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Title: GIS is a hybrid between traditional database management software and traditional cartographicCompute


1
What is GIS?
  • GIS is a hybrid between traditional database
    management software and traditional
    cartographic/Computer Aided Drawing software.
  • GIS combines the what of databases with the
    where of drawings, making it easier to
    identify patterns and relationships in data when
    it is mapped.


2
What is GIS?
  • GIS allows you to layer data sets, making it
    easier to visualize patterns and relationships of
    features.



3
What is GIS?
  • As on paper maps, digital maps may have points to
    represent features such as public water accesses,
    lines to represent features such as county
    boundaries, and areas (polygons) to represent
    features such as lakes . . .

Areas
Lines
Points
4
What is GIS?
  • . . . digital maps can also include image data
    such as air photos or satellite imagery.

5
What is GIS?
  • But unlike paper maps, features in a digital map
    come from a database a database that can store
    information (called attributes) about each
    feature.

6
What is GIS?
  • What layers of data you choose to add to a GIS
    project depends on what you want to accomplish
  • Find the best location for a new forest road
    culvert
  • View suspicious wildfire details to detect arson
    patterns
  • Assess the health and extent of natural wild rice
    beds
  • Track the recovery efforts of Walleye in Red Lake

7
What is GIS?
  • You can symbolize data layers on digital maps
    according to their database values . . .

8
What is GIS?
  • . . . and even ask questions of the data, viewing
    the answers both on the map and in the database.

Which lakes within 20 miles of Lake Mille Lacs
contain natural wild rice beds?
9
GIS Software Used in DNR
MN DNR uses three GIS software programs to meet
user needs
10
What is Landview?
Free
  • Landview is a free GIS designed for non-GIS users
    to
  • Browse spatial data
  • Create simple point, line, and polygon data sets
  • Create, view, and print simple maps
  • Download and upload data to a Garmin GPS

11
What is Landview?
  • Your GIS Coordinator does not support Landview
    for use outside the DNR - use the DRS Manager
    program to write data and Landview to CD.
  • To request Landview for partnering agencies
    contact your GIS Coordinator.

12
What is ArcView 3.x?
750.00
  • A desktop GIS suitable for more robust
  • Creating/editing spatial data (including image
    rectification)
  • Creating/printing of high quality maps
  • Spatial and attribute queries and summaries
  • Customizations (add-on functions, tailored
    programs)

13
What is ArcView 3.x?
  • DNR standard since 1990s
  • Gradually phasing out for ArcMAP
  • Remains viable for most department GIS operations
  • Some DNR customizations/extensions not yet
    available in ArcMAP

DNR customizations and extensions
14
What is ArcMAP?
750.00 annual fee
  • A family of GIS products encompassing all levels
  • of functionality ArcView, ArcEditor,
    ArcInfo . . .
  • A desktop or workstation GIS suitable for
  • Creating/editing spatial data (including image
    rectification)
  • Creating/printing of cartographic-quality maps
  • Spatial and attribute queries and summaries
  • Customizations (add-on functions, tailored
    programs)

Suite of programs included with any Arc purchase
15
What is ArcMAP?
  • The level of functionality within the ArcMAP
    suite corresponds to the level of software
    purchased

less functionality more
ArcView
ArcEditor
ArcInfo
less price more
16
Working in Landview
17
Landview The Interface
  • GIS software uses a typical windows-based
    interface (windows, menus, buttons/tools,
    pop-ups, status bars, check boxes)
  • Often two or more items on an interface (i.e. a
    button and menu) perform the same function

Minimize, resize, exit
Window
Button
Menu
18
LandView The Interface
  • Interfaces may change depending on
  • what you are doing
  • which window is active (last selected/clicked
    on/worked with)

19
LandView The Help System
  • GIS software has online help available
  • HELP menu
  • Help button
  • Inter/intranet site connections

20
LandView The Help System
  • Learn basic GIS terms so you can conduct
    effective help searches and explain problems to
    technical support.
  • Print and/or bookmark
  • topics you frequent.
  • CONTENTS tab
  • functions listed as you
  • might perform them
  • INDEX tab functions
  • listed alphabetically
  • SEARCH tab lists
  • most relevant help
  • topics

21
Exercise 1
  • Exploring the interface
  • The Help System

22
LandView Projects
  • A project is a single instance of an open GIS
    program.
  • Projects store
  • information
  • about what data
  • last appeared
  • and how it was
  • displayed.
  • LandView
  • automatically
  • recalls your
  • last project
  • when you start
  • the program . . .

23
LandView Projects
  • Projects do NOT store data sets, only paths to
    the data sets . . .
  • if data is not found, it greyed out and/or
    not displayed
  •                                                   
                 

24
LandView Deciding What to View Where
  • When you begin a GIS project you need to
  • Define where to view data for (Area of Interest
    (AOI))
  • Select data sets to view
  • LandViews Where
  • Window allows
  • you to define
  • an AOI numerous
  • ways

25
LandView Deciding What to View Where
  • And LandViews Display Window allows you to
    choose which data to view.
  • All other tasks
  • depend on these
  • two initial
  • decisions . . .
  • . . . but you can
  • easily change
  • either at any
  • time in a project

26
LandView The Where Window
  • The Where Window appears each time LandView
    starts. This is where you select where you want
    to see a map of.
  • LandView sets the
  • AOI to whatever
  • Current Location
  • and
  • Display Radius
  • the user chooses.

27
LandView The Where Window
  • To set a Current Location, use any of the Where
    Window boxes
  • UTM Coordinates
  • Public Land Survey
  • Lat/long coordinates
  • Current Location
  • map
  • Search/Find in List
  • Move
  • Wizard

28
LandView Coordinate Systems
  • Representing a 3-D object (earth) in 2-D (map)
    always causes some distortion of reality . . .
    different coordinate systems use different
    mathematical equations to minimize distortion
    while systematically locating places
  • The most common coordinate systems used by DNR
    include
  • UTM (Eastings/Northings)
  • Geographic (Latitude/Longitude)
  • Degrees, minutes, seconds
  • Decimal degrees
  • Decimal minutes

29
LandView The Where Window
  • To set a Display Radius (how far out from the
    Current Location you want the map to show),
    enter a number in miles
  • You can fine tune
  • your current location
  • later in the Display
  • Window
  • for now just give
  • LandView this
  • general
  • location
  • information.

30
Landview The Where Window
  • If needing to measure distance and direction from
    a home base, turn on Base Point. Place a Current
    Location, then click Set Base Point.
  • When you enter a
  • new Current
  • Location (red dot),
  • your Base Point
  • will appear as a
  • green dot.
  • Your direction and
  • distance from the
  • Base Point will
  • Appear in the
  • Azimuth and
  • Distance boxes.

31
Landview The Where Window
Want to get back to your Base Point and make it
the Current Location? Click Goto Base Point.
32
Landview The Where Window
  • Need to map a location that is a certain
    direction and distance from a something else?
    Make
  • the something else
  • the Current Location,
  • then click Move.
  • Enter a distance
  • and click a
  • direction.The
  • Move Window
  • will disappear and
  • the Current Location
  • will be updated.

33
Landview The Where Window
  • Want to be walked through the steps of making a
    quick map?
  • Click Wizard
  • and follow
  • the numbered
  • steps.

34
Landview The Where Window
Want to view data for your AOI? Click Display
Window.
35
Exercise 2
The Where Window Defining an Area of
Interest Entering coordinates Defining a
Display Radius Establishing a Base
Point Searching lists Saving User
Points Finding the closest five The Move button
36
Spatial Data
  • Any data that can be tied to a particular place
    is called spatial data. Spatial data contains
    both graphic (where) and attribute (what)
  • components.


37
Spatial Data
  • Spatial data falls into two major categories
  • Vector points, lines, and polygons, each feature
    having its own attributes
  • Raster a grid of cells, each cell having its own
    value

Vector
Raster
38
Spatial Data
  • Vector data is best for showing discrete,
    well-defined data (i.e. water accesses, streets,
    lakes, cover types, forest boundaries).

Cover type and boundaries
Hydrography, boundaries, roads, water accesses
39
Spatial Data
  • Raster data is best for showing a continuum of
    values (i.e. rainfall, slope, vegetation
    reflectivity). Raster data is most often in the
    form of imagery . . .

Landsat satellite imagery
Scanned and rectified PRIM map
40
Spatial Data
  • Raster and vector data can be viewed
    simultaneously in a GIS, but only higher-end
    software can manipulate raster data
  • Public water
  • accesses
  • Roads
  • WMA boundaries
  • Forest boundaries
  • Wetlands
  • 2003 FSA color
  • air photography

41
LandView Spatial Data
  • Some data may not contain both a graphic and
    tabular element, but LandView can transform it
    into spatial data one of two ways
  • Create point features from a stand-alone table
    that contains x,y coordinate pairs, or

42
LandView Spatial Data
  • Convert simple graphics drawn on the screen into
    features, then enter attributes in an associated
    table

1) Draw graphics
2) Convert to spatial data
3) Edit table
43
LandView Spatial Data
  • Overlay layers and background maps are spatial
    data in LandView.

Overlay layers (vector)
Background maps (raster)
44
LandView Spatial Data
  • The Current Location and Lists are also spatial
    data in LandView.

45
Landview Symbolizing Spatial Data
  • Layers can be customized through their
    properties. To customize a layer, double-click
    on its name, then select the items to change.

46
LandView Symbolizing Spatial Data
47
LandView The Display Window
  • LandViews Display Window combines data viewing
    and map making into a single window.
  • Turn on as many
  • overlay layers
  • as you wish
  • One background
  • map can be
  • turned on at
  • a time

48
LandView The Display Window
  • Overlays will draw in the order you turn them on,
    so turn the layer you want to draw on top of all
    other layers last.
  • State Parks
  • turned on last,
  • so draws over
  • roads and county
  • boundaries

49
LandView The Display Window
  • There is helpful information besides the data
    layers themselves
  • Upper right shows
  • coordinates for
  • wherever you hold
  • your mouse
  • Lower right shows
  • the scale of the map
  • Lower left describes
  • the button/tool
  • currently selected

50
LandView The Display Window
  • Buttons and tools help you better use data sets.
  • Tools perform interactive functions on the map
    (your mouse cursor will change depending on which
    tool you make active).
  • Buttons make something happen without first
    clicking on the map.
  • Hold your mouse over to read what it does . . .

51
LandView Selecting Elements
  • The different parts of LandView are called
    elements. LandView acts upon selected (active)
    elements. You can select
  • Windows Buttons/tools Data sets
  • Features Table cells Graphics

Window
Button/tool
Graphic
Overlay layer
52
LandView Selecting Elements
  • Select a tool or button by clicking on it.

Active tool
53
LandView Selecting Elements
  • Select an overlay layer by clicking on it (it
    will become underlined). You can now change the
    layers properties and retrieve attribute
    information about features in that layer.

Active layer
54
LandView The Display Window
Tools interact with the map
Place text
Identify
Pan
Relocate Current Location (red dot)
Zoom in/ Zoom out
Draw points, lines, or areas
55
LandView The Display Window
Buttons perform general functions
Create user point
Zoom to state
Goto
Zoom to active layer
Zoom to current location point
Where Window
Search
56
LandView The Display Window
Buttons perform general functions
Lake map tool
Copy to clipboard
Print
Hotlink (historic air photo) tool
Step back/ forward through Zooms/pans
57
LandView The Display Window
Menus give users another way to access functions.
They vary depending on the active window
58
Exercise 3
Background maps (raster data) Overlay layers
(vector data) Layer Properties Symbology Tools
and buttons zoom in, zoom out, pan Re-center
button Lake map tool Historic air photos
tool Forward/back buttons Search
button Relocate tool Add User Point
button Manage/delete User Points Identify
tool Measure line tool Text tool
59
Feature Attributes
  • Every feature (point, line, or area) in a spatial
    data set has a corresponding set of data
    describing it, saved in a database called an
    attribute table.

60
LandView Working with Features
  • Attributes for a single feature can be easily
    accessed using the identity button.
  • To identify a feature
  • Click an overlay
  • name to make it
  • active.
  • Click .
  • Right-click a
  • feature it will
  • blink . . .

blinking
61
LandView Working with Features
  • . . . then that features record
  • in the attribute table will
  • appear.

62
Feature Attributes
  • The attributes in a table affect the mapping
    options available
  • Automatic labeling only works on attributes in
    the table
  • Identity Tool retrieves table attributes for a
    feature
  • Search/Find searches table attributes
  • Symbology choices depend on attributes

63
Feature Attributes
  • Rather than viewing the attributes for a single
    feature, you can choose to view an entire
    attribute table at once
  • Click an overlay name
  • to make it active.
  • Go to TABLEgt
  • Load table for
  • active overlay
  • layer.

64
Feature Attributes
  • If you have editing
  • rights you can also
  • Add/rename/
  • import fields
  • Change attributes
  • Create unique IDs
  • Zoom to features
  • Append/delete features

65
Labeling
  • LandView has four labeling options
  • Title Label (places a title on
    the Display map)
  • Overlay Labels (auto-labels features
    in an overlay layer)
  • List Labels (auto-labels
    points in one or more lists)
  • Interactive Label tool (click on screen, type a
    label)

Label Tool
66
Labeling
  • Although each type
  • of label is slightly
  • different, you can
  • select options
  • for things like
  • Content
  • Placement
  • Font
  • Table field
  • Remove
  • duplicates
  • Labels and/or
  • markers
  • Marker symbol

67
Labeling
Title label
Label tool
Overlay labels
68
Exercise 4
Identity tool on overlay layers Label tool Line
Measure tool Overlay Labels List Labels Title
Labels
69
LandView Selecting Graphics
  • Select a measure tool graphic by holding shift
    and left-clicking on it (the graphic will turn
    bold outlined).
  • The selected graphic
  • can now
  • show calculations
  • of area, perimeter,
  • and/or distance
  • be deleted
  • be saved as a new
  • data set
  • be uploaded into
  • a Garmin GPS

70
LandView Selecting Features
  • Select an overlay feature by holding ctrl and
    right-clicking on it (a graphic with a bold
    outline will be created).
  • The selected graphic
  • can now
  • show calculations
  • of area, perimeter,
  • and/or distance
  • be deleted
  • be saved as a new
  • data set
  • be uploaded into
  • a Garmin GPS

71
Exercise 5
Delete selected measure tool graphic Save measure
tool graphics as shapefile Convert overlay
feature to area measure graphic View area and
perimeter figures for area measure graphic
72
LandView Printing
  • Whatever printer (and options) you have selected
    as the default in Windows will be the printer
    LandView uses.
  • When you click the print
  • button a dialog will appear.
  • Select desired options, then
  • click Print.
  • Air photo background maps
  • and many labels/graphics may
  • slow printing speed.

73
LandView Printing
  • If printing to a file, select
  • the file format, number of
  • colors, and scale factor
  • 1 saved image has same
  • resolution as screen
  • 5 saved image has 5x
  • better resolution than
  • screen (is also a larger file)
  • Click Export, then give the
  • file a name and saving place
  • Same options found under
  • FilegtExport map

74
Print to File Format Comparisons
.BMP best for printing and viewing as is .EMF
best when image will need to be resized before
viewing or printing crisp and clear .JPG
best for small file size - fuzzy lines and text
depending on scale factor chosen
75
LandView Copying
  • Copying to the Windows clipboard makes the map
  • accessible to almost any Windows programs.
  • Use when creating slide
  • shows, reports, forms . . .
  • Open a new program, then
  • click the Paste button or
  • EditgtPaste.
  • Once the image is within
  • the program you can move,
  • resize and edit it.

76
Exercise 6
Printing a map Printing a map to file
(exporting) Copying a map to clipboard Pasting a
map into Word
77
LandView Customizations
  • LandView can be customized to fit your needs
    through
  • Data sets
  • Symbols
  • Attributes
  • Graphics
  • Labels
  • Project preferences
  • Saved projects
  • (schemes)
  • Most customizations are
  • found under Editgt
  • Landview properties.

78
LandView Customizations
  • LandView properties include
  • What your current location
  • and base points look like
  • What coordinates appear
  • when pointing with your
  • mouse
  • Measure tool symbols
  • Where the software looks
  • for data sets
  • Units of measure
  • Windows map service
  • wait time

79
LandView Customizations
  • Any of the default spatial data sets that appear
    in LandView can be swapped out for others
  • Lists
  • Overlay layers
  • Background maps

80
LandView Customizations
Coordinates can be copied to and from the
Clipboard into the Where Window.
81
LandView Customizations
The location of the core data sets can be
switched between a local and a network source.
82
LandView Saving Data
  • Graphics and labels can be saved as overlays (aka
    shapefiles).

83
LandView DNR Garmin Program
  • Data can be uploaded and downloaded from a Garmin
    GPS to LandView as layers or graphics
  • 1)
  • 2)

Uploaded User points
84
LandView DNR Garmin Program
  • 3)

85
LandView Importing Stand-Alone Tables
  • Stand-alone tables with X and Y coordinate fields
    can be imported and converted to overlays.
  • 1) 2)

86
LandView Importing Stand-Alone Tables
  • 3) 4)

87
LandView Creating and Editing Tables
  • Existing tables can be edited and new tables can
    be created.
  • 1)
  • 2)

88
LandView Creating and Editing Tables
  • Fields can be defined and calculated, and records
    quickly shown in the Display Window.
  • 3)
  • 4)

89
LandView Saving Customizations
LandView customizations can be saved as Schemes
so they are preserved and can be switched between
easily.
90
LandView Saving Customizations
Schemes are bookmarks of projects youve worked
on - review and return to a specific set of
customizations at any time.
91
The Data Resource Site (DRS)
  • To make data easily accessible and useable for
    all DNR employees, the DNR created a standardized
    collection of spatial data, metadata, and
    programs called a Data Resource Site (DRS).
  • A DRS can be located on a network drive or
    stand-alone computer
  •                                                   
            

Mothership DRS
Madelia DRS
R1 DRS
Networked DRS
Networked DRS
Local (stand-alone) DRS
92
The Data Resource Site (DRS)
  • Most networked DRS sites are automatically
    updated weekly.
  • The mothership and most network DRSs hold
    statewide data, but stand-alone DRSs may have
    limited coverage.
  •                                                   
               

Anyone can use the DRS manager to
create/update a local DRS . . .
93
The Data Resource Site (DRS)
  • DRS data sets are
  • designed to be
  • intuitive and
  • efficient to use
  • in LandView,
  • ArcView 3.x,
  • and ArcGIS
  • Each softwares
  • portal to the
  • DRS organizes
  • data layers by
  • thematic class

Thematic class
Data layer
94
The Data Resource Site (DRS)
  • A DRS contains three main folders
  •  

GIS Applications/extras
Apps
Data
Spatial data
DRS
Metadata
Data about the spatial data
95
DRS Applications
  • The applications folder contains GIS and GPS
    install files and automated extras standard in
    the department

ArcGIS
Apps
Arcview
DRSmgr
Data
DRS
Eppl7
Metadata
Gen _app_support
GPS
Landview
Logos
WMSclient
96
DRS Data
  • DRS spatial data is organized by
  • who owns/maintains the data
  • how the data is tiled (divided into manageable
    file sizes)
  • individual tiles

Apps
Work unit
Tiling scheme
Data
DRS
Tile
File
Metadata
97
DRS Data
  • All spatial data also follows a standard naming
    convention
  • Layer Abbreviation
  • 5-10 characters in length - gives a thematic
    identity
  • Usually separated into two pieces with an
    underscore _
  • First part of name is used to categorize the
    layer, second to describe it
  • Feature Class
  • IM image LN line
    MS lines with measures
  • PT point PY polygon
    RA raster
  • Scale Specification
  • 1 400K-2000K (statewide) 2 80K-400K
    (county-level)
  • 3 10K-80K (resource mgt level) 4
    lt10K (site level)

98
DRS Metadata
  • The key to using spatial data effectively is to
    understand
  • How and why the data was collected
  • Attributes recorded and their meaning
  • Plans for the data in the future 
  • This information is called Metadata (data
    describing spatial data)

Apps
DRS
Data
Metadata
99
DRS Metadata Access
Metadata can be accessed from within a layers
properties
100
DRS Metadata
101
DRS Metadata Attributes
102
DRS Metadata Sample Data
103
DRS Quick Data Access
Landviews portal to DRS data is found under
EditgtCustomize
104
DRS Quick Data Access
  • The portal for ArcView 3.x and
  • ArcGIS is an extension called
  • Quick Themes
  • With Quick Themes you can
  • View data layer descriptions
  • Add data layers
  • View metadata
  • View the files name and location
  • View the status of that data
  • throughout the state

105
Conclusion
  • There is no better way to learn GIS than to
    play in the software.
  • Other GIS/GPS courses offered by DNR include
  • Introduction to ArcView 3
  • Advanced ArcView 3 - Spatial Data
  • Advanced ArcView 3 - Tool Box
  • Advanced ArcView 3 - Shapefiles
  • Advanced ArcView 3 - Text and Labels
  • Advanced LandView
  • Introduction to ArcMap
  • Introduction to GPS using Garmin
  • GPS Intro to Map Editor
  • For full course information and schedules go to
  • http//dnrnet.state.mn.us/mis/gis/training.htm
    l

106
Conclusion
This concludes the Introduction to GIS and
LandView course. You may wish to take the
Advanced LandView course or one of the many other
GIS courses offered by DNR GIS staff . . .
Contact your local GIS Coordinator for more
information.
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