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Pharmaceutical Packaging Material

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The pharmaceutical packaging is essential and sensitive to outside elements like moisture and light. It protects from physical, chemical and biological damage. To protect drug from these outside element’s right selection of the packaging material is also essential. Different packaging material used for packing a particular drug depending on its requirement to protect from any damage. The presentation provides brief concept on the materials used for the primary packaging of pharmaceutical drugs. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Pharmaceutical Packaging Material


1
Pharmaceutical Primary Packaging
Materials
Waseem Ahmed
Pharmaceutical Packaging Professional
aqwaseem_at_hotmail.com https//www.linkedin.com/in/a
qwaseem/
2
CONTENTS
  • What is PACKAGING
  • Characteristic of PACKAGING
  • The Role of PACKAGING
  • Levels of PACKAGING
  • Types of PACKAGING
  • Types of Material for PACKAGING

3
What is Packaging?
The PACKAGING refers to all those activities
related to designing, evaluating and producing
the container for a product. Simply, PACKAGING is
to store and protect product from any physical
damage and at the same time attracting the
customer through its appeal is called as
PACKAGIGN.
4
Charecteristic of Packaging
Keeping the contents clean, fresh, sterile and
safe for the intended shelf life is a primary
function.
Physical protection Among other things, mechanical shock, vibration, electrostatic discharge, compression, temperature
Barrier protection Barrier from oxygen, water vapor, dust, etc.
Containment or agglomeration Small objects are typically grouped together in one package for reasons of efficiency.
Information transmission Communicate how to use, transport, recycle, or dispose of the package or product
Marketing Can be used by marketers to encourage potential buyers to purchase the product
Security Can play an important role in reducing the security risks against counterfeit
Convenience Can have features that add convenience in distribution, handling, stacking, display, sale, opening, reclosing, use, dispensing, and reuse
Portion control Precise amount of contents to control usage
Physical protection Barrier protection Containment
or agglomeration Information transmission Marketi
ng Security Convenience Portion control
5
The Role of Packaging
Packaging is an integral part of pharmaceutical
product
  • Protection
  • Against light
  • Against reactive gases
  • Against moisture
  • Against microbes
  • Against physical damage
  • Against pilferage and adulteration
  • Presentation
  • Identification
  • Information
  • Compatible
  • Convenience

6
Levels of Packaging
Primary Packaging
Tertiary Packaging
Secondary Packaging
The material that first envelops the product and
holds it. This is the smallest unit of
distribution or use and is the package which is
in direct contact with the contents.
Used for bulk handling, warehouse storage and
transport shipping.
Outside the primary packaging used to group
primary packages together.
Primary Packaging Secondary Packaging Tertiary
Packaging
7
Levels of Packaging
Multidose / Re-closeables
Bulk
Unit Dose/Non-re-closeables
Bottles Drums/Kegs Sacks/Bags
Bottles Aerosol packs Tubes
Ampoules, Blister packs Prefilled syringes,
Vials Sachets Form/Blow-Fill-Seal (FFS, BFS) -
Various pack formats
8
Types of Material for Packaging
Jars, Syringe, Stoppers, Ampoules, Bottles,
Vials, Cartridges, Dropper, Aerosol container,
Tubes
Tubes, Blister strip packs, Sachets
Tubes, Blister strip packs, Sachets,
Bottles, Stopper, Caps Covers, Pumps,
Childproof Closures
Closures Seals
9
Types of Material for Packaging
  • Glass widely used as a drug packaging material
    for many pharmaceuticals' products including
    medicinal products for oral and local
    administration.
  • Glass containers are usually the ?rst choice
    (e.g. bottles for tablets, injection syringes for
    unit- or multi-dose administration).
  • Different types of glass may be necessary,
    depending on the characteristics and the intended
    use of the medicinal products.
  • What is glass composition?
  • Glass is a hard material normally fragile and
    transparent common in our daily life. It is
    composed mainly of sand (silicates, SiO2) and an
    alkali.
  • GLASS Composition
  • Silica (SiO2) 59-75
  • Calcium oxide (CaO) 5-12
  • Sodium oxide (Na2O) 12-17
  • Alumina (Al2O3) 0.5-3.0
  • Other oxide
  • Barium oxide (BaO)
  • Boric oxide (B2O2)
  • Potassium oxdie (K2O)
  • Magnesium oxide (MgO)

10
Types of Material for Packaging
  • Properties of Glass
  • Solid and hard material
  • Disordered and amorphous structure
  • Fragile and easily breakable into sharp pieces
  • Transparent to visible light
  • Inert and biologically inactive material
  • Glass is 100 recyclable
  • 0ne of the safest packaging materials due to its
    composition and properties
  • Glass does not deteriorate, corrode, stain or
    fade and therefore is one of the safest packaging
    materials.
  • These properties can be modified and changed by
    adding other compounds or heat treatment.

11
Types of Material for Packaging
  • Advantages of Glass
  • They are transparent and allows easy inspection
    of the contents inside.
  • They have good protection power.
  • They can be easily labeled.
  • They are available in different shapes and sizes.
  • Disadvantages of Glass
  • Glass is fragile so easily broken.
  • Release alkali to aqueous preparation.
  • Glass is expensive when compared to plastic
    packing material.

12
Types of Material for Packaging
  • Except for type I glass containers, glass
    containers for pharmaceutical preparation are not
    to be re-used.
  • Containers for human blood and blood components
    must not be re-used.

Types of Glass
Type I Glass Borosilicate glass / Neutral glass (contains 80 silica, 10 boric oxide, small amount of sodium oxide and aluminium oxide) It is highly resistant glass. It has high melting point. It is more chemically inert than the soda lime glass. Reduce leaching action. Laboratory glass apparatus. Can be used to contain strong acids and alkalis. Suitable for parenteral or non-parenteral.
Type II Glass Soda-lime-silica glass/ treated soda-lime glass/ De alkalized soda lime glass This is a modified type of Type III glass container with a high hydrolytic resistance resulting from suitable treatment of the inner surface of a type III glass with sulphur. This is done to remove leachable oxides and thus prevents blooming/weathering from bottles. Type II glass has lower melting point when compared to Type I glass and so easier to mould. They are suitable for most acidic and neutral aqueous preparations whether parenteral or non-parenteral.
Type III Glass Regular soda lime glass This is an untreated soda lime glass with average chemical resistance. It contains 75 silica, 15 sodium oxide, 10 calcium oxide, small amounts of aluminium oxide, magnesium oxide, and potassium oxide. Aluminium oxide impacts chemical durability while magnesium oxide reduces the temperature required during moulding. They are used as packaging material for parenteral products or  powders for parenteral use ONLY WHERE there is suitable stability test data indicating that Type III glass is satisfactory. They used in packaging non-aqueous preparations and powders for parenteral use with the exception of freeze-dried preparations It is also used in packaging non-parenteral preparations.
Type IV Glass Type NP glass/General-purpose soda lime glass This type of glass container has low hydrolytic resistance. This type of glass containers are not used for products that need to be autoclaved as it will increase erosion reaction rate of the glass container. It is used to store topical products and oral dosage forms
13
Types of Material for Packaging
Process of Forming Glass Containers
Glass containers are formed through the following
methods Blowing  this involves the use of
compressed air to form the molten glass in the
cavity of a mold. Drawing  this involves the
pulling of molten glass through dies that shape
the soft glass into ampoules, vials
etc. Pressing  The glass is formed by the use
of mechanical force which presses or forces the
molten glass against the ride of a
mold. Casting the force of gravity or
centrifugal force is used to initiate the
formation of molten glass in the cavity.
14
Types of Material for Packaging
Examples - Glass
For filling syrups, oral liquid For filling
vitamins and nutritional supplements that come in
a form of a pill, a tablet or a capsule. Glass
Dropper Bottles are suitable for packing
tinctures, oils and oral liquid preparations as
well as other pharmaceutical liquids.
Flint and amber glass ampoules. Straight-stem,
funnel-type and closed ampoules. Various brake
systems such as OPC (One Point Cut), CBR (Color
Break Ring) and Score Ring.
The Dropper Bottles are a smoked glass bottle
with a black bulb and cap, containing a clear
pipette.
15
Types of Material for Packaging
  • A plastic is a material that contains an
    essential ingredient one or more polymeric
    organic substances of large molecular weight.
  • Plastic containers for pharmaceutical products
    are primarily made from the following polymers
    polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride,
    polystyrene, and to a lesser extent, polymethyl
    methacrylate, polyethylene terephthalate,
    polytrifluoroethylene, the amino formaldehydes,
    and polyamides.
  • Plastic containers consist of one or more
    polymers together with certain additives.
  • The amount and nature of the additives are
    determined by the nature of the polymer, the
    process used to convert the plastic into the
    containers, and the service expected from the
    container.
  • For plastic containers in general, additives may
    consist of antioxidants, antistatic agents,
    colours, impact modifiers, lubricants,
    plasticizers, and stabilizers.

16
Types of Material for Packaging
  • Properties of Glass
  • Low in cost
  • Light in weight
  • Durable
  • Pleasant to touch
  • Flexible facilitating product dispensing
  • Odourless and inert to most chemicals
  • Unbreakable
  • Leak proof
  • Able to retain their shape throughout their use.
  • They have a unique 'suck-back' feature, which
    prevents product doze.
  • Disadvantages of Glass
  • Poor physical stability (interaction, adsorption,
    absorption lightness)
  • Permeable to some degree to moisture, oxygen,
    carbon dioxide etc.
  • electrostatic attraction
  • Stress cracking
  • Panelling or cavitation
  • Crazing
  • Poor impact resistance
  • Factors responsible for plastics properties
  • Chemical structure
  • Molecular weight
  • Crystallinity and orientation
  • Cross-linking
  • Addition of other agents

17
Types of Material for Packaging
  • Orientation
  • The alignment of crystalline structure in
    polymeric materials to produce a highly aligned
    molecular structure.
  • Materials are stretched just below or above their
    softening point.
  • Depending on the degree of orientation,
    significant changes can occur in both the
    physical chemical properties.
  • Improving clarity
  • Reducing to moisture gas permeation
  • Improving chemical resistant
  • Chemical Structure
  • Linear polymer chain
  • Branched polymer chain
  • Crystallinity and orientation Crystallinity
  • Orderly compact structure of the molecular chain
  • Polymer chain may twist, and tangled formation
    given an amorphous type polymer

18
Types of Material for Packaging
  • Drug Plastic Considerations
  • A packaging system must protect the drug without
    altering the composition of the product until the
    last dose is removed.
  • Drug plastic consideration have been divided into
    five categories.
  • Important problems
  • Sorption
  • Desorption (Leaching)
  • Permeation
  • Photo degradation
  • Polymer Modification

19
Types of Material for Packaging
20
Types of Material for Packaging
Forms of Plastic
Amorphous Plastic Crystalline Plastic
They give good transparency. Hard but posses little brittleness. More permeable to gases and vapour. Less inert. They are opaque in nature. They are more flexible. They are less permeable to gases and vapour. More Inert.
21
Types of Material for Packaging
22
Types of Material for Packaging
  • Plastic used for Pharmaceutical Products are
    primarily made form the following polymers
  • Polyethylene
  • Polypropylene
  • Poly Vinyl Chloride
  • Poly vinylidene chloride (PVdC)
  • Polystyrene
  • Polymethyl Methacrylate
  • Amino Formaldehyde
  • Poly Carbonate
  • Ionomer
  • Polymonochlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE)

23
Types of Material for Packaging
Polyethylene
1. Low density polyethylene (LDPE) branched chain2. High density polyethylene (HDPE) linear chain
High density polyethylene (HDPE) Characteristics Low cost Moderately flexible Stiffer and has better barrier properties Chemical resistant Poor clarity Translucent in natural start and can be tinted with any opaque colour Odourless and tasteless Advantages Low cost Good moisture barrier Not attack by most solvent Disadvantage Poor barrier for oxygen and other gases Orders and flavours are sometime lost Perfume or flavouring oil can transpire rapidly Stress-crack in the presence of some products
Applications For thin-wall blow moulded containers Injection moulding of closures Industrial and consumer bags and thermoformed trays Applications For thin-wall blow moulded containers Injection moulding of closures Industrial and consumer bags and thermoformed trays Applications For thin-wall blow moulded containers Injection moulding of closures Industrial and consumer bags and thermoformed trays
24
Types of Material for Packaging
Polyethylene
1. Low density polyethylene (LDPE) branched chain2. High density polyethylene (HDPE) linear chain
Low density polyethylene (LDPE) Characteristics Odourless and tasteless Easily blended with copolymers. Highly resistant to most solvents Poor barrier for gases Softening temperature is around 110 150 oC Easily pigmented Good Transparency Translucent Advantages Low cost Flexible Light weight Moisture barrier Tough Chemical resistant Heat sealable Disadvantage Prone to stress cracking in the presence of surfactants, vegetable or mineral oils. May have problem with flavour or odors.
Applications Used in squeezable bottles and tubes. Injection moulding of closures Industrial and consumer bags and thermoformed trays Applications Used in squeezable bottles and tubes. Injection moulding of closures Industrial and consumer bags and thermoformed trays Applications Used in squeezable bottles and tubes. Injection moulding of closures Industrial and consumer bags and thermoformed trays
25
Types of Material for Packaging
Polypropylene (PP) Polypropylene (PP)
Characteristics It has good resistance to cracking when flexed. Lighter, much stiffer and more heat resistant than HDPE Same chemical resistance properties to oil and gases as HDPE Can be sterilized with steam and ethylene oxide, but not radiation, unless modified PP are used. Biaxial orientation PP (BOPP) will improve its clarity. High melting point 170 oC.
Characteristics It has good resistance to cracking when flexed. Lighter, much stiffer and more heat resistant than HDPE Same chemical resistance properties to oil and gases as HDPE Can be sterilized with steam and ethylene oxide, but not radiation, unless modified PP are used. Biaxial orientation PP (BOPP) will improve its clarity. High melting point 170 oC. Advantages Low cost Light weight Less shrinkage Disadvantage Low impact strength
Applications Suitable for use in closures, tablet containers and intravenous bottles Used wildly for solid dosage products. Also used for squeeze bottles, tubes and syringes. Widely used for ophthalmic preparation. Applications Suitable for use in closures, tablet containers and intravenous bottles Used wildly for solid dosage products. Also used for squeeze bottles, tubes and syringes. Widely used for ophthalmic preparation. Applications Suitable for use in closures, tablet containers and intravenous bottles Used wildly for solid dosage products. Also used for squeeze bottles, tubes and syringes. Widely used for ophthalmic preparation.
26
Types of Material for Packaging
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
Characteristics Used as rigid packaging material. PVC is naturally clear, have extremely good resistance to oils, and have very low oxygen transmission. Plasticized PVC reduces chemical resistant and increases gas and moisture permeation Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) - Factors to consider when PVC is uses for pharmaceutical- Stabilizers Plasticizer - Monomer residue - Modifiers Lubricants - Catalytic residue
Characteristics Used as rigid packaging material. PVC is naturally clear, have extremely good resistance to oils, and have very low oxygen transmission. Plasticized PVC reduces chemical resistant and increases gas and moisture permeation Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) - Factors to consider when PVC is uses for pharmaceutical- Stabilizers Plasticizer - Monomer residue - Modifiers Lubricants - Catalytic residue Advantages Inexpensive Rigid or tough Transparent Disadvantage Change colour to yellow when exposed to heat or UV light Scratches are visible Corrosive when overheated
Applications Used as rigid packaging material and main component of intravenous bags. Blister packaging for pharmaceuticals Applications Used as rigid packaging material and main component of intravenous bags. Blister packaging for pharmaceuticals Applications Used as rigid packaging material and main component of intravenous bags. Blister packaging for pharmaceuticals
27
Types of Material for Packaging
Poly vinylidene chloride (PVdC) Poly vinylidene chloride (PVdC)
Characteristics Trade name Saran Copolymer of vinyl chloride or vinyl acetate and vinylidene chloride Excellent resistance to permeation by moisture UV light, aroma, inorganic acids, alkalis, aqueous salt solutions, organic water-soluble acids, aliphatic hydrocarbons, esters of long chain fatty acids, and gas. Good thermoforming. Medical grade and non-toxic. High level of transparency which improves the aesthetic of the product.
Characteristics Trade name Saran Copolymer of vinyl chloride or vinyl acetate and vinylidene chloride Excellent resistance to permeation by moisture UV light, aroma, inorganic acids, alkalis, aqueous salt solutions, organic water-soluble acids, aliphatic hydrocarbons, esters of long chain fatty acids, and gas. Good thermoforming. Medical grade and non-toxic. High level of transparency which improves the aesthetic of the product. Advantages Inexpensive Rigid or tough Transparent Disadvantage Change colour to yellow when exposed to heat or UV light Scratches are visible Corrosive when overheated
Applications Most widely used as a coating of Rigid PVC barrier films Applications Most widely used as a coating of Rigid PVC barrier films Applications Most widely used as a coating of Rigid PVC barrier films
28
Types of Material for Packaging
Polystyrene (PS)
Characteristics PS has relative low heat resistance and is attacked by several chemical agents. Conventional grade clear crystal grade, lack of impact strength. Impact-modified graded copolymerized with acrylonitrile and butadiene, poor optical properties. Easily molded into any shape.
Characteristics PS has relative low heat resistance and is attacked by several chemical agents. Conventional grade clear crystal grade, lack of impact strength. Impact-modified graded copolymerized with acrylonitrile and butadiene, poor optical properties. Easily molded into any shape. Advantages Clear and light weight Economical Easily molded into any shape, metallized and hot-stamping. Disadvantage May shrink, change colour in sunlight. Craze and become cloudy
Applications It is used for jars ointments and cream with low water content. Also used to manufacture syringes. Applications It is used for jars ointments and cream with low water content. Also used to manufacture syringes. Applications It is used for jars ointments and cream with low water content. Also used to manufacture syringes.
29
Types of Material for Packaging
Polycarbonates
Characteristics PC are formed by condensation of polyphenols such as bisphenol-A with phosgene. PC are transparent thermoplastics with high strength and high temperatures resistance. Good clarity, impact strength, ductility and low controllable mold shrinkage. Sterilizable and tolerates gamma radiation. Expensive, their use is limited to specialty application.
Characteristics PC are formed by condensation of polyphenols such as bisphenol-A with phosgene. PC are transparent thermoplastics with high strength and high temperatures resistance. Good clarity, impact strength, ductility and low controllable mold shrinkage. Sterilizable and tolerates gamma radiation. Expensive, their use is limited to specialty application. Advantages Excellent clarity and high softening temperature. Dimensionally stable and processable Odorless and non-staining Disadvantage Expensive High permeation of moisture and gases Sensitive to Oxygen and CO2
Applications Used in the preparation of surgical instruments. Applications Used in the preparation of surgical instruments. Applications Used in the preparation of surgical instruments.
30
Types of Material for Packaging
Ionomer
Characteristics Ionomer are sodium or zinc salts of ethylene/ methacrylic acid copolymers. Ionomer are used as an inner ply in laminates, offering god heat sealing (even when the seal area is contaminated by liquid or powder) over a wide temperature range. Clear , semiflexible, tough materials with good abrasion resistance.
Manufacturers Dow SK Global Chemical Ineos ExxonMobil Entec Lyondellbasell Characteristics Ionomer are sodium or zinc salts of ethylene/ methacrylic acid copolymers. Ionomer are used as an inner ply in laminates, offering god heat sealing (even when the seal area is contaminated by liquid or powder) over a wide temperature range. Clear , semiflexible, tough materials with good abrasion resistance. Advantages excellent adhesion to aluminium and other polar substrates Disadvantage Expensive
Applications Valued in sachet and pouch packs. Applications Valued in sachet and pouch packs. Applications Valued in sachet and pouch packs.
31
Types of Material for Packaging
Polymonochlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE) Polymonochlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE)
Characteristics Extremely low transmission of moisture. Transparent, and can be heat sealed, laminated, printed, thermoformed, metallized. Because it is the most expensive plastic used in the pharmaceutical industry, it is employed only where the most demanding barrier properties are required. Heat resistance is up to 175 C
Characteristics Extremely low transmission of moisture. Transparent, and can be heat sealed, laminated, printed, thermoformed, metallized. Because it is the most expensive plastic used in the pharmaceutical industry, it is employed only where the most demanding barrier properties are required. Heat resistance is up to 175 C Advantages Excellent water repulsion and chemical stability Disadvantage Expensive
Applications Laminated PCTFE (Aclar)/PVC sheet is used widely in thermoformed blister pack for moisture-sensitive solid dosage form. Applications Laminated PCTFE (Aclar)/PVC sheet is used widely in thermoformed blister pack for moisture-sensitive solid dosage form. Applications Laminated PCTFE (Aclar)/PVC sheet is used widely in thermoformed blister pack for moisture-sensitive solid dosage form.
32
Types of Material for Packaging
  • Advantages of Plastic
  • Flexible and not easily broken or durable.
  • Low density and light weight
  • Economical
  • Pleasant in touch.
  • Flexible facilitating product dispensing.
  • Odorless and inert to most of the chemicals
  • Disadvantages of Plastic
  • They are not as impermeable to gas and vapor as
    glass
  • They may posses an electrostatic charge which
    will attract particles
  • Used for many types of pack including rigid
    bottles for tablets and capsules, squeezable
    bottles for eye drops and nasal sprays, jars,
    flexible tubes and strip and blister packs.

33
Types of Material for Packaging
  • Rubber is used mainly to manufacture closures for
    vials, transfusion fluid bottles, dropping
    bottles and washer in many other types of
    products.
  • Categories of rubber are NATURAL and SYNTHETIC
    rubbers.
  • NATURAL Rubber suitable for closures for
    injectable products as rubber reseal after
    multiple insertion of needle.
  • SYNTHETIC Rubber have fever additives and thus
    fewer extractable and tends to experience less
    sorption of product ingredients. Not suitable for
    repeated insertion of needle because it fragment
    or pushing small particles of the rubber into the
    product.

34
Types of Material for Packaging
Types of Rubber
Butyl Nitrile Neoprene Silicone
These are copolymers of isobutylene with 1-3 of isoprene or butadiene These are polymers of 14 chloprene
Advantages Resistant to aging and chemical attack Very low permeability to water vapours and air Low water absorption Cheaper compared to other synthetic rubbers. Oil resistant due to polar nitrile group Heat resistant Resistant to oxidation hence these rubbers age well Oil resistant Heat stability is up to 150 oC Less water absorption and permeable than natural rubbers Heat resistant up to 250 oC Extremely low absorption and permeability of water Excellent aging
Disadvantages Decomposition takes place above 130 oC Oil and solvent resistance is not very good Absorption of bactericide and leaching of extractives are considerable Poor tensile strength Expensive
35
Types of Material for Packaging
  • Metals have been the base of packaging industry
    since a long time. Different type and varieties
    of metals are used in the packaging.
  • In packaging the metals used in general are
    Aluminium, Tin, Lead and Stainless steel.
  • Metals have the highest temperature tolerance,
    highest physical strength, most durability,
    excellent light, gas and moisture barrier, and
    stiffness. Some forms of metal packaging also
    have significant operational advantages. For
    example, metal cans can be produced and filled at
    higher speeds than glass or plastic bottles.

36
Types of Material for Packaging
  • Advantages of Metal
  • They are sturdy
  • They are impermeable to light, moisture and gases
  • They can be made into rigid unbreakable
    containers by impact extrusion
  • They are light in weight as compared to glass and
    plastic
  • Labels can print directly on the surface
  • Disadvantages of Metal
  • Metals are expensive
  • They react with certain chemicals/drugs and may
    shed metal particles into the drug

37
Types of Material for Packaging
  • Metal used for Pharmaceutical Products are
  • Aluminum
  • Lead
  • Tin

38
Types of Material for Packaging
Aluminum
Characteristics Aluminium is a very light metal with a specific weight of 2.7 g/cm3, about a third that of steel. Aluminum naturally generates a protective oxide coating and is highly corrasion resistant. Different types of surface treatment such as anodizing, painting or lacquering can further improve this property. Aluminum is a good reflector of light as well as heat, and that together with its low weight, makes it an ideal material for reflector in.
Characteristics Aluminium is a very light metal with a specific weight of 2.7 g/cm3, about a third that of steel. Aluminum naturally generates a protective oxide coating and is highly corrasion resistant. Different types of surface treatment such as anodizing, painting or lacquering can further improve this property. Aluminum is a good reflector of light as well as heat, and that together with its low weight, makes it an ideal material for reflector in. Advantages Impermeable and lets neither light or aroma nor taste substance out. Metal is non-toxic and releases no aroma or taste substance which makes it ideal for packaging sensitive products. 100 recyclable with no downgrading of its qualities. Excellent barrier. Disadvantage Expensive
Applications Aluminum is used in several products in the packaging industry, such as tubes foils, aluminum containers, bottles cans, caps closures, lidding materials, casseroles, etc. Applications Aluminum is used in several products in the packaging industry, such as tubes foils, aluminum containers, bottles cans, caps closures, lidding materials, casseroles, etc. Applications Aluminum is used in several products in the packaging industry, such as tubes foils, aluminum containers, bottles cans, caps closures, lidding materials, casseroles, etc.
39
Types of Material for Packaging
Examples - Aluminum
Tubes
Foils Nylon/Foil Laminates - Paper/Foil
Laminates - Polyester/Foil Laminates - LDPE foils
- PVC-coated Paper - Aluminum foil laminates
Tube laminates - Sachet/pouch laminates - Blister
lidding - Cold formed laminate etc.
40
Types of Material for Packaging
Lead
Characteristics It is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. Lead is soft and malleable and has a relatively low melting point. When freshly cut, lead is silvery with a hint of blue. It tarnishes to a dull gray colour when exposed to air. 
Characteristics It is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. Lead is soft and malleable and has a relatively low melting point. When freshly cut, lead is silvery with a hint of blue. It tarnishes to a dull gray colour when exposed to air.  Advantages Lowest cost of all the metals used in pharmaceutical. Soft Disadvantage Economical When taken internally there is risk of lead poisoning. So lead container and tubes should have internal lining of inert metal or polymer.
Applications With lining lead tubes are used for such product as fluoride toothpaste. Applications With lining lead tubes are used for such product as fluoride toothpaste. Applications With lining lead tubes are used for such product as fluoride toothpaste.
41
Types of Material for Packaging
Tin
Characteristics Tin-free steel and tinplate are commonly used in the packaging industry. Tinplate is a black plate coated with tin. It is produced by tin coating, might or might not be equally on both sides. Tin containers are preferred for food, pharmaceuticals and any product for which purity is considered. Tin is the most chemically inert of collapsible metal tubes.
Characteristics Tin-free steel and tinplate are commonly used in the packaging industry. Tinplate is a black plate coated with tin. It is produced by tin coating, might or might not be equally on both sides. Tin containers are preferred for food, pharmaceuticals and any product for which purity is considered. Tin is the most chemically inert of collapsible metal tubes. Advantages Highly polished Used as protective coat. Disadvantage Expensive
Applications Tin-free steel are generally used for screw lug caps, tops, snap press on closures and shallow drawn food cans. Applications Tin-free steel are generally used for screw lug caps, tops, snap press on closures and shallow drawn food cans. Applications Tin-free steel are generally used for screw lug caps, tops, snap press on closures and shallow drawn food cans.
42
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