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Exploring American History Unit X


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Title: Exploring American History Unit X

Exploring American History Unit X Modern America
  • Chapter 31 America Looks to the Future
  • Section 1 The End of the 20th Century.

Main Idea 1 Major global changes took place
during the presidency of George H. W. Bush.
1988 Election
  • Reagans vice president, George H. W. Bush,
    defeated Democratic candidate Michael Dukakis
    after a hard-fought campaign.

Cold War Ends
  • Mikhail Gorbachev continued reforms in the Soviet
    Union while pro-democracy movements gained
    strength in Eastern Europe.
  • October 1989, East Germans overthrew Communist
    government and new government agreed to open
  • November 9, East and West Berliners smashed
    through the Berlin Wall, a symbol of the Cold
  • Soon, several Soviet republics declared
    independence and the Soviet Union broke apart,
    marking the end of the Cold War.

  • Oct. 1989- East Germany gets rid of its Communist
    government and opens the Berlin Wall.
  • Berlin Wall torn down.
  • Oct. 3 1990- East and West Germany are reunited
    into one Germany.

Gorbachev and the Soviet Union
  • March 1985- Gorbachev is General Secretary of
    Communist party.
  • Glasnost- openness, allowing criticism and
    freedom of the press
  • Perestroika- restructuring of the Soviet
    society- less government control, introduced
    private enterprise and took steps for a
    democratic government.

Warsaw Pact Countries- Eastern Europe
  • Hungary and Bulgaria- successful transition from
  • Romania- Violent Revolution- Pres. Ceausescu.
  • Czechoslovakia- Velvet Revolution
  • Yugoslavia-Collapsed. Ethnic rivalries caused
    brutal war among Muslims, Orthodox Serbs, and
    Roman Catholics. Ethnic Cleansing
  • Baltic State- Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

Soviet Union Declines
  • Dec. 1991- 14 Russian Republics declare
  • Ethnic unrest across USSR- different national
    groups argue over borders.
  • Gorbachev resigns- not popular at home and the
    Soviet Union dissolves.
  • CIS- Commonwealth of Independent States takes
    over- loose federation
  • Feb. 1992- Boris Yeltsin-President of Russia
    signs START II pact with U.S.A.

Operation Just Cause- Panama
  • 1988- Federal Grand jury indicts Noreiga on drug
    trafficking charges. (International drug
  • Manuel Noriega- commander of police and military
    forces in Panama, in charge of Panama. Stuffed
    the ballot box.
  • Dec. 20, 1989- President Bush sent in U.S. forces
    to topple Noriega.
  • Noriega took refuge in Vatican embassy but
    finally surrenders.
  • Convicted in Miami and sentenced to 40 years in
  • Many Latin American nations deplored this Yankee
    Imperialism, but many were please to be rid of
    the dictator.

Double Click on Movie to start
116 min.
Demonizing the Enemy Saddam Hussein and Manuel
Noriega- 509
The Persian Gulf War
  • Iraqs brutal dictator, Saddam Hussein, invaded
    neighboring oil-rich Kuwait.
  • United Nations called for immediate withdrawal.
  • President Bush began assembling a coalition of
    nations to drive Iraq from Kuwait.
  • UN coalition launched Operation Desert Storm when
    Hussein refused to withdraw.
  • Air offensive led by U.S. generals Norman
    Schwarzkopf and Colin Powell, the highest-ranking
    African American ever to serve in U.S. military.
  • After a six-week bombing campaign, UN forces
    invaded Kuwait and Iraq soon agreed to a
  • About 22,300 Iraqi soldiers and civilians were
  • UN forces lost around 223 soldiers, 148 of which
    were American
  • More than 35,000 American women served in the war
    in non-combat positions.

(No Transcript)
Operation Desert Storm- Iraq
Patriot Missile Battery
Operation Desert Storm- Iraq
Operation Desert Storm- Iraq
In 1979 Saddam Hussein took control of Iraq,
killing 21 of his cabinet members. In 1990 he
invaded Kuwait and in less than 4 hours he had
taken Kuwait and controlled 24 of the worlds oil
supplies. It seemed as if his next target was
Saudi Arabia. United States entered after a call
for protection by Saudi Arabia. The United
States set a deadline, January 15, 1991 for all
Iraq forces to be out of Kuwait, but Saddam
ignored the deadline. That triggered Desert
Shield, or the build-up of troops in the region
and eventually led to Desert Storm, a all-out
attack to free Kuwait.
Operation Desert Shield- Iraq
  • Chronology Important Events- 1990
  • On 25 July US Ambassador to Iraq, April Glaspie,
    tells Hussein that the Iraq/Kuwaiti dispute is an
    Arab matter, not one that affects the United Stat
  • Hussein invades Kuwait on August 2.
  • President Bush freezes Iraqi and Kuwaiti assets.
  • The United Nations calls on Hussein to withdraw.
  • Economic sanctions are authorized.
  • Iraq annexes Kuwait
  • The UN declares Iraq's annexation invalid
  • Military interdiction authorized by the UN.
  • UN Security Council authorizes force if Iraq
    doesnt withdraw from Kuwait by midnight EST Jan.
  • Congress votes to allow for US troops to be used
    in offensive operations.

Operation Desert Storm- Iraq- 351
Operation Desert Storm- Iraq
  • Chronology Important Events- 1991
  • The air war started Jan 17 at 238 a.m. (local
    time) or January 16 at 638PM EST due to an 8
    hour time difference, with an Apache helicopter
  • US warplanes attack Baghdad, Kuwait and other
    military targets in Iraq.
  • Iraq launches first SCUD Missile attack.
  • US forces in the Gulf exceed 500,000.
  • Feb 6, President Bush issues an ultimatum of Feb
    23 for Iraqi troops to withdraw from Kuwait.
  • Feb 23, 1991 Ground war begins with Marines, Army
    and Arab forces moving into Iraq and Kuwait.
  • Feb 27, 1991 President Bush orders a cease fire
    effective at midnight Kuwaiti time.

Operation Desert Storm- Iraq- 515 min.
Main Idea 2 During Bill Clintons presidency,
the nation experienced scandal, economic growth,
and the rise of terrorist threats.
  • 1992 Election
  • Republican candidate President George H. W. Bush
  • Americans supported his handling of the Gulf War.
  • Democratic candidate Arkansas governor Bill
  • Told voters he would focus on improving the
    struggling U.S. economy
  • Clinton won a three-way race against Bush and
    Ross Perot, who ran as an independent candidate.

(No Transcript)
Clinton and Congress
  • Under President Clintons leadership Congress
  • Passed a budget to reduce the deficit by cutting
    spending and raising taxes and
  • Supported the North American Free Trade Agreement
    (NAFTA), which eliminated trade barriers between
    the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
  • In 1994 congressional elections, Republicans won
    a majority in Congress for the first time since
  • House minority leader Newt Gingrich spearheaded
    the victory with promotion of a set of policies
    called the Contract with America, promising lower
    taxes and smaller government.

NAFTA- North American Free Trade Agreement
  • Brings US, Canada and Mexico into a free-trade
  • Supporters- it will strengthen all three
    economies, and create more jobs.
  • Opponents-
  • American jobs would be transferred to Mexico
    where wages are lower. More than 100,000
    low-wage jobs went to Mexico after NAFTA passed.
  • Environment would be harmed due to Mexicos lower
  • Competition with foreign companies caused US
    companies to keep wages low.
  • Treaty Ratified- January 1, 1994

NAFTA- North American Free Trade Agreement 134
Clintons Second Term
  • In 1996 election Clinton won a second term by
    defeating Senator Bob Dole of Kansas.
  • Second Term was dominated by questions about
    Clintons personal and official conduct.
  • Charged with having an inappropriate relationship
    with a White House intern and then lying about it
    under oath
  • In 1998 the House of Representatives voted to
    impeach Clinton, but the Senate acquitted him of
  • Scandal damaged Clintons public image.

President William J. Clinton
  • Foreign Affairs
  • NAFTA- North American Free Trade Agreement
  • GATT- Global Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
  • Ethnic cleansing in Bosnia
  • Peace in Ireland and Middle East
  • Pulls troops out of Somalia
  • Signs START I
  • Grants diplomatic recognition with Vietnam.
  • Israeli-Palestinian Declaration of Principles-
    Arafat and Rabin
  • 1996-1997- Illegal Immigration Reform and
    Immigrant Responsibility Act- restricts the
    availability of suspension of deportation.
    Tougher for illegal aliens to get to stay due to
    hardship. Must be in US for 10 years 1st.

The Impeachment and Removal of the President by
Congress (0338)
A Dangerous World
  • Collapse of Soviet Union left the United States
    as the worlds only superpower.
  • Clinton appointed Madeleine Albright as the first
    woman to be secretary of state.
  • Helped adapt U.S. foreign policy
  • United States worked to protect global peace and
  • Helped to negotiate an end to war in Balkan
    region of Europe after former nation of
    Yugoslavia broke apart
  • Terrorism the use of violence by individuals or
    small groups to advance political goals became a
    major issue in the 1990s.
  • April 1995 American terrorists bombed an
    Oklahoma federal building, killing 168 people.
  • 1998 Hundreds killed in a bomb attacks on U.S.
    embassies in Africa.
  • Increasingly deadly attacks were made by
    extremist Islamic groups.

  • 1991- Yugoslavia broke up into 5 nations.
  • 1991- Bosnia- Serbs began ethnic cleansing of
    certain ethnic groups. Millions of refugees, and
    over 200,000 killed. Clinton hesitates to help.
  • 1995- Dayton Accords- U.S helps negotiate a peace
    in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and US troops sent in
    to join NATO troops.
  • 1998- Kosovo- Serbs attack ethnic Albanians. US
    and NATO launch air strikes. Violation of
    International law?
  • US troops stayed longer than promised- drawing
    criticism. 9 Years.

2 - History-159 min.
1- Rebuilding Kosovo- 325 min.
3 - The Air War on Kosovo- 145 min.
April 19, 1995 (0254)
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