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Travel Vaccination Clinics

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Travel Vaccination Clinics are very important and provide some protection. You should still take care with food, drink and personal hygiene when aborad.When you have your check-up at your local surgery, it’s a good idea to review your medical history, present state of health, medications and any allergies. Keep your immunisation certificates (and list of current medication) with your passport for use during your travels and as a record for the future. Know more: – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Travel Vaccination Clinics


1
Travel Vaccination Clinics
2
Travel Vaccination Clinics are very important and
provide some protection. You should still take
care with food, drink and personal hygiene when
aborad. When you have your check-up at your local
surgery, its a good idea to review your medical
history, present state of health, medications and
any allergies. Keep your immunisation
certificates (and list of current medication)
with your passport for use during your travels
and as a record for the future.
www.travel-doc.com
3
Which Travel Vaccination do
you Need?
The vaccinations you need will depend on the
country youre visiting. Your GP or practice
nurse will be able to give you specific,
up-to-date information on the jabs required for
your particular destination.
Diphtheria
Diphtheria is one of the childhood immunisations
in the UK. There have been recent outbreaks in
some parts of the world if youre traveling to
one of these areas, a booster may be recommended.
www.travel-doc.com
4
Yellow Fever
Yellow fever is a viral disease that is caught
from the bite of an infected mosquito. The
disease causes liver damage and leads to
jaundice, hence the yellow in yellow fever.
Vaccination is very effective at reducing the
risk of catching this disease, which can be
fatal. An international certificate for yellow
fever vaccination is required for travel to
several countries in central and west Africa, and
the northern part of South America. The
certificate comes into effect ten days after
vaccination and lasts for ten years. Certificates
after subsequent doses are valid immediately.
Please note that in June 2016, the certificate
become valid LONG-TERM and so the vaccine will
not need to be repeated on a 10-yearly basis as
previously.
www.travel-doc.com
5
Typhoid
Typhoid is caught from contaminated food, drink
or water. A vaccination is recommended for all
destinations apart from northern Europe, North
America, Australia and New Zealand. The vaccines
is a single shot that affords protection for 3
years.
Cholera
An oral vaccine is available in the UK for
travelers to endemic or epidemic areas, where the
risk of cholera is greatest. In most cases, a
cholera vaccination certificate is no longer
required. The vaccine consists of two drinks
(oral vaccination), given 1-6 weeks apart. This
affords protection for 2 years.
www.travel-doc.com
6
Hepatitis A
The hepatitis A virus is present in faeces and
can be spread from person to person, but its
usually caught by consuming contaminated food or
water. Those traveling to places where sanitation
is poor need to be especially aware of the risk
of infection. A vaccination can help to reduce
the risk, but its also vital to be scrupulous
about personal hygiene. Be careful what you eat
and drink, and wash your hands after using the
toilet and before handling or eating food
(including ice). Vaccination consists of two
doses, the second dose being a booster, given
6-12 months after the first. This booster
provides LONG-TERM immunity (at least 25 years).
www.travel-doc.com
7
Malaria
Malaria is transmitted by infected mosquitoes and
is common in many parts of Africa, Asia, Central
and South America. If youre visiting or
traveling through a country where theres a risk
of malaria, preventative measures are essential.
Antimalarial drugs dont prevent infection, but
do inhibit the parasites development. In some
regions, the parasite is resistant to some of the
drugs used. Its therefore essential to get
up-to-date, specific advice about the best
antimalarial drugs for your destination. You
should start taking the tablets one to two weeks
before departure, to ensure theres no adverse
reaction and to establish an adequate level of
protection before exposure.
www.travel-doc.com
8
Tablets must be taken as prescribed while in the
malarial zone and continued for a further four to
six weeks after leaving. Its essential to finish
taking the course of tablets, as the parasite can
live in the body for some time after infection.
Remember, none of these precautions gives
absolute protection against malaria. Its
therefore vital to know the symptoms, so you can
get prompt medical attention should any appear.
Malaria usually starts as a flu-like illness. A
pattern of coldness and shivering, followed by
fever (38C/100F or more), sweating, muscle
aches and headaches must be taken seriously. If
you develop a fever or feel ill while abroad or
up to eight weeks after returning, seek medical
attention immediately. Tell your doctor youve
been in a country where malaria is a health risk.
www.travel-doc.com
9
Hepatitis B
This serious infection of the liver is common in
many parts of the world, especially SE Asia,
where up to 10 of the local population may be
carriers. Its caught via contact with
contaminated blood including sharing needles,
blood transfusions or inadequately sterilised
equipment and intimate sexual contact.
Immunisation is available, especially if theyre
likely to be at increased risk through work or
other activities. Vaccination consists of 3
vaccines given over a period of time (the
shortest being 3 weeks, on days 0,7 and 21).
www.travel-doc.com
10
Japanese Encephalitis
This occurs throughout south-east Asia, mainly in
rural areas and is more likely during the
monsoon/rainy season. It is a mosquito-borne
disease and the mosquito is a daytime biting one.
The disease itself causes inflammation of the
brain (encephalitis) and can lead to brain
damage.A vaccine is available for those who are
traveling to rural areas and those with an
increased risk, for example staying more than two
weeks, being rural and visiting paddy fields or
rice fields, where mosquitoes like to breed. The
vaccination course involves 2 vaccines given 28
days apart, and affords protection for up to 2
years.
www.travel-doc.com
11
Meningitis
Meningococcal meningitis is more common in some
areas of Africa and Asia than in the UK. A
vaccine is available to protect against some
strains (ACWY). Saudi Arabia requires all
pilgrims during the Hajj to be vaccinated against
meningitis ACWY and to have proof of vaccination
in the form of a certificate. The vaccine affords
protection for 5 years.
Polio
Vaccination against poliomyelitis is usually
recommended for all destinations. In the UK, the
vaccine is given as an injection and it comes as
a triple vaccine with tetanus and diptheria too.
Booster doses are recommended every ten years.
www.travel-doc.com
12
Rabies
Rabies occurs throughout the world, with most
deaths taking place in developing countries, such
as those in south-east Asia. In the UK, most
cases occur in quarantined animals and people
infected abroad. Its usually contracted through
being bitten or scratched by an infected mammal,
such as a bat, dog, cat or fox. The incubation
period is normally two to eight weeks, but can be
as long as two years and as short as 1 week. A
vaccine is available to inoculate travelers
against rabies. Each year, 15 MILLION people need
treatment for a suspected rabid exposure
(normally a bite or scratch by a dog), with
around 60,000 deaths per year. SE Asia,
sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America are hot
spots for rabies exposure risk.
www.travel-doc.com
13
The difficulties in accessing post-exposure
treatment (known as Human Rabies Immunoglobulin
(HRIG)) has made the pre-exposure vaccination
even more important. rabies is invariably FATAL,
with less than 10 known survivors in history.
Vaccination consists of 3 vaccines given over 3-4
weeks, and affords protection for 5 years. the
vaccine is not live and does not go into the
stomach. This is often the most important
vaccination consideration for backpackers and
travelers to remote or rural parts of SE Asia,
Africa and South America.
www.travel-doc.com
14
Tick-borne Encephalitis
This disease is caught from the bite of an
infected tick. It occurs in warm, forested parts
of central and eastern Europe and Scandinavia,
especially where theres heavy undergrowth, and
is more common in late spring and summer. This
disease leads to an inflammation of the brain
(encephalitis) and can lead to brain damage.
Those walking or camping in such areas should
wear clothing that covers most of the skin and
use insect repellents. A vaccine is available and
consists of 2 vaccines given three weeks apart
(with a third at 1 year if needed).
www.travel-doc.com
15
Tuberculosis
If you havent been vaccinated against TB and
staying for more than a month in eastern Europe,
Asia, Africa, Central or South America, you
should consider a bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG)
vaccination. Preferably, this should be given at
least two months before departure. This vaccine
is usually administered at the local NHS
hospital. Vaccination isnt necessary for short
visits if youre staying in international-style
hotels. Re-vaccination isnt necessary for those
already vaccinated against TB.
www.travel-doc.com
16
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17
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