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Introduction to the Minerals and Geology of New Hampshire for kids

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Title: Introduction to the Minerals and Geology of New Hampshire for kids


1
Introduction to the Minerals and Geology of New
Hampshire for kids
2
Mineral collecting can be fun. You must be
careful! Always remember to be safe.
3
Never collect by yourself Always wear eye
protection ESPECIALLY if you are using tools like
hammers, chisels, picks Never venture close to or
into an open mine Never climb up a cliff unless a
parent says its o.k. Never taste a rock! Always
wash your hands when you are done handling
specimens. Never leave a mess behind, try to
leave the site cleaner than when you arrived.
4
What is the nickname of New Hampshire?
5
The Granite State!
6
Who is buried in Grants Tomb?
7
Ulysses S. Grant, famous war hero and President
of the United States
8
Question What was used to build Grants Tomb?
9
Answer Granite. Granite from New Hampshire to be
more exact. Conway Granite to be specific.
10
Granite is made up of three minerals
Quartz
Feldspar
Mica
11
Depending on how much and what type of each of
these three minerals determines the color,
texture and building quality of the granite.
Granite is one type of mineral occurrence known
as a Pegmatite.
Pegmatites are composed of many cool types of
minerals, but only a pegmatite made of quartz,
feldspar and mica can be called granite.
12
Have you ever been to the White Mountains?
13
The Geology of the White Mountains is basically
an entire mountain range made up of granite. The
period in time the mountains were created is
known as the Devonian Age.
14
How many years ago do you think the Devonian Age
existed?
A. When your parents got married
B. When George Washington chopped down that
cherry tree
C. During the reign of the dinosaurs
D. 400 million years ago
E. 4 million years ago
15
Answer 400 million years ago
16
Minerals in New Hampshire Pegmatites
Albite, a type of Feldspar, used in concrete,
porcelain, building decorations
Apatite, used for fertilizer
17
Minerals in New Hampshire Pegmatites
Beraunite, tiny fiber-like, viewed under a
microscope
Bertandite
18
Minerals in New Hampshire Pegmatites
Beryl, occurs in New Hampshire in green
(emerald), clear and yellow (heliodor).
Beryl, occurs in other parts of the world as
beautiful gem stones, high quality gems of beryl
in New Hampshire are very rare
19
Minerals in New Hampshire Pegmatites
Childrenite, microscopic crystals
Eosphorite, microscopic crystals
20
Minerals in New Hampshire Pegmatites
Babingtonite
21
Minerals in New Hampshire Pegmatites
Triphyllite
22
Minerals in New Hampshire Pegmatites
Heterosite Fe3PO4
23
Minerals in New Hampshire Pegmatites
Scorzalite - (Fe2,Mg2)Al2(PO4)2(OH)2
24
Minerals in New Hampshire Pegmatites
Jahnsite CaMn2Fe22Fe32(PO4)4(OH)2 8 H2O
25
Minerals in New Hampshire Pegmatites
Laueite Mn2Fe32(PO4)2(OH)2 8 H2O
26
Minerals in New Hampshire Pegmatites
Strunzite Mn2Fe32(PO4)2(OH)2 6 H2O
27
Minerals in New Hampshire Pegmatites
Vivianite Fe23(PO4)2 8 H2O
28
Minerals in New Hampshire Pegmatites
Palermoite SrLi2Al4(PO4)4(OH)4
29
The following will be a 5 second per slide
display of mines around New Hampshire.
30
Mines in New Hampshire
31
Mines in New Hampshire
32
Mines in New Hampshire
33
Mines in New Hampshire
34
Mines in New Hampshire
35
Mines in New Hampshire
36
Mines in New Hampshire
37
Mines in New Hampshire
38
Mines in New Hampshire
39
Mines in New Hampshire
40
Mines in New Hampshire
41
Mines in New Hampshire
42
Mines in New Hampshire
43
A Utah Copper Mine - Phils Stope, 150
Level Gold Hill Mine
44
Some Minerals Found in New Hampshire used by
modern society
45
But First... What is an Ore?
46
An Ore is a rock that has an abundance of a
particular mineral. Usually, there is enough of
this mineral that scientists have figured out a
way to get the mineral out of the ore. They may
use heat, acid, crushers or a combination of
these methods to extract and purify the desired
mineral.
47
Calcite looks glassy. Calcite has smooth
surfaces but will not stand up on all of them.
Calcite can scratch a fingernail. Steel can
scratch calcite. Calcite powder fizzes in
vinegar. Clear calcite makes things look double.
Calcite is very closely related to Limestone,
Lime and Chalk. Calcite is a common mineral.
Calcite often forms beautiful, pointed crystals.
If calcite is not pure, it can be found in
almost any color.
48
Calcite
Calcium carbonate is found mainly in limestone,
marble, and chalk in the form of the mineral
calcite. It is used in making lime, paints,
plastics. It is used in the production of
Fertilizers, water treatment, food preservatives
and animal feeds. It is not used in jewelry
because it breaks too easily.
49
Calcite
Cement is a powdered substance made of burned
lime, clay, shale or gypsum mixed with water and
sand to make mortar, or with water, sand and
gravel to make concrete.
50
Calcite
Concrete is a hard, compact building material
formed when a mixture of cement, sand, gravel and
water dries.
51
Calcite
Crushed limestone is used for building and
repairing roads, building construction, concrete,
cement, metallurgical fluxing.
52
Galena
Galena is the primary ore mineral of lead.
Galena has been worked for its lead content as
early as 3000BC Galena is found in ore veins with
sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and in
sedimentary rocks as beds or impregmentations.
The crystals are bright when fresh but often
receive a dull tarnish after exposure to air.
53
Galena
Galena crystals are usually cubes. Galena is
heavy. Galena has a bright, silvery-gray,
metallic shine. Galena is a soft mineral. Steel
can scratch it. Galena is composed of a
compound of lead and sulfur. Galena is found in
veins, pockets, and replacement deposits in rocks
made of a chemical called carbonate.
54
Galena
Galena, has been known for centuries, and lead,
smelted easily from it, has been used since
ancient times. The ancient Romans were the first
to use lead and to make pipes to take water to
and from their great cities. Lead from the
mineral galena is used in car batteries and other
types of batteries. Lead is also used in
hospitals and labs to shield people from
radiation. A lead compound is used in gas to
prevent engine "knock". Other uses include red
lead for coating construction steel, lead foil
for toothpaste tubes, solder for cans and
containers, and soundproofing for rooms and
machinery.
55
Sphalerite
Sphalerite is the material which produces zinc.
Sphalerite sometimes resembles Galena, which is
used to produce lead. Its name comes from a
Greek word meaning "tricky", because ancient
Greek metalworkers often mistook it for galena
and were annoyed when they couldn't get lead from
it. The yellowish-brown ore is usually found
limestone.
56
Sphalerite
Zinc from Sphalerite has a wide variety of uses.
Zinc is refined and used throughout the world
largely to protect steel against rust. More than
5.2 million metric tons of this mineral are
consumed annually. Zinc-coated steel, commonly
called galvanized steel, helps to make steel last
longer with very little maintenance. Nearly 40
pounds of zinc is in a typical automobile, mostly
on steel body panels and chassis parts. Zinc
oxide is used to soothe baby's diaper rash and
your skin when you have sunburn, poison ivy, and
blisters.
57
Gypsum
Plaster of Paris is made from a rock material
called "gypsum". Its a special material that
doctors once used to make casts when people broke
their arms and legs. The strangest thing happens
to plaster of paris when it begins drying. Do you
know what that is? It gets hotter when it begins
to dry. This is called an "exothermic" reaction.
Gypsum is considered to be a hydrated sulfate of
calcium, occurring naturally in sedimentary rock
used in Plaster of Paris (wallboard) and chalk.
58
Gypsum
Gypsum gypsum forms when seawater evaporates
under arid conditions. The principle use of
gypsum is in the production of wallboard. It is
also a primary component of stucco and plasters,
and in the manufacture of cement. Very high
grade gypsum also finds food grade and
pharmaceutical applications. That means you eat
it!
59
Gypsum can form sulphur through a chemical
reaction. Natural sulfur is usually light yellow
in color. Sulphur crystals are almost
transparent. Sulphur crystals may be transparent
yellow. Sulphur can appear to glisten or look
greasy. Sulphur can be scratched with a
fingernail. It has an identifiable, pungent odor.
People sometimes called Sulphur "brimstone"
because, generally, sulfur can be found around
the mouth of volcanoes or from the around the
edges of hot springs.
60
Sulphur
Sulphur is very important in the chemical
industry. Sulphur is used to make gunpowder,
found on match tips and to make sulfuric acid,
the acid in car batteries. Sulphur is used to
make rubber, synthetic fibers, plastics,
pigments, explosives, fertilizers, dyes, soil
conditioners, insecticides, and in making paper.

61
Pyrite
Pyrite consists of iron and sulfur and occurs in
all types of rock. Pyrite is often called
"fool's gold" because it looks like gold. When
pyrite is melted, the iron and sulfur in it
separates. The sulfur is used to make sulfuric
acid, the kind of acid in car batteries. Iron is
produced as a by-product. Iron is used to make
electric appliances, automobiles, buildings,
office equipment, beverage and food cans and
other containers, tools, and machinery.
62
Quartz Quartz crystals look glassy. A quartz
crystal is six sided. It has a pointed tip and
lines that run across each side. Quartz is very
hard. Steel cannot scratch it. Quartz is found
in every class of rock. Sand forms when quartz
wears away from these rocks and is broken into
tiny pieces. Most light-colored sand beaches are
made up of tiny pieces of quartz.
63
Quartz
Some gems are quartz that is colored by other
minerals. Purple quartz is called amethyst.
Gray or black quartz is called smoky quartz.
Quartz with uneven bands of color is called
agate. Quartz crystals form as silica solutions
cool in igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic
rocks.
64
Quartz
Colored quartz is often cut and polished to make
jewelry. Quartz crystals cut in a certain way
produce a small amount of electricity. This
effect makes quartz crystals useful in radios,
clocks, and watches. Quartz crystals can be
melted and formed into lens and prisms. They are
also used in heat lamps and sun lamps. Sand, or
tiny quartz pieces, is used in making glass,
porcelain, paints, abrasives, scouring soups, and
ceramic ware.
65
Quartz
Sand is a type of quartz. Sand grains are used
in concrete, glass and industrial production.
Sand on the beaches of Florida's Panhandle
region sparkles white because it is nearly pure
quartz. Silica is a mineral found in quartz and
sand used in insulation, light bulbs, and TV's.
66
Sandstones are usually light colored (white,
gray, or yellow) but sometimes dark red.
Sandstones are grainy, gritty, and feel rough.
Sandstones are made mostly from quartz and
can scratch steel.
67
Sandstone breaks around the rounded quartz pieces
rather than through them. This is why sandstone
is not as sparkly as glass. Some sandstones
contain iron oxide, or rust. The rust makes these
sandstones dark brownish red. Such sandstone was
used to build New York City's famous "brownstone"
apartments. Dinosaur footprints are found in
sandstone quarries in Connecticut.
68
Sandstone forms from old sand dunes or when
quartz sand grains settle out of water. A cement
material, such as calcite, dissolves in water and
seeps down through the sand. It glues the grains
together to form sandstone. Sandstone is a
sedimentary rock composed largely of sand grains,
mostly quartz worn down by wind, water and
ice. Sandstone is used in building stone,
abrasives, concrete and mortar mixes, bedding
materials, and playground sand. Sandstones main
use is in construction. It is easy to shape and
does not wear easily. It is also used to filter
bacteria and sediment from water supplies.
69
Quartzite forms from sandstone. Great heat and
pressure melt the sandstone quartz grains
together very tightly to form quartzite.
Quartzite is made up of fine, shiny grains. the
quartz in quartzite can scratch steel.
70
Quartzites are among the hardest and most
resistant of all rocks. They are made up mostly
of quartz particles. Powdered quartzite is used
to make some sandpapers, scouring compounds, and
metal polishes. It is also used for roofing
granules, road and sidewalk surfacing, in
concrete, and as a substitute in construction.
71
Beryl
Largest beryl crystal was 18m long and 3.5m wide
from Malakialina, Madagascar. Even in Maine,
beryl crystals up to 30 feet long have been found
in quarries around Rumford.
72
Beryl
Beryl can be cut into beautiful gemstones
73
Mica has a pearly shine. Mica splits into thin,
transparent sheets. Micas are common
rock-forming minerals. They are found in most
granites. Light colored mica (muscovite) is the
most common type. Black mica is called biotite.
Mica that explodes like popcorn when heated is
called vermiculite. Micas form in igneous and
metamorphic rocks.
74
Thin transparent sheets of mica (muscovite called
isinglass) are used as windows in iron stoves.
Micas are used as insulators in electronic
equipment. Vermiculite is used for house
insulation and as a type of soil for growing
plants. Mica can be found in many beauty
supplies and make-ups. Powdered mica mixed with
water forms a white, greasy material that shines.
It is used in paints and in the printing of
shiny designs on wallpaper.
75
Mica belongs to a family of colored or
transparent minerals that separates into very
thin leaves it is frequently used in such things
as electronics, electrical, insulators, filler
and extender in plasterboard, cement, paint and
drilling mud. Don't use color as a way of
identifying mica. Peel off one thin sheet with
your fingernail. The sheet will look like
cellophane tape.
76
The following slide show will display microscopic
photos of minerals for 3 second each. Try to
read the names that fast!
77
Boulangerite
78
Bournonite
79
Bournonite
80
Calcite
81
Calcite on Quartz
82
Cerussite
83
Chalcoalumite, Carbonate-cyanotrichite
84
Chalcopyrite
85
Cyanotrichite
86
Dolomite on Quartz
87
Dolomite on Quartz
88
Azurite, Gypsum, Malachite
89
Fluorite
90
Galena
91
Hubnerite, Fluorite
92
Hubnerite, Scheelite
93
Ktenasite
94
Malachite
95
Pyrite
96
Pyrite
97
Scheelite
98
Scheelite
99
Scheelite
100
Schulenbergite
101
Serpierite
102
Siderite
103
Siderite on Dolomite
104
Spangolite
105
Spangolite
106
Sphalerite
107
Tetrahedrite
108
Wulfenite on Galena
109
The End! www.micromountersofnewengland.org
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