What Is CBD? | Understanding Cannabidiol - Calm Collectiv - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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What Is CBD? | Understanding Cannabidiol - Calm Collectiv


CBD is one of the cannabinoids found in the resin of the cannabis plant. Its the most common Cannabinoid because of its medical use and effects on the body. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What Is CBD? | Understanding Cannabidiol - Calm Collectiv

What Is CBD?
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  • Cannabidiol, more commonly known as CBD, is one
    of the two most prevalent cannabinoids found in
    the resin of the cannabis plant. Concentration
    levels can vary, but the compound comprises up to
    40 of the cannabis plants extract. It is one of
    dozens of other cannabinoids, but as the most
    prevalent next to (of course) THC, it has been
    the subject of more research than the others. At
    this time, there are still plenty of things about
    CBD that we dont know for sure, but we
    understand more about how cannabis and marijuana
    work than we ever have before. In this article,
    Ill give you an in-depth look at everything we
    currently know about CBD.

Where Does It Come From?
  • CBD occurs naturally in marijuana and hemp. Both
    of these plants are cannabis, but they
    have different chemical makeups. Hemp has a THC
    content of less than 0.3, while marijuana
    contains anywhere from 5-35. While CBD is found
    in both types of cannabis, it matters which one
    the CBD is extracted from. Extract from marijuana
    often contains small amounts of THC possibly
    enough that the user could experience some of the
    psychoactive effects. The extracted from hemp
    contains no THC, so medical users who have no
    desire to experience any psychoactive effects
    should seek out the hemp-derived extracts.

How Does CBD Affect the Body?
  • CBD takes effect by interacting with the
    cannabinoid system, but its relationship to the
    human body is a bit more complex than other
    cannabinoids. The endocannabinoid system
    contains the CB1 and CB2 receptors that
    cannabinoids bind to. CB1 receptors are found in
    skeletal muscle, the liver, the GI tract, the
    pancreatic islet, throughout the peripheral
    nervous system, and all throughout the brain. CB2
    receptors are mainly found throughout the immune
    system, though some are also present in the
    brains reward regions.
  • Interestingly, CBD has a very low affinity for
    both types of cannabinoid receptor. This means
    that while it does bind to the CB receptors, it
    doesnt do so as regularly as other cannabinoids,
    such as THC. CBDs effects are indirect, but

  • The dictionary definition of an agonist is a
    substance which initiates a physiological
    response when combined with a receptor. An
    antagonist is defined as a substance that
    interferes with or inhibits the physiological
    action of another. THC is an agonist of the
    bodys cannabinoid receptors, and it produces its
    effect by binding with the CB1 receptor. CBD has
    a low binding affinity for both CB1 and CB2
    receptors. Instead it acts as an antagonist of
    THC, as well as several other cannabinoids.

  • For anyone who wants to experience the
    psychoactive effects of THC, this may sound like
    a mark against CBD. If CBD interferes with or
    inhibits the physiological action of THC, the
    THC wont have as significant an effect. Right?
    Actually, no. Studies have shown that CBD does
    not reduce THCs effect, and may actually
    intensify it. However, CBD has been shown to
    reduce THCs less pleasant side effects, such as
    a fuzzy short-term memory and occasional anxiety

  • CBDs interactions with cannabinoid receptors
    (and with other compounds that want to bind with
    those same receptors) explain some of the
    compounds effects, but not all of them. As of
    2019, science is still unsure about all of CBDs
    mechanisms of action, but it is theorized that
    CBD interacts with additional biological targets
    beyond CB receptors, such as other
    neurotransmitter receptors. For example, CBD is a
    known agonist of a subtype (5-HT1a) of serotonin
    receptors, which play an important role in
    regulating moods.

  • This may explain the calming, soothing effects
    that CBD users report. CBD also affects opioid
    receptors, which may explain the compounds role
    in managing pain. There are also other less
    studied receptors, such as GPR55, that could play
    an important role in how the body responds to
    CBD. In any case, its clear that CBD has a
    complex relationship with the human body. As
    research continues, we will eventually develop a
    clearer understanding of how the compound works,
    as well as what it can be used for.

Methods of Ingestion
  • Because cannabinoid receptors are scattered all
    throughout the body, there are many ways to
    ingest or absorb CBD. CBD-containing cannabis can
    be consumed by smoking or vaporizing.
    Alternatively, extracted CBD can be taken orally,
    applied topically, or sprayed into the mouth as
    an aerosol. Inhaled, CBD absorbs rapidly, and
    effects are almost immediate. It takes longer for
    the body to absorb CBD that is eaten or
    swallowed, and the body doesnt process it quite
    as efficiently. Taken sublingually, the CBD is
    absorbed more quickly through the mucus membranes
    in the mouth. When it is applied topically, CBD
    never reaches the bloodstream like it does via
    the other methods. The skin can absorb CBD, but
    it absorbs quite slowly, so youll need to apply
    the product liberally. Still, for many localized
    health issues such as soreness, scarring, or
    inflammation, a topical application may still be
    the best choice.

Medical Uses of CBD
  • CBD came into the limelight a few years ago when
    a strain of cannabis originally called Hippies
    Disappointment due to its low THC content
    appeared on CNN in 2013. This strain was created
    by crossbreeding another cannabis strain with
    industrial hemp, creating a plant with a very
    high CBD content, but containing very little THC.
    The strain was later renamed Charlottes Web
    after a young girl named Charlotte Figi.

  • You may have heard her story before. Charlotte is
    an American girl who suffers from Dravet
    syndrome, a severe type of epilepsy. By the time
    Charlotte was three years old, she was
    experiencing around 300 grand mal seizures per
    week. According to her parents, Charlottes
    condition improved immediately and dramatically
    when she began using marijuana. She uses the
    high-CBD extract taken from the Charlottes Web
    strain orally, dissolved in olive oil. After two
    years of this treatment, she was down to just
    four seizures per month, and is now able to live
    a much more normal life.

  • Currently, there is only one FDA-approved
    CBD-based medication on the market. Its called
    Epidiolex, and is used orally to treat Dravet
    syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, both of
    which are forms of epilepsy. Epidiolex has been
    shown to be effective for treating these
    syndromes. However, studies involving THC have
    shown that when used on mice, the psychoactive
    compound actually increased sensitivity to
    convulsions. So, its important to separate the
    CBD from the rest of the cannabis plant (or use
    low-THC strains) when it comes to this type of
    treatment. And, of course, its important to
    consult with a doctor before beginning any new

  • There is a lot of anecdotal evidence that
    suggests that CBD may help with other afflictions
    as well, although many claims have yet to be
    thoroughly tested in a laboratory setting.
    Doctors prescribe medical marijuana for a wide
    range of conditions, such as Alzheimers
    disease, eating disorders or loss of appetite,
    cancer, Crohns disease, glaucoma, multiple
    sclerosis, all types of pain, and some mental
    health conditions.

Potential Beneficial Effects of CBD Use
  • CBD is currently being studied in a clinical
    setting with hopes that it can help with anxiety,
    cognition, pain management, and more. The
    endocannabinoid system helps regulate many of the
    bodys functions. So, it makes sense that CBD and
    other cannabinoids could be used to positively
    effect the body in a number of ways, even if we
    arent completely sure what all of those ways are

  • Regardless of what uses scientists find for CBD,
    theyve already gathered plenty of data
    about CBDs effects. CBD increases the brains
    levels of adenosine, a substance that is
    naturally produced by the body and helps with
    neuroprotection and reducing inflammation in the
    case of trauma to the head or brain. CBD is a
    vasodilator, and it also lowers blood pressure,
    so it may prove useful as a protective measure
    against brain and blood vessel damage potentially
    caused by a stroke.

  • CBD has been shown to help shorten and soften
    symptoms of anxiety, depression, and psychosis,
    and seems to enhance synaptic plasticity (which
    is what keeps your brain adaptable) and increase
    neurogenesis (the process by which your brain
    forms new neurons).
  • I mentioned previously that medical marijuana is
    often prescribed to cancer patients. This is
    often primarily so that the patient can take
    advantage of cannabis appetite-enhancing and
    pain management effects. However, cannabinoids
    have also been shown to reduce the speed at which
    tumors grow.

  • The compound also shows promise as a treatment
    for post-traumatic stress disorder. One of PTSDs
    most common symptoms is chronic anxiety, which
    gets worse in stressful environments. CBDs
    anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) effects can decrease
    the intensity of this anxiety, which can make the
    disorder more manageable and allow PTSD sufferers
    to move back toward normalcy more quickly. In
    2008, scientists proposed that certain chronic
    health problems might be caused by an underlying
    deficiency in certain endocannabinoids. If that
    turns out to be the case, cannabis-sourced
    phytocannabinoids (cannabinoids that come from
    plants) like CBD could be used like vitamins to
    replace the endocannabinoids that we lack.

  • The endocannabinoid system is spread throughout
    almost the entirety of the human body. Given its
    the ability to increase bonding of cannabinoids
    to CB receptors and to counteract the
    cannabinoids that reduce CB receptors ability to
    function efficiently, it seems plausible that CBD
    could provide a whole host of benefits. We
    certainly dont know everything yet. But, if
    current trends in research continue, it wont be
    too much longer before we have a near-complete

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