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The Underground Railroad

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Title: The Underground Railroad


1
The Underground Railroad
Alison Sharp Betsy Brown Nancy Kipler Kelly
Campbell Lisa Smith
2
The Underground Railroad
  • This unit on the Underground Railroad is targeted
    for children in third grade.
  • Lessons from this unit, however, could be used
    with any 1st-5th grade.

3
The Underground Railroad
  • Objectives
  • The students will gain an understanding of what
    the Underground Railroad was and its effect on
    our national history.
  • Students will learn where the underground
    railroad began and where it ended.
  • Students will learn when the Underground
    Railroad took place.

4
The Underground Railroad
  • Materials needed
  • Follow the Drinking Gourd song.
  • Map of the Underground Railroad.
  • Venn Diagram
  • Pictures for picture dictionary

5
The Underground RailroadWebsites
  • http//www.surfnetkids.com/undergroundrr.htm
  • Great interactive website!
  • The HeadboneZone
  • Interactive site with timelines, stories and
    games.
  •  Aboard the Underground Railroad.
  • http//www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/underground/
  • Pictures of the Underground Railroad This is a
    good website and third graders did it!
  • http//www.nationalgeographic.com/railroad/j1.html
  • Travel along with slaves along the Underground
    Railroad.

6
The Underground RailroadWebsites
  • Websites (cont.)
  • Harriet Tubman The Underground Railroad
    http//www2.lhric.org/pocantico/tubman/tubman.html
  • The students in Mrs. Taverna's second grade
    class at Pocantico Hills School in Sleepy Hollow,
    New York created this website.
  • Addys Escape to Freedom 
  • http//www.americangirl.com/agcn/addy/escape/inde
    x.html
  •  History Happens
  • Stories from American History on Music Video
  • http//www.ushistory.com/railr.htm

7
The Underground RailroadActivities
  • Follow the Drinking Gourd Song
  • Students will learn the words to the song Follow
    the Drinking Gourd.
  • Students will be able to translate the song.
  • STANDARD People in Societies Cultures 1.
    Compare some of the cultural practices and
    products of various groups of people who have
    lived in the local community including a.
    Artistic expression (Page 122)

8
Follow the Drinking Gourd
  • Explanation of "Follow the Drinking Gourd"
  • When the sun comes back and the first quail
    calls,Follow the Drinking Gourd.For the old man
    is waiting for to carry you to freedom,If you
    follow the Drinking Gourd.
  • "When the sun comes back," means winter and
    spring when the altitude of the sun at noon is
    higher each day. Quail are migratory bird
    wintering in the South. The Drinking Gourd is the
    Big Dipper. The old man is Peg Leg Joe. The verse
    tells slaves to leave in the winter and walk
    towards the Drinking Gourd. Eventually they will
    meet a guide who will escort them for the
    remainder of the trip.
  • Most escapees had to cross the Ohio River, which
    is too wide and too swift to swim. The Railroad
    struggled with the problem of how to get escapees
    across, and with experience, came to believe the
    best crossing time was winter. Then the river was
    frozen, and escapees could walk across on the
    ice. Since it took most escapees a year to travel
    from the South to the Ohio, the Railroad urged
    slaves to start their trip in winter in order to
    be at the Ohio the next winter.
  • The river bank makes a very good road,The dead
    trees show you the way,Left foot, peg foot,
    traveling onFollow the Drinking Gourd.
  • This verse taught slaves to follow the bank of
    the Tombigbee River north looking for dead trees
    that were marked with drawings of a left foot and
    a peg foot. The markings distinguished the
    Tombigbee from other north-south rivers that flow
    into it.
  •  

9
Follow the Drinking Gourd
  • The river ends between two hills,Follow the
    Drinking Gourd.There's another river on the
    other side,Follow the Drinking Gourd.
  • These words told the slaves that when they
    reached the headwaters of the Tombigbee, they
    were to continue north over the hills until they
    met another river. Then they were to travel north
    along the new river, which is the Tennessee
    River. A number of the southern escape routes
    converged on the Tennessee.
  • Where the great big river meets the little
    river,Follow the Drinking Gourd.For the old man
    is awaiting to carry you to freedom if youfollow
    the Drinking Gourd.
  • This verse told the slaves the Tennessee joined
    another river. They were to cross that river
    (which is the Ohio River), and on the north bank,
    meet a guide from the Underground Railroad.

10
The Underground RailroadActivities
  • Map the Math in Miles
  • Students will be given a map of the eastern half
    of the United States and calculate the miles the
    slaves traveled along the Underground Railroad to
    reach freedom by picking a beginning point in the
    South and an ending point in the North.
  • Students will use average calculations to
    determine the total distance traveled and the
    time it took. EX. Traveling 6 miles per day, 7
    days a week.
  • Students will relate what they learned about who
    the slaves were, when they traveled and how they
    traveled to estimate the time and distance. EX.
    Families with small children used the Underground
    Railroad to leave slavery. Traveling could only
    happen at night when the hunters were not looking
    for them. Slaves traveled by foot through woods
    and tough terrain to reach freedom.
  • STANDARD Geography Location 1. Use political
    maps, physical maps and aerial photographs to ask
    and answer questions about the local community.
    2. Use a compass rose and cardinal directions to
    describe the relative location of places. 3. Read
    and interpret maps by using he map title, map
    key, direction indicator and symbols to answer
    questions about the local community. (Page
    122-123)

11
(No Transcript)
12
Materials
  • Map of eastern part of the United States.
  • Rulers
  • Paper for computations and to write their
    findings.

13
The Underground RailroadActivities
  • The Best Time of the Year to Travel the
    Underground Railroad
  • Students will discuss the advantages and
    disadvantages to traveling the Underground
    Railroad in the winter and the summer.
  • Students will form small groups and design a Venn
    Diagram showing the pros and cons to traveling in
    the winter and summer.
  • Students will discuss their Venn Diagram with the
    class.
  • As a whole group, the students will combine all
    the ideas on the Venn Diagrams and make a whole
    class display.
  • STANDARD Social Studies Skills and Methods
    Problem solving 6. Use a problem-solving/decision
    -making process, which includes a. identifying a
    problem b. gathering information c. listing and
    considering options d. considering advantages
    and disadvantages of options e choosing and
    implementing a solution. (Page 125)
  •  

14
The Underground RailroadActivities
15
Materials
  • Paper for individual Venn Diagrams or notes.
  • Venn Diagram large enough for the class to see.

16
The Underground RailroadActivities
  • Picture Dictionary
  • Students will discuss how secrecy was important
    to the success of the Underground Railroad.
  • Students will discuss the lack of education
    (inability to read and write) among slaves and
    why slave owners preferred the lack of education.
  • Students will read, analyze and discuss the
    symbols used in songs and writings to communicate
    to the slaves how to follow the Underground
    Railroad.
  • In small groups, students will make a picture
    dictionary of items in environment (school, home,
    playground, etc.)
  • Using only pictures, students will write one
    letter to share with the class.
  • STANDARD Social Studies Skills and Methods
    Communicating Information 5. Communicate
    information using pictographs and bar graphs.
    (page 125)
  •  

17
The Underground RailroadActivities
River crossing safe farmhouse go
this way  
Follow the North Star Travel
at night Over the
mountains    
18
Materials
  • Songs and poems to use to gather information.
  • Paper, crayon, markers to draw and write about
    the pictures, in order to make a picture
    dictionary.

19
The Underground RailroadActivities
  • Follow the Drinking Gourd using the North Star
  • a. Students will identify the North Star using
    the constellation The Little Dipper.
  • b. Students will discuss how the North Star is
    a constant in the night sky and why it was used
    to lead the slaves to freedom.
  • c. Students will use black or bright blue
    construction paper and chalk to map the
    constellation the Little Dipper and the North
    Star (Polaris). They will also look at the Big
    Dipper to see how the star in the dipper points
    to the North Star.
  • d. Students will analyze why the people in the
    North made this song to help the slaves.
  •  STANDARD Citizenship Rights and
    Responsibilities Participation 2. Demonstrate
    effective citizenship traits including a.
    civility/ b. Respect for the rights and dignity
    of each person c. volunteerism d. compromise
    e. compassion f/ persistence in achieving goals
    g. civic-mindedness. (Page 124)
  •  

20
The Underground RailroadActivities
21
Materials
  • Pictures of the Little Dipper and the Big Dipper,
    in order to locate the North Star and determine
    the relationship of the Big Dipper to the North
    Star.
  • Song Follow the Drinking Gourd
  • Book Follow the Drinking Gourd ,by Jeanette Winter

22
The Underground RailroadBooks
  • Ayres, Katherine. North By Night A Story of the
    Underground Railroad.
  • Edwards, Pamela Duncan. Barefoot Escape on the
    Underground Railroad. HarperCollins, 1997.
  • Hopkinson, Deborah. Sweet Clara and the Freedom
    Quilt.  New York Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.
  • Hopkinson, Deborah. Under the Quilt of Night. New
    York Atheneum, 1993
  • Lasky, Katherine. True North A Novel of the
    Underground Railroad. Blue Sky Press, 1996.
  • Wyeth, Sharon Dennis. Freedoms Wings Coreys
    Underground Railroad Diary.Scholastic, 2002
  • Winter, Jeanette. Follow the Drinking Gourd.
    Knopf, 1988

23
Map of the Underground Railroad
24
Pictures
Hiding Spot on the Underground Railroad
25
Houses on the Underground Railroad
  • Historic Site Listings
  • Ohio
  • SavannahEzra Garret
  • WestervilleBenjamin Hanby House
  • AshtabulaCol. William Hubbard House
  • RipleyJohn Rankin HouseJohn Parker House
  • XeniaRev. Samuel Wilson HomeFerguson
    HomeHilltop Rd. HouseNosker ResidenceLeach
    HouseRodin HouseDavid Monroe HouseDavis House
  • OberlinWilson Bruce Evans House

26
Houses on the Underground Railroad
  • Fosters MillButterworth Foster Home
  • BelpreCaptain John Stone House
  • IrontonJohn Campbell Home
  • BurlingtonMacedonia Church
  • HillsboroScott HouseRitten-House
  • WilberforceCol. Charles Young HouseThe Maxwell
    HouseHowell Place
  • Highland CountyJacob Chapman HouseLyle
    HouseHyer House
  • MowrystownGotherman House
  • GreenfieldPommerest House
  • LincolnvilleEdward Easton House
  • ClevelandAshtabula Harbor

27
Timeline
  • 1501-African Slaves in the New World
  • Spanish settlers bring slaves from Africa to
    Santo Domingo (now the capital of the Dominican
    Republic).
  • 1619-Slaves in Virginia
  • Africans brought to Jamestown are the first
    slaves imported into Britain's North American
    colonies. Like indentured servants, they were
    probably freed after a fixed period of service.
  • 1700-First Antislavery Publication
  • Massachusetts jurist and printer, Samuel
    Seawell, publishes the first North American
    antislavery tract, The Selling of Joseph.
  • 1705-Slaves as Property
  • Describing slaves as real estate, Virginia
    lawmakers allow owners to bequeath their slaves.
    The same law allows masters to "kill and destroy"
    runaways.

28
Timeline
  • 1775-Abolitionist Society
  • Anthony Benezet of Philadelphia founds the
    world's first abolitionist society. Benjamin
    Franklin becomes its president in 1787.
  • 1776-Declaration of Independence
  • The Continental Congress asserts "that these
    United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be
    Free and Independent States."
  • 1793-Fugitive Slave Act
  • The United States outlaws any efforts to impede
    the capture of runaway slaves. (Also see 1850)
  • 1808-United States Bans Slave Trade
  • Importing African slaves is outlawed, but
    smuggling continues.
  • 1820-Missouri Compromise
  • Missouri is admitted to the Union as a slave
    state, Maine as a free state. Slavery is
    forbidden in any subsequent territories north of
    latitude 3630'.

29
Timeline
  • 1834-1838-Slavery in England
  • England abolishes slavery in its colonies
    including Jamaica, Barbados, and other West
    Indian territories.
  • 1850-Compromise of 1850
  • In exchange for California's entering the Union
    as a free state, northern congressmen accept a
    harsher Fugitive Slave Act different from the
    previous one of 1793.
  • 1854-Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • Setting aside the Missouri Compromise of 1820,
    Congress permits these two new territories to
    choose whether to allow slavery. Violent clashes
    erupt.
  • 1857-Dred Scott Decision
  • The United States Supreme Court decides, seven
    to two, that blacks can never be citizens and
    that Congress has no authority to outlaw slavery
    in any territory.

30
Timeline
  • 1860-Abraham Lincoln Elected
  • Abraham Lincoln of Illinois becomes the first
    Republican to win the United States Presidency.
  • 1861-65-United States Civil War
  • Four years of brutal conflict claim 623,000
    lives.
  • 1862
  • On September 22, Lincoln drafts the preliminary
    Emancipation Proclamation. The final is issued on
    January 1, 1863.
  • 1863-Emancipation Proclamation
  • President Abraham Lincoln decrees that all
    slaves in Rebel territory are free on January 1,
    1863. The Proclamation only freed those slaves in
    states that were in rebellion against the United
    States. The proclamation did not free slaves in
    the states that never left the Union.
  • 1865-Slavery Abolished
  • The 13th Amendment to the United States
    Constitution outlaws slavery.
  •  

31
Field Trips
National Underground Freedom Center
  • 50 East Freedom WayCincinnati, Ohio
    45202Telephone 513.333.7500 or
    877.648.4838Open Tuesday - Sunday 1100 - 500
    Ticket Prices 12 Adults, 10 Seniors, 8
    Children, Children under six are FREE

32
Field Trips
Freedom Center Exhibits
Escape! Freedom Seekers and the Underground
Railroad provides families and students with a
concise, age-appropriate summary of the history
of the Underground Railroad
  • A Freedom Hero is an individual or group that
    takes action to protect or extend freedom.

The Slave Pen is an authentic structure that
serves as a centerpiece of reflection and stark
reality within the Freedom Center.
33
Field Trips
John P Parker House Ripley, Ohio
  • Open weekends through December during the
    following hours
  • Saturdays 10-5Sundays 1-5
  • Tours may be arranged at any time by contacting
    us to schedule an appointment by calling
    937-392-4188.
  •  
  • Admission3.00 Adults (19 above) 1.00
    Students (5-18)Free Children (birth to 4)
    Directions

330 N Front Street Ripley, OH 45167
34
Areas of Interest
  • The Buxton National Historic Site and Museum
  • Canada was the promised land for the
    thousands of slaves. They followed the North
    Star until they reached the border to safety.
  • One one hour from Detroit, North Buxton is an
    example of a town where these escapees settled.
  • The Buxton National Historic Site and Museum
    features an 1861 school house, build by the
    escaped slaves to educate their children. As
    well as a Baptist church built and attended by
    the former slaves.

35
The Buxton National Historic Site and Museum
Buxton School class picture 1910.
Buxton Baptist Church
36
Areas of Interest
  • Old Slave Mart
  • Charleston, South Carolina
  • It is estimated that 40 of the slaves entered
    the US to be sold in slave markets such as this
    one in Charleston.
  • This is now part of an open air market, where
    African descendants can be seen weaving baskets
    and selling their wares. These artisans speak a
    dialect called Gullah and are born storytellers.

37
Old Slave Mart Charleston, South Carolina
  • The Old Slave Mart shown here was opened in 1852.
    It was in this building where slaves were
    auctioned off after being inspected in the
    courtyard. In 1879 the bars were removed and the
    building was made into a two story living
    quarters. In 1938 it was opened as the Slave Mart
    Museum, making it the oldest black museum of
    slave artifacts in America. (www.gullahtours.com)
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