Systems, Organizations, and System Methodologies MT 246 Module 5 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Systems, Organizations, and System Methodologies MT 246 Module 5 PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 107450-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Systems, Organizations, and System Methodologies MT 246 Module 5

Description:

Systems, Organizations, and System Methodologies. MT 246 - Module 5 ... Parts are affected by being integral, changed if moved from the system. Holism. Synergy ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:46
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 38
Provided by: andyd6
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Systems, Organizations, and System Methodologies MT 246 Module 5


1
Systems, Organizations, and System Methodologies
MT 246 - Module 5
2
Last Lecture
  • Job Opening Process
  • Job Requisition
  • Job Posting
  • Resumes
  • Functional
  • Chronological
  • Interviewing and Acceptance

3
Systems Thinking
  • Opposite of analytical thinking
  • Focus on whole organism
  • Put order into complex situation
  • Project Managers must be system thinkers

4
Definition of a System
  • Organized or complex whole
  • Assemblage of parts interacting in a coordinated
    way
  • Parts do not have to be physical entities
  • Features
  • Parts are affected by being integral, changed if
    moved from the system
  • Holism
  • Synergy

5
Definition of System (Continued)
  • The parts do something
  • Dynamic behavior
  • Behavior depends on the kind of system
  • System type characterized by inputs and outputs
  • The Assemblage of Parts is of particular interest
  • Exist in the mind of the beholder
  • Can be altered of made flexible by the beholder

6
System Concepts and Principles
  • Elements and Subsystems
  • Divided into smaller and smaller parts
  • Subsystem is a component of system
  • Smallest part is an element
  • Subsystem can be an element
  • Attributes
  • Describe condition in qualitative of quantitative
    form
  • Monitor and measure system behavior
  • Cost and Progress f(t)

7
(No Transcript)
8
System Concepts and Principles (Continued)
  • Environment and Boundary
  • Area outside the control or influence of the
    Decision Maker
  • Influences the behavior or outcome of System
  • The Boundary Separates the System from the
    Environment
  • Relevant and Irrelevant Environment

9
System Concepts and Principles (Continued)
  • Objectives
  • Clear concise statement to Do Something
  • Broken down into Subsystem Objective
  • Further down to sub objectives
  • Further to Requirements both Hardware and
    Software
  • System Structure
  • Elements and Subsystem linked by relationships
  • Form is the System Structure
  • Hierarchical Structure
  • Network Structure

10
(No Transcript)
11
System Concepts and Principles (Continued)
  • Inputs, Process,Outputs
  • Inputs are the Raw Materials
  • System Input is Feedback
  • Process converts inputs to Outputs
  • Output is end result of the System
  • Constraints and Conflicts
  • Time and Money are examples
  • Subsystem Objectives often in conflict

12
System Concepts and Principles (Continued)
  • Open and Closed Systems
  • Closed Systems
  • Machines are good Example
  • Self Contained
  • Focus on Internal Operation
  • No regard for External Environment
  • Open Systems
  • Biological and Social Systems
  • Interact with Environment
  • Adaptable
  • Views structures, processes, functions and
    relationships among components
  • Integration
  • Natural versus Human-Made Systems

13
System Concepts and Principles (Continued)
  • Integration
  • System Elements must perform in Synergy
  • All Elements work in Unison
  • Seamless functioning of its elements and
    subsystems
  • PM Integrates Components and modules to Produces
    the Product
  • Will be covered in later Lectures

14
System Concepts and Principles (Continued)
  • Natural vs Human-Made Systems
  • Natural Systems reflect natural Processes
  • Human Systems designed and operated by people
  • Projects Exist to Create human-made Systems
  • Natural Systems altered to become part of H-M
    System
  • H-M Systems embedded in Natural Systems

15
Human Organizations or Goal Oriented Systems
  • Organizations as Open Systems
  • Environmental Subsystems
  • Properties of Organizations
  • Project Management System

16
Organizations as Open Systems
  • Organization have large number of Objectives
  • They do not die
  • Boundaries are permeable
  • PMs are Boundary Agents
  • Hierarchical
  • Depend on Feedback

17
Environmental Subsystems
  • All Organizations compete for Resources
  • Respect the Opportunities and Limitations of the
    environment
  • Manager Must
  • Assess Forces in the Environment
  • Understand those which affect Organization
  • Integrate into Organizations goals, objectives
    and operations
  • Project will not Succeed if outside divergent
    forces are not Controlled

18
Properties of Organizations
  • Organizations are Socio-Technical Systems
  • Functional Structure
  • Marketing Subsystem
  • Production Subsystem
  • Personnel Subsystem
  • Financial Subsystem
  • RD Subsystem
  • Project Subsystem

19
Project Management System
  • Management Subsystem is the Project Management
    System
  • Project Control Chapter 11
  • Project Management Information System (PMIS)
    Chapter 12

20
Systems Approach
  • Systems Approach Framework
  • Orderly Way of Appraisal
  • System Life Cycle

21
Systems Approach Framework
  • Approach for structuring problems as systems and
    for doing things
  • Recognition of interdependency and Cause-effect
    among Elements
  • Managers recognize Elements
  • Inputs
  • Outputs
  • Environment
  • Magnitude of the Problem
  • Consequences of Actions

22
Systems Approach Framework (Continued)
  • No Problem can be solved in Isolation
  • Environmental Fallacy
  • Solutions for the Parts leads to Failure

23
Orderly Way of Appraisal
  • Methodology for Solving Problems and Managing
    Systems
  • Problem Solver Must Keep System,
  • Objectives and Performance Measures
  • Environment and Constraints
  • Elements
  • Management
  • Foremost in Mind.

24
(No Transcript)
25
Systems Life Cycle
  • Product
  • Conception
  • Introduction
  • Capture Market Share
  • Decline and Discontinued
  • Organizations and Projects
  • Systems Development Cycle Chapters 4 and 5
  • The Process is Systems Engineering

26
Systems Analysis
  • Elements of Systems Analysis
  • Physical Model
  • Scaled Down Representation of System
  • Conceptual Model
  • Elements, Structure and Flows in the System
  • Usually Mathematical (Operations Research)

27
Systems Analysis (Continued)
  • Sensitivity Analysis
  • Do Not Catch Modelitis

28
Systems Analysis (Continued)
  • Elements of Every Systems Analysis
  • Objectives
  • Decision Maker and Analyst must Agree
  • Criteria
  • Requirements
  • Specifications
  • Alternatives
  • Resources and Constraints
  • Analysis Model
  • Must Incorporate all of the Above and be Balanced

29
(No Transcript)
30
Process of Conducting a Systems Analysis
  • Formulation
  • Objectives
  • Criteria Measures
  • Research
  • Criteria, Performance Requirements
  • Resources and Constraints
  • Alternatives
  • Interdisciplinary teams
  • Concurrent Engineering

31
Process of Conducting a Systems Analysis
(Continued)
  • Analysis and Judgment
  • Performed by Analyst
  • Judgment by the Decision Maker
  • Verification
  • Empirical Evidence Collected
  • Ensures appropriate Solution
  • Iteration is almost a requirement

32
Systems Engineering - The Science of Designing
Complex Systems
  • Systems Engineering brings a System into Being
  • Conception, Design and Development of Complex
    Systems
  • Components must be designed from Scratch and
    Integrated to form Mission Objectives
  • Systems Analysis focuses on Decisions about a
    System

33
Systems Engineering - The Science of Designing
Complex Systems(Continued)
  • Systems Architecture
  • Characteristics and Configuration for a class of
    Systems
  • Systems Partitioning
  • System subdivided into Parts designed and Tested

34
Stages of Systems Engineering
  • System Concept
  • System Definition and Preliminary Design
  • Detailed Design and Development
  • System Production or Fabrication
  • System Operation and Support

35
(No Transcript)
36
Systems Management - The Management and Operation
of Organizations as Systems
  • Total-System Oriented Mission and Objectives
  • Decisions which emphasize the Overall System not
    Subsystems
  • Responsibility Oriented
  • Subsystems Measure of performance is to the Total
    System

37
Next Lecture
  • System Engineering Appendix A
  • Homework Assignment
  • Read Chapter 3
  • Answer Review Questions1, 4, 8, 10, 13,14, 19, 21,
About PowerShow.com