPAP)
  • and to demonstrate how amelioration projects can
    be designed for the various key types of
    pollution (RPAP). These demonstration activities
    will provide the basis (handbook, methodology
    guidelines) for CEP's further work.
  • CEP already carrying our rather wide monitoring
    activity at the Caspian Sea (RPMP). Therefore
    RMQP and RPMP must be well harmonised and

Baseline monitoring expecting from national
  • River Water inflow
  • Regular Hydrological and Oceanographic
  • (level, water balance, water mass exchange, water
    dynamic, water dispersion, ventilation,
  • Physical parameters (CTD profiles)
  • Hydrochemistry (pH, salinity, transparent,
  • Basic Hydrobiology (chlorofyl, phyto-zoo plankton
  • Other

Specific objectives for RWQMP under TACIS CP
  • To identify the major sources of sea water and
    bottom sediment pollution and also its impact
    areas for the main regionally important
    pollutants based on its regional environmental
    risk potential and DPSR approach
  • To demonstrate the comparability of the
    monitoring data and to implement QA/QC program
    at the Caspian Sea countries
  • To validate the modelling tools to be chosen for
    simulation of the temporal and spatial dynamic of
    the contaminants in the sea water.
  • To develop proposal for optimal (cost effective
    and informative) national and regional WQMP,
    which will make possible to monitor the current
    state of Environment, to justify and estimate
    Effectiveness of the SPD implementation

QA/QC Quality Asurance/Quality Control
  • Quality assurance is required by the generic
    Environment safety standard and should be an
    integral part of the source, and environmental
    monitoring programs.
  • Quality assurance should provide for a
    disciplined approach to all activities affecting
    quality of the monitoring results
  • The first Proficiency testing ( Metals, PCBs and
    CPs) has been conducted under supervision of MEL
    IAEA. The Reference materials such as
    BS-1(OC) for PSBs and CPs and IAEA-405 (about 30
  • AGIP initiated and carried out number of
    intercomparison working with Oil/Gas monitoring
    sector in Kazahstan
  • The results show that it is still a begining of
    the way toward QA/QC impementation in the most of
    Caspian countries.

  • Generally, the quality assurance programmed
    should be designed to ensure that
  • the regulatory requirements relating to source,
    environmental and individual monitoring are met
  • (b) appropriate sampling and measurement methods
    are used
  • (c) the choice of environmental media, sampling
    and measurement locations, and the associated
    sampling frequency are appropriate
  • (d) inter-laboratory comparisons for methods and
    instruments at national or international level
    are in place.

A. Fajgelj.Seibersdorf Lab.IAEA
Metrological traceability
comparability to provide confidence that
measurement results agree within the stated
measurement uncertainty independent of
traceability property of the result of a
measurement or the value of a standard whereby it
can be related to the stated reference, usually
national or international standard, throughout an
unbroken sequence of comparisons all having
stated uncertainties. VIM 6.10 ref BIPM, IEC,
IFCC, ISO, IUPAC, IUPAP, OIML, International
Vocabulary of Basic and General Terms in
Metrology, 2nd edition, Geneva, 1993)
A. Fajgelj, July 2005, Slide 23 of 36
Terminology related to CRMs
A. Fajgelj, July 2005, Slide 24 of 36
Sediment RM and specific recommendations
  • horizon sampled, height of overlaying water
  • sediment texture (particle size range or
    clay,slit, sand)
  • Organic carbon content, dry matter content, and
  • other parameters if known or assumed to impact
    on the analyte to be determined or relevant for
    the specific goal of the research project, such
    as pH, redox potential, organic and/or inorganic
    carbon content, cat ion exchange capacity,
    biologic al activity, content in sorption phases
    such as iron,aluminium or manganese, type of clay

Research program Process have to
be in focus of specific WQMP
  • The fate of the nutrients and other, oil
    products and trace elements riverine inlet to the
    Caspian sea
  • Physical and chemical forms transformation of
    the hydrocarbons, PCBs and oil products
  • TENORM (Ra-226....,Th-232...., Rn-222
    (Pb-210,Po-210) and other having oil and gas
    exploration origin at the Coast
  • the fate of pesticides (DDTs....), and other
    coming from the agriculture and industrial
    sources (heavy metals, phenols other)
  • the fate of pollutants having the municipal
    waste water origin (Colli, BOD, Phosphorus,
  • Aerosol fluxes. The fate of aerosol fallout on to
    the sea and secondary aerosol origin coastal area
  • Sediment fluxes. The fate of the pollutants
    accumulated in the bottom sediment in their fixed
    and mobile phases (adsorption capacities of
    sediments, rate of sedimentation and
    remobilisation abilities)
  • the fate of contaminants assimilation and its
    uptake by the marine biota and the sea food chain
    analyses, other

Satellite images resources to be wide utilized
CEP and SOI has very good experience in
use Satellite images resources
Modeling is important component in RWQMP
  1. An overall box-model, i.e. a water and pollution
    mass balance model
  2. A distributed 2D HD/AD model (e.g. MIKE21) for
    the coastal zone.
  3. Drifting models (for oil dispersion analyses)
  4. MINTEQ type models (mass-exchange boom-sediment
    water masses)
  5. BOSS-SMS (RMA) model (wash-out of toxic materials
    from coastal inundated lands)
  6. Atmospheric dispersion models
  7. The future milestone is develop informational and
    modeling EDSS

An overall box-model, (water and pollution mass
balance model) is a first step
  • The surface current pattern clear shows the three
    main basins in the Sea.
  • The current pattern also shows that pollution
    discharged in one point on the coast will be
    transported to other parts of the Sea.
  • This clearly calls for concerted action and close
    cooperation among the five littoral states in
    order to improve the general water quality.

Modeling and database management
  • One approach could be to subdivide the Caspian
    Sea into four main basins and each sub-basin
    divided according to national borders. This would
    result in ten compartments distributed as
  • 1 Russia - 2 compartments
  • 2 Adzerbaijan - 2 compartments
  • 3 Iran - 1 compartment
  • 4 Turkmenistan - 3 compartments
  • 5 Kazakhstan - 2 compartments

D gt 10 m
Voluntary agreements to be achieved
  • For each of the ten compartments, the project
    shall seek to establish
  • The baseline situation
  • An assessment of the land-based (coastal zone)
    pollution load
  • An assessment the exchange of pollutants between
    the neighboring compartments, and
  • The maximum allowable concentrations of a set of
    key indicator pollutants (to be selected during
    or immediately after the Inception Phase), i.e.
    the compartment receptor water quality limits
  • An action plan for mitigation of the excess
    pollution load - given that the external
    pollution load exceeds the maximum allowable
    pollution load

Voluntary agreements to be achieved
  • The challenge here is to establish the exchange
    of pollution between compartments and have all
    five littoral states agree to the
  • Size of the actual external pollution load, and
  • Maximum permissible pollution loads to each

Pollution load
Less than
Voluntary agreements to be achieved
  • If such agreements can be achieved during the
    project, then the road will be paved for a
  • Clear and consistent description of
    responsibilities and targets
  • Systematic and coordinated data collection and
    pollution source assessment
  • Sound and documented basis for implementation of
    the action plan

Regional WQMP planning for in frame of TACIS
Caspian Sea project 2007
Russian Federation
  • Contracting of experts and Procurement.....)
  • Expert mission (Moscow Astrakhan, Makhachkala
  • Preparation of the Program for sampling.
    Agreement in methodology and requirements
  • Cruses, sampling (Volga Delta, Terek River,
  • Sample (water, bottom sediment forms screening
    analyses (SOI, Typhoon, Obninsk)
  • Preparation of the Concepts (drafts) for RWQMP
    and QA/QC
  • Workshop ???
  • Reporting

  • Target area Baku Bay, Abcheron Kura, Araks
  • Expert Mission, visiting Laboratories,
  • Evaluation of current monitoring programs,
    analytical and experts capacities
  • Oil-Drifting Model application discussion
  • Planning field studies, equipment Research
  • Data analyses
  • Discussion Concept and Regional Monitoring
    Program ( Baseline and specific RWQMP)
  • QC/QA planning

  • Target area is Coastal zone
  • Expert Mission, visiting Laboratories,
  • Evaluation of current monitoring programs,
    analytical and experts capacities
  • Expertise of previous Data with special attention
    of qualification of the local experts
  • Consulting in planning of the field studies, air
    origin, beaches and municipality sources
  • Discussion coordination, Data exchange and
    Concept for National and Regional Monitoring
    Program (Baseline and specific RWQMP)
  • QC/QA planning and potential participation of the
    Laboratories in compliances with an already
    done exercises under MEL (IAEA)

  • Contact with CaspEcoControl
  • Introduction with national monitoring
  • Evaluation of the main sources of pollution
  • Expertise of former Uranium Mines and
    tailings impact
  • Selection of priority and needs for Technical

????????? (Aktau, Aterau)
  • Expert Mission, visiting key Laboratories
  • Evaluation of current monitoring programs.
  • Planning field studies, equipment and specific
    research needed
  • Existing Data analyses
  • Screening and Sampling exercises ( Atyrau)
  • Reference Samples to be analyzed in Local Lab
    oratory and in referee EU Lab.
  • Discussion RWQMP Concept
  • Experience of AGIP co-operation and
    intercalibration exercises
  • QC/QA planning
  • Some Specific expertise needed (for instance)
    Uranium Mile tailing at the coast in Aktau
    Koshkar-Ata or Oil polluted area at the coast

Constraints for RWQMP implementation
  • Lack of political support
  • Different legislative framework
  • Lack of analytical and technical capacities
  • Borders and customs issues
  • Sampling at the restricted areas of the Sea
  • Constrains on samples transfer out of the
  • Lack of communication
  • Difference in methodological standards and
  • Access to the Data and Data exchange
  • Other

  • Thank you for attention
  • Hope on further fruitful and beneficial