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This presentation contains relevant points for UNIT-II-RESEARCH APTITUDE & Previously asked questions and explained answers in a capsular form.Aspirants can freely download them. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 18 May 2020
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Provided by: dasiah
Why and how: This presentation of mine aims to help the junior lecturers and post graduate students from arts and science colleges and education colleges to understand the concepts easily and get through in this exam easily and meritoriously.Previous year questions well-discussed.


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  • M.Sc (Maths),M.A.(Eng).M.Ed, M.Sc(Psy)MBANETSLE
    T P.hD
  • dasjesu6_at_gmail.com
  • 09489485809

  • What Is Research?
  • Research simply seeks the answer of certain
    questions which have not been answered so far.
  • A good research leads to progress in some
    field of life.
  • It Is the process of arriving at dependable
    solution to a problem through systematic
  • Research is a systematic and scholarly
    application of the scientific method Mouly

  • Qn1
  • The research is always -
  • (A) verifying the old knowledge
  • (B) exploring new knowledge
  • (C) filling the gap between knowledge
  • (D) all of these (NET-JUNE-2008)

  • Research is born out of human curiosity.
  • Educational research is the study and
    investigation in the field of education
  • Research in education by teachers is important
    because it enables them to make best possible
    judgment about what should be taught and how.
  • Educational research implies Reflective thinking.

  • Qn 2
  • Research is
  • (A) Searching again and again
  • (B) Finding solution to any problem
  • (C) Working in a scientific way to search for
    truth of any problem
  • (D) None of the above
  • (According to the scholars, the definition of
    Research is this
  • the systematic investigation into and study
    of materials and sources in order to establish
    facts and reach new conclusions.

  • Qn3
  • Which is the main objective of research ?
  • (A) To review the literature
  • (B) To summarize what is already known
  • (C) To get an academic degree
  • (D) To discover new facts or to make fresh
    interpretation of known facts
  • (NET-Qn)

  • Qn4
  • A common test in research demands much priority
  • (A) Reliability
  • (B) Useability
  • (C) Objectivity
  • (D) All of the above
  • (NET-JUNE-2010)

  • Qn 5
  • Which of the following is the first step in
    starting the research process?
  • (A) Searching sources of information to locate
  • (B) Survey of related literature
  • (C) Identification of problem
  • (D) Searching for solutions to the problem

  • (NET-JUNE-2010)
  • Steps of the research process
  • Step 1 Identify the Problem
  • Step 2 Review the Literature
  • Step 3 Clarify the Problem
  • Step 4 Clearly Define Terms and Concepts
  • Step 5 Define the Population
  • Step 6 Develop the Instrumentation Plan
  • Step 7 Collect Data
  • Step 8 Analyze the Data.

  • The functions of educational research includes
    improving educational procedures through the
    refinement of knowledge, Improving the students
    learning and solving classroom problems.
  • Educational research is based on Sound
    philosophy, Insight, Imagination.
  • Educational research usually employs Inductive
    reasoning, Deductive reasoning.

  • Purpose of Research
  • The main purpose of research is the
    transmission(passing on to others) of knowledge,
    advancement of knowledge, presentation of
  • The application objective of research is
    Improvement and modification(Change) in practice.
  • Theoretical objective of research is formulation
    of new theories, principles and laws

  • Characteristics of Research
  • Empirical Research is based on direct
    experience or observation by the researcher.
  • Logical Research is based on valid procedures
    and principles
  • Cyclical Research starts with a problem and
    ends with a problem
  • Analytical Research utilizes proven analytical
    procedures in gathering data, whether historical,
    descriptive,experimental and case study.

  • Critical Research exhibits careful and precise
  • Methodical Research is conducted in a
    methodical manner without bias using systematic
    method and procedure.
  • Replication(Repetition) Research design and
    procedures are repeated to enable the researcher
    to arrive at valid and conclusive results.

  • Qualities of a Good Researcher
  • He should be
  • Research-oriented
  • Efficient
  • Scientific
  • Effective
  • Active
  • Resourceful
  • Creative
  • Honest
  • Economical
  • Religious

  • Characteristics of the Researchers
  • Intellectual Curiosity Researcher undertakes
    deep thinking and inquiry of the things,
    problems and situations around him
  • Prudence Researcher is careful to conduct his
    study at the right time and at the right place
    wisely, efficiently and economically.
  • 3. Healthy Criticism Researcher is always
    doubtful as to the truthfulness of the results
  • Intellectual Honesty Researcher is honest to
    collect or gather the data or facts in order to
    arrive at honest results.
  • Intellectual creativity
  • An intelligent,creative researcher enjoys
    inventing unique,novel and original researches
    and considers research as his hobby. Creative
    researcher is innovative.

  • Qn6
  • Identify the correct order of the following
    components which are interrelated in research.
  • (i) Observation
  • (ii) Hypothesis making
  • (iii) Developing concepts
  • (iv) Deducing the consequences of theories
  • (v) Methods employed to obtain them
  • Choose the correct answer from the code given
  • Code
  • (1) (v), (iv), (iii), (ii) and (i)
  • (2) (i), (iii), (ii), (iv) and (v)
  • (3) (ii), (iii), (i), (iv) and (v)
  • (4) (iv), (v), (iii), (ii) and (i)

  • Qn7
  • One of the following is not a quality of
    researcher (NET-DEC-2005)
  • (A) Unison with that of which he is in search
  • (B) He must be of alert mind
  • (C) Keenness in enquiry
  • (D) His assertion to outstrip the evidence
  • (Researchers should be honest and objective with
    regard to their findings. There should not be any
    bias or personal likes and dislikes in their

  • Qn8
  • The important pre-requisites of a researcher in
    sciences, social sciences and humanities are
  • (A) laboratory skills, records, supervisor, topic
  • (B) Supervisor, topic, critical analysis,
  • (C) archives, supervisor, topic, flexibility in
  • (D) topic, supervisor, good temperament,
    pre-conceived notions
  • (Researchers need to get guidnce from supervisor
    for everything in research )

  • Qn 9
  • Which of the following options are the main tasks
    of research in modern society?
  • (I) to keep pace with the advancement in
  • (II) to discover new things.
  • (III) to write a critique on the earlier
  • (IV) to systematically examine and critically
    analyze the investigations/sources with
  • (A) IV, II and I
  • (B) I, II and III
  • (C) I and III
  • (D) II, III and IV (NET-JUNE-2006)
  • (Option iii will not become the characteristic of

  • Qn10
  • Seeing a very big rally it was reported that
    DMK will win the election, the conclusion was
    based on
  • a. random sampling
  • b. cluster sampling
  • c. systematic sampling
  • d. purposive sampling
  • (In cluster sampling, the researcher divides the
    population into separate groups, called clusters.
  • Then a simple random sample of clusters
    is selected from the population.
  • The researcher conducts his analysis on data
    from the sampled clusters.)

  • What impels man to do researches?
  • While there are mans major needs and problems,
    he indulges in researches .
  • These needs and problems include
  • How to reduce his burden of work
  • How to relieve suffering
  • How to increase satisfaction in fulfilling his
    needs, cravings and aspirations.

  • What are values/merits/utility of research to
  • 1. Research improves quality of life
  • It has led man to search for ways and means
    for improving things that he loves and finds
  • 2.Research improves Instruction
  • Modern education focuses on innovations
    in teaching-learning process and is very much
    concerned about Rational thinking, Right conduct
    and Research in all educational disciplines.

  • 3.Research improves students achievement
  • Students will achieve more if a modern teacher
    is research-oriented and updates himself on
    issues and trends about the modern methods and
    strategies in teaching.
  • 4.Research improves teachers competence
  • A research oriented teacher can improve his
    competence by learning new methods and
    strategies, models which are the fruits of
    research. Students will be enriched because of
    his expertise.

  • 5. Research satisfies mans needs and reduces the
    burden of work
  • Modern facilities that satisfy mans needs are
    all products of research. Also because of
    researches, all complexities in life are much
  • 6. Research has deep-seated psychological benefit
    to man
  • It challenges him to lead an active life in a
    productive manner and contributes to his
    satisfaction and self-fulfilment.

  • Qn11
  • Research can be conducted by a person who
  • (A) has studied research methodology
  • (B) holds a postgraduate degree
  • (C) possesses thinking and reasoning ability
  • (D) is a hard worker
  • ( Before entering into research process, a
    researcher should be well-versed in theoretical
    aspects of reserch)

  • Qn12
  • Which of the following is NOT the characteristic
    of a research?
  • (A) Research is systematic
  • (B) Research is not a process
  • (C) Research is problem oriented
  • (D) Research is not passive
  • (NET-JUNE-2004)

  • Qn13
  • Which of the following statement is correct?
  • (A) Discoveries are researches
  • (B) Researches lead to discovery
  • (C) Invention and Research are related
  • (D) None of the above (NET-JUNE-2004)

  • Qn14
  • Which of the following provides more latitude to
    the researcher for creative expression ?
  • (1) Thesis writing
  • (2) Writing of a research article
  • (3) Presentation of a conference paper
  • (4) Preparing a research synopsis
  • (NET-JUNE-2018)

  • Qn15
  • Artifacts that arise and affect the internal
    validity in research are
  • (a) History
  • (b) Randomization
  • (c) Maturity
  • (d) Instrumentation
  • (e) Experimental mortality
  • (f) Matching
  • 1. (a), (b), (c) and (d)
  • 2. (b), (c), (d) and (f)
  • 3. (a), (c), (d) and (e)
  • 4. (d), (e), (f) and (b) (NET-DEC-2018)

  • According to Scholars,Artifacts are factors that
    covary with the treatment and the outcome.
    Campbell and Stanley identify several artifacts.
  • The major threats to internal validity are
    history, maturation, testing, instrumentation,
    statistical regression, selection, experimental
    mortality, and selection-history interactions.

  • Qn16
  • In the list given below, identify those
    statements which correctly describe the meaning
    and characteristics of research.
  • (i) Research is a method of improving our common
  • (ii) Deductive and inductive methods get
    integrated in a research process.
  • (iii) Research is creativity and charisma.
  • (iv) Research is the use of scientific method to
    provide answers to meaningful questions.
  • (v) Method of consulting and using experience is
    called research.
  • (vi) The answers provided by research can be
    empirically verified.
  • Choose the correct answer from the code given
  • Code
  • (1) (ii), (iv) and (vi)
  • (2) (i), (ii) and (iii)
  • (3) (iv), (v) and (vi)
  • (4) (i), (iii) and (v)

  • There are many kinds of classification of
  • research which are classified according
  • to their distinctive features.
  • Some of the Classifications are as follows
  • 1. According to Purpose
  • 2. According to Goal
  • 3. According to the Levels of Investigation
  • 4. According to the type of Analysis
  • 5. According to Scope
  • 6. According to the Choice of Answers to Problems
  • 7. According to Statistical Content
  • 8. According to Time Element

  • 1. According to Purpose
  • a. Predictive or Prognostic research It has
    the purpose to determine the future operation of
    the variables under investigation with the aim of
    controlling or redirecting such for the better.
  • b. Directive research It determines what
    should be done based on the findings.
  • c. Illuminative research It is concerned with
    the interaction of the components of the variable
    being investigated

  • 2. According to Goal
  • a.Basic or Pure Research
  • It is done for the development of theories
    and principles. It is conducted for intellectual
    pleasure of learning.
  • b.Applied Research
  • the application of pure research. This is
    testing the efficiency of theories and
  • principles.

  • Qn17
  • Jean Piaget gave a theory of cognitive
    development of humans on the basis of his
  • (A) Evaluation Research
  • (B) Fundamental Research
  • (C) Applied Research
  • (D) Action Research
  • (NET-DEC-2015)

  • 3. According to the Level of Investigation
  • a.Exploratory Research
  • The researcher studies the variables pertinent to
    a specific situation.
  • b.Descriptive Research
  • The researcher studies the relationships of the
  • c. Experimental Research
  • The researcher studies the effects of the
    variables on each other.

  • 4. According to the Types of Analysis
  • a.Analytic Approach in Research
  • The researcher attempts to identify and isolate
    the components of the research situation.(Analysis
    means separating the whole into parts and
  • b.Holistic Approach in Research
  • It begins with the total situation, focusing
    attention on the system first and on its internal

  • 5. Research according to Scope
  • Action Research
  • This involves the application of the steps of the
    scientific method in the classroom problems.
  • This type of research is done on a very limited
    scope to solve a particular problem which is not
    so big.
  • For an example, The teachers conducting Action
    research on the immediate problem in the
    classroom Most of the students in the class
    make spelling errors in English

  • Action Research
  • The concept of Action research is based on Modern
    Human Organization theory.
  • Modern Human Organization theory on which
    Action Research is based is Task centred,
    Relationship centred.
  • Stephen M Corey is associated with Action
  • Action research has the limitation of No
  • Action research is a Scientific procedure,
    Process for studying practical problem.
  • Action research does not contribute to the fund
    of knowledge

  • Qn18
  • Action research means
  • (A) A longitudinal research
  • (B) An applied research
  • (C) A research initiated to solve an immediate
  • (D) A research with socioeconomic objective
  • (NET-JUNE-2010)
  • Example Daily late comers in the class

  • 6. Researches according to Choice of Answers to
  • a.Evaluation research
  • All possible courses of action are specified and
    identified by the researcher.
  • b.Developmental research
  • The focus is on finding or developing a more
    suitable instrument or process than has been

  • 7. Researches according to Statistical Content
  • a.Quantitative or Statistical Research
  • In this research,inferential statistics are
    utilized to determine the results of the study.
  • b.Non-quantitative Research (Qualitative
  • This is research in which the use of the
    quantity or statistics is practically not

  • Qn19
  • In qualitative research paradigm, which of the
    following features may be considered critical?
  • (A) Data collection with standardised research
  • (B) Sampling design with probability sample
  • (C) Data collection with bottom-up empirical
  • (D) Data gathering to take with top-down
    systematic evidences. (NET-JULY-2016)
  • (Quality research is research in which the use
    of the quantity or statistics is practically not
    utilized. In the above options,standardized
    research techniques,probability sample
    techniques,systematic evidences are all

  • 8. Researches according to Time Element
  • a.Historical research
  • Historical research describes what was.
  • b.Descriptive research
  • Descriptive research describes what is.
  • c. Experimental research
  • Experimental research describes what will be.

  • Qn20
  • Field study is related to
  • a. real life situations
  • b. experimental situations
  • c. laboratory situations
  • d. none of the above
  • (Field studies involve collecting data outside of
    an experimental or laboratory setting. This type
    of data collection is done in natural settings /

  • Qn21
  • The research which is exploring new facts
    through the study of the past is called
  • (A) Philosophical research
  • (B) Historical research
  • (C) Mythological research
  • (D) Content analysis (NET-JUNE-2009)
  • (Historical research is a qualitative technique.
  •  Historical research studies the meaning of past
    events in an attempt to interpret the facts and
    explain the cause of events, and their effect in
    the present events.)

  • Qn22
  • Books and records are the primary sources of
    data in
  • (A) historical research
  • (B) participatory research
  • (C) clinical research
  • (D) laboratory research
  • ( Primary sources include diaries,personal
    journals,government records,court
    records,property records, newspaper articles and
    many other things.
  • Secondary source is a typical history book that
    discusses a person,event or other historical
    topic )

  • Qn 23
  • The conclusions/findings of which type of
    research cannot be generalized to other
  • (A) Causal Comparative Research
  • (B) Historical Research
  • (C) Descriptive Research
  • (D) Experimental Research

  • (NET-JUNE-2015)
  • ( Historical research is concerned about WHAT
    WAS. -Past)

  • Qn24
  • Which of the following is not the Method of
    Research ?
  • (A) Observation
  • (B) Historical
  • (C) Survey
  • (D) Philosophical
  • (Observation is only a tool of research)

  • Qn25
  • Research can be classified as
  • (A) Basic, Applied and Action Research
  • (B) Quantitative and Qualitative Research
  • (C) Philosophical, Historical, Survey and
    Experimental Research
  • (D) All the above
  • (Classification of Research by Purpose - Basic
    v/s Applied research - Research and development -
    Evaluative research
  • Classification of Research by Method - Historical
    research - Descriptive research - Experimental
    research )

  • Qn26
  • The first step of research is
  • (A) Selecting a problem
  • (B) Searching a problem
  • (C) Finding a problem
  • (D) Identifying a problem
  • (Searching a problem first is the first step in

  • Qn27
  • Studying the social status of a population a
    researcher conducted that Mr. Y is socially
    backward. His conclusion is
  • a. wrong
  • b. biased
  • c. inaccurate
  • d. right
  • (Such type of studies are always comparative in
    nature. He should say that Mr. Y is socially or
    economically backward as compared to Mr. X.)

  • Qn28
  • A research problem is feasible only when
  • a) it has utility and relevance
  • b) it is new and adds something to knowledge
  • c) it is researchable
  • d) all of these

  • Expost facto study
  • In this the investigators attempts to trace an
    effect which has already occurred to its probable
  • The effect becomes the dependent variable and the
    probable causes become the independent variable.
  • The investigator has no direct control over such

  • Qn29
  • In the two lists given below, List I
    provides the types of research methods, while
    List II indicates the critical features
    associated with them. Match the two lists and
    choose the correct answer from the code given
  • List I (Research methods)

  • List II (Critical features)
  • (a) Ex-post facto method

  • (i) Finding out the status based on a

  • study of a large sample
  • (b) Case study method

  • (ii) Interpretation of thoughts of a great
  • (c) Philosophical method

  • (iii) Intervention based ameliorative
  • (d) Descriptive survey method

  • (iv) Causal comparison and correlational

  • (v) In-depth study of a unit specified for the
  • Code
  • (a)        (b)        (c)        (d)

  • Qn 30
  • Ex Post Facto research means
  • (A) The research is carried out after the
  • (B) The research is carried out prior to the
  • (C) The research is carried out along with the
    happening of an incident.
  • (D) The research is carried out keeping in mind
    the possibilities of an incident

  • Qn31
  • A research intends to explore the effect of
    possible factors for the organization of
    effective mid-day meal interventions. Which
    research method will be most appropriate for this
  • (A) Historical method
  • (B) Descriptive survey method
  • (C) Experimental method
  • (D) Ex-post-facto method

  • (NET-JULY-2016)

  • Survey research
  • It is a technique where, the investigator or
    researcher studies the whole population with
    respect to certain sociological and psychological
  • Depending upon the ways of collecting data,
    survey research can be classified into different
    categories, namely, personal interview,
    questionnaire, panel technique and telephone
    survey etc.

  • Fundamental or pure or basic research
  • A fundamental research is the formal and
    systematic process where the researchers aim is
    to develop a theory or a model by identifying all
    the important variables in the situation.
  • Areas of fundamental research
  • Educational values, role of heredity
    environment, aims of education, stages of
    development, role of activity in learning,
    curriculum motivation, reinforcement, concept

  • Qn32
  • Newton gave three basic laws of motion. This
    research is categorized as
  • (A) Descriptive Research
  • (B) Sample Survey
  • (C) Fundamental Research
  • (D) Applied Research
  • (NET-Qn)

  • Applied research
  • Applied research, applies the theory or model
    developed by theories but tests those existing
    theories in actual problem situations.
  • Topics included in applied research
  • Effect of various devices in learning
  • Use of text books
  • Day to day testing
  • Improvement in examinations
  • Parental co-operation
  • Library facilities
  • Laboratory facilities etc.

  • Qn 33
  • If a researcher conducts a research on finding
    out which administrative style contributes more
    to institutional effectiveness? This will be an
    example of
  • (A) Basic Research
  • (B) Action Research
  • (C) Applied Research
  • (D) None of the above (NET-DEC-2010)
  • (Various models, principles of administrative
    style will be analysed for solving this research
    problem. Hence Applied research)

  • Action research
  • Action research is a process for by
    practitioners studying problems scientifically to
    take decisions for improving their current
    practices according to Stephen M Corey
  • For immediate application (eg. Class
  • Not for the development of broad theories and

  • QN34
  • Action-research is (NET-JUNE-2009)
  • (A) An applied research
  • (B) A research carried out to solve immediate
  • (C) A longitudinal research
  • (D) All the above
  • (Longitudinal studies differ from
     cross-sectional, studies. The main difference is
    that cross-sectional studies interview a fresh
    sample of people each time they are carried out,
    whereas longitudinal studies follow the same
    sample of people over time perhaps for many

  • Qn.35
  • The research that aims at immediate application
  • (A) Action Research
  • (B) Empirical Research
  • (C) Conceptual Research
  • (D) Fundamental Research

  • Descriptive research
  • describes records, anaylzes, and interprets the
    conditions that exist,
  • practices that prevail,
  • beliefs, points of views or attitudes that are
  • processes that are going on,
  • effects that are being felt,
  • trends that are developing .

  • Experimental research
  • Experimental research describes what will be when
    certain variables are carefully controlled or
  • The focus is on variable relationship.
  • Deliberate manipulation is always a part of
    experimental method.

  • Qn 36
  • Controlled group condition is applied in
  • (A) Survey Research
  • (B) Historical Research
  • (C) Experimental Research
  • (D) Descriptive Research

  • Qn37
  • The research that applies the laws at the time
    of field study to draw more and more clear ideas
    about the problem is
  • (A) Applied research
  • (B) Action research
  • (C) Experimental research
  • (D) None of these

  • Qn 38
  • Which one of the following is not a type of
    experimental method ?
  • (A) Single group experiment
  • (B) Residual group experiment
  • (C) Parallel group experiment
  • (D) Rational group experiment
  • (NET-Qn)

  • Qn39
  • A doctor studies the relative effectiveness of
    two drugs of dengue fever. His research would be
    classified as
  • (A) Descriptive Survey
  • (B) Experimental Research
  • (C) Case Study
  • (D) Ethnography
  • (It is a research method that describes the
    characteristics of the population without
    focusing on why a certain phenomenon occurs.)

  • Descriptive survey method
  • It is a research method that describes the
    characteristics of the population without
    focusing on why a certain phenomenon occurs.
  • Case studies research aim to analyze specific
    issues within the boundaries of a specific
    environment, situation or organization.  Example
    Impact of increasing levels of multiculturalism
    on marketing practices A case study of KFCs
  • Ethnographic research is a qualitative method wher
    e researchers observe and/or interact with
    a study's participants in their real-life
    environment. Ethnography was popularised by

  • Field experiments
  • It is a study carried out in a more or less
    realistic situation or field where the
    experimenter successfully manipulates one or more
    independent variables under the maximum possible
    controlled conditions.
  • Field study It is a study which systematically
    discovers relations and interactions among
    variables in real life situations such as school,
    factory, community college etc.

  • Operation research
  • Operation research is the Application of
    mathematical, logical and analytical techniques
    aimed at the solutions of business problems of
    cost minimization or of profit maximization.

  • Qn 40
  • Fundamental research reflects the ability to
  • (A) Synthesize new ideals
  • (B) Expound new principles
  • (C) Evaluate the existing material concerning
  • (D) Study the existing literature regarding
    various topics
  • (Fundamental research, also known as basic
    research or pure research does not usually
    generate findings that have immediate
    applications in a practical level.
  • Fundamental researches mainly aim to answer the
    questions of why, what or how and they tend to
    contribute the pool of fundamental knowledge in
    the research area. Principles,models etc.)

  • Qn41
  • The study in which the investigators attempt to
    trace an effect is known as
  • (A) Survey Research
  • (B) Ex-post Facto Research
  • (C) Historical Research
  • (D) Summative Research
  • (An ex post facto research design is a method in
    which groups with qualities that already exist
    are compared on some dependent variable.
  • For example, a researcher is interested in how
    weight influences self-esteem levels in adults.)

  • Qn42
  • Generalised conclusion on the basis of a sample
    is technically known as
  • (A) Data analysis and interpretation
  • (B) Parameter inference
  • (C) Statistical inference
  • (D) All of the above
  • (Statistical inference is the process of using
    data analysis to deduce properties of an
    underlying distribution of probability.
    Inferential statistical analysis infers
    properties of a population, for example by
    testing hypotheses and deriving estimates.) 

  • Qn43
  • Which technique is generally followed when the
    population is finite?
  • (A) Area Sampling Technique
  • (B) Purposive Sampling Technique
  • (C) Systematic Sampling Technique
  • (D) None of the above
  • (Systematic sampling is a probability sampling
    method in which sample members from a larger
    population are selected according to
    a random starting point but with a fixed,
    periodic interval.
  • This interval, called the sampling interval, is
    calculated by dividing the population size by the
    desired sample size )

  • Qn44
  • Research problem is selected from the stand point
  • (A) Researchers interest
  • (B) Financial support
  • (C) Social relevance
  • (D) Availability of relevant literature
  • (The chief motivation in the way of selecting
    research problem is the personal inclination of
    the researcher.
  • If a researcher has personal interest in the
    topic, he would select that problem for
    his research work.
  • During the selection, a researcher will see to
    the resources available.)

  • Qn45
  • The experimental study is based on
  • (A) The manipulation of variables
  • (B) Conceptual parameters
  • (C) Replication of research
  • (D) Survey of literature
  • (Experimental research is a scientific approach
    to research, where one or more independent
    variables are manipulated and applied to one or
    more dependent variables to measure their effect
    on the latter.)

  • Qn46
  • The process not needed in Experimental
    Researches is
  • (A) Observation
  • (B) Manipulation
  • (C) Controlling
  • (D) Content Analysis
  • (The experimental method is a systematic and
    scientific approach to research. In this, the
    researcher manipulates one or more variables, and
    controls and measures any change in other

  • Qn47
  • An example of scientific knowledge is
  • a) authority of the Prophet or
  • great men
  • b) social traditions and customs
  • c) religious scriptures
  • d) laboratory and field experiments

  • Qn48
  • Which one is called non-probability sampling?
  • (A) Cluster sampling
  • (B) Quota sampling
  • (C) Systematic sampling
  • (D) Stratified random sampling
  • (Non-probability sampling is defined as
    a sampling technique in which the researcher
    selects samples based on the subjective judgment
    of the researcher rather than random selection.
  • It is carried out by observation,
    and researchers use it widely qualitative research

  • Qn 49
  • The main characteristic of scientific research
  • (A) empirical
  • (B) theoretical
  • (C) experimental
  • (D) all of the above
  • Experimental research is a scientific approach
    to research, where one or more independent
    variables are manipulated and applied to one or
    more dependent variables to measure their effect
    on the latter.

  • Qn50
  • Authenticity of a research finding is its
  • (A) Originality
  • (B) Validity
  • (C) Objectivity
  • (D) All of the above (NET-JUNE-2007)
  • (In terms of research, objectivity means
    eliminating a bias.
  • There is a truth behind the research in which
    researchers goal is to uncover.
  • In order to obtain accurate and reliable results,
    you must remain objective, and focus on carrying
    out his studies without manipulating his methods
    to find a specific outcome.)

  • Qn51
  • Formulation of hypothesis may NOT be required
  • (A) Survey method
  • (B) Historical studies
  • (C) Experimental studies
  • (D) Normative studies
  • (The hypotheses for historical research may not
    be formal hypotheses to be tested.
  • They are written as explicit statements that
    tentatively explain the occurrence of events and
  • Although hypotheses are not always explicitly
    stated in historical investigations they are
    usually implied.)

  • Qn52
  • Field-work based research is classified as
  • (A) Empirical
  • (B) Historical
  • (C) Experimental
  • (D) Biographical
  • (Participant observation, data collection,
    and survey research are examples of field
    research methods, in contrast to what is often
    called experimental or lab research.)

  • Qn 53
  • The basis on which assumptions are formulated
  • (A) Cultural background of the country
  • (B) Universities
  • (C) Specific characteristics of the castes
  • (D) All of these

  • Qn54
  • Match List A with List B and choose the correct
    answer from the code given below
  • List A
    List B
  • (a) Historical Method (i) Past events
  • (b) Survey Method (ii) Vision
  • (c) Philosophical Method (iii) Present
  • (d) Experimental Method (iv) Exceptional
  • (v)
    Future action
  • Code
  • a) (b) (c) (d)
  • (A) (i) (iii) (ii) (v)
  • (B) (i) (ii) (iv) (v)
  • (C) (i) (iv) (ii) (v)
  • (D) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (NET-JUNE-2004)

  • Qn55
  • Which of the following is not the critical
    feature of qualitative research ?
  • (A) Actual settings are the direct source of
  • (B) Data take the forms of words or pictures.
  • (C) Seeking to establish relationships among
    measured social facts.
  • (D) Researcher becomes immersed in the situation,
    present or past related to the phenomena.

  • Steps of the research process
  • Step 1 Identify the Problem. ...
  • Step 2 Review the Literature. ...
  • Step 3 Clarify the Problem. ...
  • Step 4 Clearly Define Terms and Concepts. ...
  • Step 5 Define the Population. ...
  • Step 6 Develop the Instrumentation Plan. ...
  • Step 7 Collect Data. ...
  • Step 8 Analyze the Data.

  • Qn56
  • In a Ph.D. thesis which one is the correct
    sequence for showing scheme of Chapterisation ?
  • (A) Survey of related studies, Introduction,
    Design of the study, Data-Analysis and
    interpretation, Conclusions and generalisations,
    suggested further study, References, Appendix
  • (B) Introduction, Design of study, Data Analysis
    and Interpretation, Generalizations, Conclusions
    and Survey of related studies and suggestions for
    further research, References and Appendix
  • (C) Introduction, Survey of related studies,
    Design of study, Data-presentation analysis
    Interpretation, Formulation of generalization
    Conclusions, Suggestions for further research,
    References Appendix
  • (D) Survey of related studies, References,
    Introduction, Design of study, Data analysis and
    interpretation, Conclusions and
    generalizations,Suggestions for further research,

  • Qn57
  • Which of the following statements is correct ?
  • (A) Objectives of research are stated in first
    chapter of the thesis
  • (B) Researcher must possess analytical ability
  • (C) Variability is the source of problem
  • (D) All the above (NET-DEC-2006)
  • (An important use of statistics is to measure
    variability or the spread of data. For example,
    two measures of variability are the standard
    deviation and the range.
  • The standard deviation measures the spread of
    data from the mean or the average score. )

  • Qn58
  • Which of the following is an initial mandatory
    requirement for pursuing research?
  • (A) Developing a research design
  • (B) Formulating a research question
  • (C) Deciding about the data analysis procedure
  • (D) Formulating a research hypothesis

  • (NET-JULY-2016)

  • Qn59
  • The format of thesis writing is the same as in
  • (A) preparation of a research paper/article
  • (B) writing of seminar presentation
  • (C) a research dissertation
  • (D) presenting a workshop/conference paper

  • (NET-JULY-2016)

  • Qn60
  • Which of the following sampling method is
    appropriate to study the prevalence of AIDS
    amongst male and female in India in 1976, 1986,
    1996 and 2006 ?
  • (A) Cluster sampling
  • (B) Systematic sampling
  • (C) Quota sampling
  • (D) Stratified random sampling

  • (NET-Qn)

  • 1. Selecting the research area.
  • Research candidates are expected to state that
    they have selected the research  area due to
    professional and personal interests in the area
    and this statement must be true.
  • The selection of a research problem requires
    Identification, Defining, Delimiting.
  • A research work is made feasible by Identifying
  • The major source of selecting a problem is the
    Review of related literature

  • The main criterion of good research problem It
    should be new or novel, sample subjects are
    approachable, measuring tools available.
  • Problem is delimited with regard to Population,
    Variable/Tool, Method/Technique.
  • The most important criteria of a good problem is
    its Feasiblility.

  • 2. Formulating research aim,objectives and
    research questions or developing hypotheses.
  • Appropriate research aims and objectives or
    hypotheses usually result from several attempts
    and revisions and these need to be mentioned in
    Methodology chapter.
  • It is critically important to get their research
    questions or hypotheses confirmed by their
    supervisor before moving forward with the work.

  • Hypotheses serve the purpose of Providing
    direction and making the researcher sensitized.
  • Is socio-political ecology responsible for
    teaching ineffectiveness is an example of
    Question form Hypothesis
  • It gives directions to research
  • It prevents blind research
  • It gives clear and specific goals
  • It links related facts
  • It serves as a frame work for drawing conclusions
  • Research hypothesis is Positive.
  • There is a difference between the levels of
    intelligence of boys and girls is an example of
    Research Hypothesis.

  • Qn61
  • A good hypothesis should be
  • a. precise, specific and consistent with most
    known facts
  • b. formulated in such a way that it can be
    tested by the data
  • c. of limited scope and should not have global
  • d. all of these
  • (The hypothesis is a testable prediction about
    what will happen. A good hypothesis is written in
    clear and simple language.) 

  • Qn62
  • Hypothesis cannot be stated in
  • a) null and question form
  • terms
  • b) declarative terms
  • c) general terms
  • d) directional terms

  • Qn63
  • A null hypothesis is
  • (A) when there is no difference between the
  • (B) the same as research hypothesis
  • (C) subjective in nature
  • (D) when there is difference between the
  • (A null hypothesis is a type of hypothesis used
    in statistics that says that no statistical
    significance exists in a set of given
  • The null hypothesis attempts to show that no
    variation exists between variables or that a
    single variable is no different than its mean.)

  • Qn 64
  • A working hypothesis is
  • (A) a proven hypothesis for an argument.
  • (B) not required to be tested
  • (C) a provisionally accepted hypothesis for
    further research
  • (D) a scientific theory

  • (NET-DEC-2013)

  • Qn65
  • Which of the following statements is true in the
    context of the testing of a hypothesis?
  • (A) It is only the alternative hypothesis, that
    can be tested.
  • (B) It is only the null hypothesis, that can be
  • (C) Both, the alternative and the null hypotheses
    can be tested.
  • (D) Both, the alternative and the null hypotheses
    cannot be tested.

  • Forms of Hypotheses
  • Is socio-political ecology responsible for
    teaching ineffectiveness is an example of
    Question form Hypothesis
  • Research hypothesis is Positive.
  • There is a difference between the levels of
    intelligence of boys and girls is an example of
    Research Hypothesis
  • There is a significant difference between the
    achievement in mathematics of boys and girls is
    a Non Directional hypothesis.
  • The achievement in mathematics of boys is higher
    to that girls in example of Directional

  • 3. Conducting the literature review
  • Literature review is usually the longest stage in
    the research process.
  • Actually, the literature review starts even
    before the formulation of research aims and
    objective because the researchers have to check
    if exactly the same research problem has been
    addressed before.
  • Nevertheless, the main part of the literature
    review is conducted after the formulation of
    research aim and objectives.(The first chapter)
  • Researchers have to use a wide range
    of secondary data sources such as books,
    newspapers, magazines, journals, online articles

  • 4. Selecting methods of data collection
  •  Data collection methods need to be selected on
    the basis of critically analyzing advantages and
    disadvantages associated with several alternative
    data collection methods.
  • In studies involving primary data collection,
    in-depth discussions of advantages and
    disadvantages of selected primary data collection
    method(s) need to be included in methodology.

  • 5. Collecting the primary data
  • Primary data collection needs to be preceded by a
    great level of preparation and pilot data
    collection may be required in case of
    questionnaire. (giving the questionnaire to a
    small group and assess the questionnaire as to
    its validity,reliability etc)
  • Primary data collection is not a compulsory stage
    for all dissertations and Researchers will skip
    this stage if they are conducting a desk-based

  • 6. Data analysis. 
  • Analysis of data plays an important role in the
    achievement of research aim and objectives.
  • Data analysis methods vary between secondary and
    primary studies, as well as, between qualitative
    and quantitative studies.

  • 7. Reaching conclusions.
  • Conclusions relate to the level of achievement of
    research aims and objectives.
  • In this final part of the dissertation, the
    scholars will have to justify why they think that
    research aims and objectives have been achieved.
  • Conclusions also need to cover research
    limitations  and suggestions for future research.

  • 8. Completing the research.
  • Following all of the stages described above, and
    organizing separate chapters into one file leads
    to the completion of the first draft.
  • The first draft of the dissertation needs to be
    prepared at least one month before the submission
  • This is because researchers will need to have
    sufficient amount of time to address feedback of
    their supervisor.

  • Qn66
  • Formulation of a research problem depends on
  • (a) What is the object behind the researchers
  • (b) What are the specific questions?
  • (c) What is the conceptual model?
  • (d) What negative factors to research upon?
  • (e) Reasons for unlimiting the study.
  • (f) Construction of hypotheses.
  • 1. (a), (c), (e) and (f)
  • 2. (c), (d), (e) and (f)
  • 3. (b), (c), (d) and (e)
  • 4. (a), (b), (c) and (f) (NET-DEC-2018)

  • Qn67
  • The components of a research design are
  • (a) Comparison
  • (b) Control
  • (c) Reactivity
  • (d) Manipulation
  • (e) Non representativeness
  • (f) Generalization
  • 1. (c), (d), (e) and (f)
  • 2. (a), (c), (e) and (f)
  • 3. (b), (c), (d) and (e)
  • 4. (a), (b), (d) and (f) (NET-Qn)
  • (The options a,b,d and f are the components of
    experimental research design)

  • Qn68
  • The four major operations in scientific research
  • (a) Demonstration of co-variance
  • (b) Elimination of spurious relations
  • (c) Sequencing in terms of time order
  • (d) Self-education
  • (e) Operationalization of personal choice
  • (f) Theorization
  • Codes
  • 1. (a), (b), (c) and (d)
  • 2. (c), (d), (e) and (f)
  • 3. (a), (b), (c) and (f)
  • 4. (b), (c), (d) and (e)

  • Qn69
  • Which of the following statement is correct?
  • (A) In research, objectives can be worded in
    question form
  • (B) In research, objectives can be worded in
    statement form
  • (C) Objectives are to be stated in Chapter I of
    the Thesis
  • (D) All the above (NET-JUNE-2004)

  • Qn70
  • A research problem is feasible only when
  • (A) it has utility and relevance
  • (B) it is researchable
  • (C) it is new and adds something to knowledge
  • (D) all the above
  • (A research problem is a statement about an area
    of concern, a condition to be improved, a
    difficulty to be eliminated, or a
    troubling question that exists in scholarly
    literature, in theory, or in practice that points
    to the need for meaningful understanding and
    deliberate investigation.)

  • Qn71
  • When a research problem is related to
    heterogeneous population, the most suitable
    sampling method is
  • (A) Cluster Sampling
  • (B) Stratified Sampling
  • (C) Convenient Sampling
  • (D) Lottery Method

  • Qn72
  • To test null hypothesis, a researcher uses
  • (A) t test
  • (B) ANOVA
  • (C) x 2
  • (D) factorial analysis

  • Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a collection of
    statistical models used to analyze the
    differences among group means and their
    associated procedures (such as "variation" among
    and between groups), developed by statistician
    and evolutionary biologist Ronald Fisher.
  • In the ANOVA setting, the observed variance in a
    particular variable is partitioned into
    components attributable to different sources of

  • In its simplest form, ANOVA provides a
    statistical test of whether or not the means of
    several groups are equal, and therefore
    generalizes the t-test to more than two groups.
  • ANOVAs are useful for comparing (testing) three
    or more means (groups or variables) for
    statistical significance.
  • It is conceptually similar to multiple two-sample
    t-tests, but is less conservative (results in
    less type I error) and is therefore suited to a
    wide range of practical problems.

  • Explanation
  • A hypothesis is a speculation or theory based on
    insufficient evidence that lends itself to
    further testing and experimentation. With further
  • a hypothesis can usually be proven true or false.
  • A null hypothesis is a hypothesis that says there
    is no statistical significance between the two
    variables in the hypothesis. It is the hypothesis
  • the researcher is trying to disprove.
  • An alternative hypothesis simply is the inverse,
    or opposite, of the null hypothesis.
  • Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a collection of
    statistical models used to analyze the
    differences among group means and their
  • procedures (such as "variation" among and between
    groups), developed by statistician and
    evolutionary biologist Ronald Fisher.

  • Ethics is the study of proper action
  • Research ethics concerns the responsibility of
  • researchers to be honest and respectful to
  • individuals who may be affected by their
  • research studies or their reports of the
  • studies results .
  • Ethics principles for guiding decision making
    and reconciling conflicting values

  • Why is Research Ethics Important?
  • It is a reflection of respect for those who
    take part in research
  • It ensures that no unreasonable, unsafe or
    thoughtless demands are made by researchers
  • It ensures sufficient knowledge is shared by all

  • Definition
  • Research ethics refers to a diverse set of
    values, norms and institutional regulations that
    help constitute and regulate scientific activity.
  • Research Ethics is a world-wide set of principles
    governing the way any research involving
    interaction between the researcher and other

  • Principles of Research Ethics
  • i) Honesty Honestly report data, results,
    methods and procedures, and publication status.
  • Objectivity This means that once the research
    begins, researchers should not let their personal
    values influence the collection and analysis of
    data,and they should not hide or alter research
    findings for their own beliefs or expectations.
  • Integrity Research integrity is the active
    adherence (following) to the ethical principles
    and standards essential for the responsible
    practice of research.
  • Ethical principles such as honesty, the
    golden rule, trustworthiness, and high regard for
    the scientific record.

  • iv ) Carefulness  in research
  • Researchers need to avoid careless errors and
    negligence They should carefully and critically
    examine their own work and the work of your
    peers.Also they should Keep good records
    of research activities, such as data
    collection, research design, and correspondence
    with agencies or journals.
  • v ) Openness in research
  • This refers to the principle of freedom of
    access by all interested persons to the
    underlying data, to the processes, and to the
    final results of research.

  • vi) Respect for Intellectual Property
  • Intellectual property is protected by laws,
    including patents, copyright, trademarks and
    trade secret laws.
  •  Intellectual property is defined as any work
    that is creative and includes inventions,
    literary works, images, and symbols.

  • vii )Confidentiality in research
  • The easiest way to protect confidentiality is to
    collect anonymous data. Anonymous data are data
    that are not connected to information that can
    identify the individual participant.
  • viii )Responsible Publication in research
  • Publication is the final stage of research and
    therefore a responsibility for all researchers is
    a must.
  • The researchers need to keep in mind the
    international standards of research and they
    should indulge in  responsible research reporting

  • Research ethics is important for a number of
  • They promote the aims of research, such as
    expanding knowledge.
  • They support the values required for
    collaborative work, such as mutual respect and
  • This is essential because scientific
    research depends on collaboration
    between researchers and groups

  • What are the FIVE codes of RESEARCH ethics?
  • i.Integrity.
  • ii.Objectivity.
  • iii.Professional competence.
  • iv.Confidentiality.
  • v.Professional behaviour.

  • Qn73
  • From the following list of statements identify
    the set which has negative implications for
    research ethics
  • (i) A researcher critically looks at the findings
    of another research.
  • (ii) Related studies are cited without proper
  • (iii) Research findings are made the basis for
    policy making.
  • (iv) Conduct of practitioner is screened in terms
    of reported research evidences.
  • (v) A research study is replicated with a view to
    verify the evidences from other researches.
  • (vi) Both policy making and policy implementing
    processes are regulated in terms of preliminary
  • Codes
  • (A) (i), (ii) and (iii)
  • (B) (ii), (iii) and (iv)
  • (C) (ii), (iv) and (vi)
  • (D) (i), (iii) and (v)

  • Qn74
  • Research is not considered ethical if it
  • (A) tries to prove a particular point.
  • (B) does not ensure privacy and anonymity of the
  • (C) does not investigate the data scientifically.
  • (D) is not of a very high standard.

  • (NET-Qn)

  • Qn 75
  • Which one of the following belongs to the
    category of good 'research ethics?
  • (A) Publishing the same paper in two research
    journals without telling the editors.
  • (B) Conducting a review of the literature that
    acknowledges the contributions of other people in
    the relevant field or relevant prior work.
  • (C) Trimming outliers from a data set without
    discussing your reasons, in a research paper.
  • (D) Including a colleague as an author on a
    research paper in return for a favour even though
    the colleague did not make a serious contribution
    to the paper.(Net-June-2013)

  • Qn 76
  • Research ethics do not include
  • (A) Honesty
  • (B) Subjectivity
  • (C) Integrity
  • (D) Objectivity
  • (NET-JUNE-2012)

  • Qn77
  • A researcher uses parametric test in lieu of
    non-parametric test for analysis and
    interpretation of results. This may be described
    as a case of
  • (1) Unethical research practice
  • (2) Malpractice in reporting of results
  • (3) Technical lapse in handling data
  • (4) Manipulation of research results

  • (NET-JUNE-2018)

  • Qn78
  • Good research ethics means
  • (A) Not disclosing the holdings of shares/stocks
    in a company that sponsors your research.
  • (B) Assigning a particular research problem to
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