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Clean Coal Combustion: Meeting the Challenge of Environmental and Carbon Constraints

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Title: Clean Coal Combustion: Meeting the Challenge of Environmental and Carbon Constraints


1
Clean Coal CombustionMeeting the Challenge of
Environmental and Carbon Constraints
A.R. Ericson
2
Our Vision for New Coal Power Portfolio of Clean
Technologies
Near-zero emissions
Carbon Free Power
Concentrated CO2
O2
Oxygen Fired CFB
or PC
COMPLETE COMBUSTION
PC
CO22
Post-combustion capture
USC PC
Air
USC CFB
CFB
CO2 Capture And Sequestration
Carbonate looping
CHEMICAL LOOPING
COAL
CO22
CO22
PARTIAL COMBUSTION
CO2 Scrubbing
PETROCHEMICAL
O2
IGCC
H2
H2 GT
water shift
Air
IGCC
Fuel Cell
3
AIR BLOWN IGCC
3
Presentation Roadmap
Outlook for New Ultra Clean Coal Capacity
  • Market Realities
  • Environmental Performance Mission Critical
  • Advanced Cycle Designs
  • Coal Generation in a Carbon Constrained World

4
Drivers for New CapacityNorth America
Our economies continue to drive electricity
demand growth
Source NERC 2006 Long Term Reliability Assessment
5
Existing US Coal FleetExpanding output to meet
demand
Equivalent to 45 GW of new coal capacity
6
Drivers for New Coal BuildNorth America
  • Base Energy needs versus Peaking Capacity
  • Base load demand expected to increase at roughly
    GDP
  • Economics
  • Fuel Cost
  • End User price shocks driving demand for low cost
    energy
  • Coal availability and prevalence
  • 200 Years of Reserves in North America
  • Advent of OTC (over the counter) markets for coal
    and emissions
  • Environmental regulations drive new clean plants
  • Fuel diversity

Source U.S. EIA
7
New Coal CapacityFaces Challenges
  • Economics
  • Utilization of all low cost domestic coals and
    opportunity fuels
  • Competitive costs
  • Operations
  • Highest reliability and commercial availability
  • Operating parameters to meet demands of grid
  • Environmental
  • Near zero emissions
  • and a carbon strategy

8
Meeting the Goals for Coal Based Power -
Emissions
9
Operating Coal Combustion Best in Class
Emissions
Bit. PC
SubBit. PC
CFB
IGCC (operating)
Source Energy Velocity database ( EPA CEMS 2005
data )
10
Ultra Clean Coal CombustionEmissions Control
Capability
  • Todays state-of-the-art
  • NOx gt95 reduction with optimized firing systems
    and SCR
  • SO2 gt99 capture with Wet FGD and DBA
  • Particulates 99.99 capture
  • Hg 80- 95 capture (coal dependent)
  • Next steps
  • Continued improvements
  • Integrated Multi-pollutant systems to reduce
    costs
  • High Hg capture on all coals (without reliance on
    ACI)
  • Introduction of CO2 capture

11
(No Transcript)
12
Karlshamn Power Plant
  • Power capacity3 x 340 MW
  • FuelHeavy fuel oil(max. 3.5 S)

13
FLOWPACKarlshamm Performance Levels
Sulfur Content in the Fuel 2.5
Inlet Gas Conditions (at ESP outlet) English Metric
Flue Gas Flow 870,000 acfm 1,080,000 Nm3/hr
Flue Gas Temp 270F 130C
Particulate Matter (PM) 0.025 lb/MMBTU 30 mg/Nm3

Outlet Gas Conditions (at stack)
SO2 (gt99 w/ no additives) lt 19 ppmv lt 55 mg/Nm3
SO3 (70 removal) lt 1 ppmv lt 2 mg/Nm3
PM (gt60 removal -oil soot) lt 0.01 lb/MMBTU lt 2 mg/Nm3
14
When Additional Control is Needed -Mercury
Capture Technologies
  • Additives
  • Halogen(s)
  • Powdered Activated Carbon
  • Halogenated Powdered Activated
  • Carbon

Potential additive injection points
15
Multi-pollutant APC Systems
  • Integrated APC systems based around commercially
    proven and reliable technologies
  • Use readily available reagents
  • Produces reusable byproduct(s)
  • No impact on fly ash
  • Superior cost/performance ratio
  • Extremely compact design
  • Reduces capital costs for equipment, erection and
    BOP
  • Fewer moving parts reduces maintenance costs
  • Superior environmental performance
  • Reduced permitting schedule/cost
  • Avoided cost for SO2 credits
  • Targeted emissions levels
  • SO2 0.02 lb/MMBTU (gt 99.5)
  • Hg 1.0 lb/TBTU (gt 90)
  • PM 0.01 lb/MMBTU (99.99)
  • NOx 0.05 lb/MMBTU w/SCR
  • Polishing (Level TBD) w/o SCR

Controls SOx, PM10/PM2.5 Mercury NOx
16
Meeting the Challenge - Advanced Cycles
17
Increased Value for Efficiency
Annual Fuel Savings, MUSD
500 MW Unit
Efficiency
10M/yr
16
6.5M/yr
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Coal Price USD/Short Ton
Compared to 34 subcritical efficiency, 11,000
BTU/lb coal, 80 capacity factor
18
Efficiency Critical to emissions strategy
Source National Coal Council From EPRI study
100 Coal
Coal w/ 10
co
-
firing
biomass
Commercial Supercritical
Existing US coal fleet _at_ avg 33
Net Plant Efficiency (HHV),
19
Clear Trend to Supercriticalfor Global Steam
Power
Worldwide orders for new coal generation
20
147 GW, 230 Supercritical Coal Fired Boilers
Ordered Since 1990
Clear Trend to Advanced Supercritical Cycles
Number of Units
GW
Maximum of SH or RH Temp
Maximum of SH or RH Temp
21
SupercriticalFlexible for power grid needs
  • Operating Performance
  • Turndown Supercritical PC/CFB units have
  • Flexibility to rapidly change load
  • Turndown to lower minimum loads during off peak
  • Maintain efficiency when operating at part loads
  • Excellent startup ramp rates to meet grid demand

Supercritical
Drum
  • Hot Start Up,
  • after 2 hr shutdown
  • Warm Start Up,
  • after 8 hr shutdown
  • Cold Start Up,
  • after 36 hr shutdown

22
Progression of Plant Efficiency via Advanced
Steam Conditions and Plant Designs
TARGET 48 - 50
41- 43
Up to 5400/1300/1325(psi/F/F)
38-41
37-38
Advanced USC
35-37
  • -Efficiency (net) HHV
  • Typical Steam Parameters

4000/1110/1150(psi/F/F)
3480/1005/1050 (psi/F/F)
4000/1075/1110 (psi/F/F)
UltraSupercritical
Commercial State of Art Supercritical
2400/1005/1005 167/540/540
Sliding Pressure Supercritical
Subcritical Technology
Mature Supercritical
Ni-based Materials
Advanced Austenitic Materials
Material Development
T91
1960
1980
2000
2020
2010
23
Meeting the Goals for Coal Based Power -
Efficiency
24
Meeting the Challenge CO2 Reduction
25
CO2 Mitigation Options for Coal Based Power
  • Increase efficiency
  • Maximize MWs per lb of carbon processed
  • Fuel switch with biomass
  • Partial replacement of fossil fuels
    proportional reduction in CO2
  • Then, and only then .Capture remaining CO2 for
    EOR/Sequestration

Logical path to lowest cost of carbon reduction
26
CO2 Capture Innovative options continue to
emerge and develop
  • Post Combustion Capture
  • Adsorption
  • Absorption
  • Hydrate based
  • Cryogenics / Refrigeration based
  • Oxy-fuel Firing
  • External oxygen supply
  • integrated membrane-based
  • Oxygen carriers (chemical looping)
  • Decarbonization
  • reforming (fuel decarbonization)
  • carbonate reactions (combustion decarbonization)

27
Amine-Based Absorption - CO2 Capture
SHADY POINT, OKLAHOMA, USA An AES CFB power plant
with MEA CO2 separation
  • MEA has demonstrated performance on coal based
    flue gas
  • Work required to address
  • Regeneration power
  • Compression ratio
  • Cost of solvent

28
Advancements Absorption Stripping CO2 Capture
Amine scrubbing continues to develop
  • Ionic Liquids designer solvents
  • Piperazine - alternative solvent
  • Process integration and improvement has driven
    cost down from 70 to 40-50 /ton CO2 --- further
    progress expected
  • With industry focus on improvements, advanced
    amines likely to be competitive solution for post
    combustion capture

29
CO2 Capture Innovations Chilled Ammonia System
Existing Stack
  • Ammonia reacts with CO2 and water and forms
    ammonia carbonate or bicarbonate
  • Moderately raising the temperature reverses the
    above reactions producing CO2
  • Regeneration at high pressure

Existing SO2 Scrubber
Concentrated CO2 to Sequestration
Flue Gas
Energy Recovery
Energy
Recovery
Energy
CO
Energy Recovery
2
Recovery
CO2 Absorption Tower
Tower
CO2 Lean
Fluid Regeneration
CO2 Rich
Flue Gas
Cooling
Flue Gas Cooling
System
30
Advantages of Chilled Ammonia
  • High efficiency capture of CO2
  • Low heat of reaction
  • High capacity for CO2 per unit of solution
  • Easy and low temperature regeneration
  • Low cost reagent
  • No degradation during absorption-regeneration
  • Tolerance to oxygen and contaminations in flue
    gas

31
We Energies Pleasant Prairie Host Site Location
for 5MW Pilot
32
Carbon Free PowerAdvanced Combustion
  • Innovative Combustion Options for 2010 and Beyond
  • Oxygen Firing Direct concentration of CO2 to
    gt90 for reduced capture costs
  • Chemical Looping Leapfrog technology with
    potential to achieve significantly lower costs
    than PC/CFB/IGCC

33
Oxygen Firing to produce concentrated CO2 stream
CO2
3 MWt pilot CFB
  • Oxygen Firing Direct concentration of CO2 to
    gt90 for reduced capture costs

34
30 MWth Oxy-fired PC Pilot Plant Vattenfall
Location of pilot plant in the Industrial Park
Schwarze Pumpe
35
Future Technologies for CO2 CaptureChemical
Looping
Chemical Looping Gasification
Calciner
CO2
CaCO3
Cold Solids
Chemical Looping Combustion
CaCO3
CaO
Hot Solids
Hydrogen
CaS
Depleted Air, Ash, CaSO4
Reducer
CaSO4
Oxidizer
Air
Coal, Steam
36
Multiple Paths to CO2 ReductionInnovations for
the Future
Hatched Range reflects cost variation from
fuels and uncertainty
Technology Choices Reduce Risk and Lower Costs
------------------------------With CO2
Capture---------------------------
No CO2 Capture
Note Costs include compression , but do not
include sequestration equal for all technologies
37
Conclusions
  • New coal fired power plants shall be designed for
    highest efficiency to minimize CO2 and other
    emissions
  • Lower cost, higher performance technologies for
    post combustion CO2 capture are actively being
    developed, and more are emerging
  • There is no single technology answer to suit all
    fuels and all applications
  • The industry is best served by a portfolio
    approach to drive development of competitive coal
    power with carbon capture technology

38
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