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Blood cell disorders by hematologist in Pune at Onco Life Cancer Centre (1)

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A blood cell disorder is a condition in which there's a problem with red blood cells, white blood cells, or the smaller circulating cells called platelets, which are critical for clot formation. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Blood cell disorders by hematologist in Pune at Onco Life Cancer Centre (1)


1
Blood Cell Disorders? A blood cell disorder is a
condition in which there's a problem with red
blood cells, white blood cells, or the smaller
circulating cells called platelets, which are
critical for clot formation. All three cell types
form in the bone marrow, which is the soft
tissue inside the bones. Red blood cells
transport oxygen to the body's organs and
tissues. White blood cells help the body fight
infections. Platelets help the blood to clot.
Blood cell disorders impair the formation and
function of one or more of these types of blood
cells. What are the symptoms of blood cell
disorders? Symptoms will vary depending on the
type of blood cell disorder. Common symptoms of
Red Blood Cell disorders are Fatigue Shortness
of breath Trouble concentrating from lack of
oxygenated blood in the brain Muscle weakness A
fast heartbeat Common symptoms of White Blood
Cell disorders are Chronic infections Fatigue U
nexplained weight loss Malaise, or a general
feeling of being unwell Common symptoms of
Platelet Disorders are Cuts or sores that don't
heal or are slow to heal Blood that doesn't clot
after an injury or cut Skin that bruises
easily Unexplained nosebleeds or bleeding from
the gums There are many types of blood cell
disorders that can greatly affect the overall
health.
Red Blood Cell Disorders
Red blood cell disorders affect the body's red
blood cells. These are cells in the blood that
carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the
body. There are a variety of these disorders,
which can affect both children and adults.
Sickle Cell Anemia
Onco Life Cancer Centre
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Anemia Anemia is one type of red blood cell
disorder. A lack of the mineral iron in the
blood commonly causes this disorder. The Human
body needs iron to produce the protein
hemoglobin, which helps the red blood cells
(RBCs) carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest
of the body. There are many types of anemia. Iron
deficiency anemia Iron deficiency anemia occurs
when body does not have enough iron. One may
feel tired and short of breath because the RBCs
are not carrying enough oxygen to the lungs.
Iron supplementation usually cures this type of
anemia. Pernicious anemia Pernicious anemia is
an autoimmune condition in which human body is
unable to absorb sufficient amounts of vitamin
B-12. This results in a low number of RBCs. It
is called pernicious, meaning dangerous,
because it used to be untreatable and often
fatal. Now, B-12 injections usually cure this
type of anemia. Aplastic anemia Aplastic
anemia is a rare but serious condition in which
the bone marrow stops making enough new blood
cells. It can occur suddenly or slowly, and at
any age. It can leave the feeling of being tired
and unable to fight off infections or
uncontrolled bleeding. Hemolytic anemia Anemia is
a condition in which the body does not have
enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells
provide oxygen to body tissues. Normally, red
blood cells last for about 120 days in the body.
In hemolytic anemia, red blood cells in the blood
are destroyed earlier than normal. Autoimmune
hemolytic anemia (AHA) Autoimmune hemolytic
anemia (AHA) causes the immune system to destroy
red blood cells faster than the body can replace
them. This results in having too few RBCs. Sickle
cell anemia Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a type
of anemia that draws its name from the unusual
sickle shape of the affected red blood cells. Due
to a genetic mutation, the red blood cells of
people with sickle cell anemia contain abnormal
hemoglobin molecules, which leave them rigid and
curved. The sickle- shaped red blood cells can't
carry as much oxygen to the tissues as normal red
blood cells can. They may also become stuck in
the blood vessels, blocking blood flow to the
organs. Normal Hemolytic Anemia
Onco Life Cancer Centre
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Normal Blood
Leukemia
Thalassemia Thalassemia is a group of inherited
blood disorders. These disorders are caused by
genetic mutations that prevent the normal
production of hemoglobin. When red blood cells
do not have enough hemoglobin, oxygen doesn't get
to all parts of the body. Organs then do not
function properly. These disorders can result in
Bone deformities, Enlarged spleen, Heart
problems, Growth and developmental delays in
children G6PD deficiency - Genetic defects within
the red cells may find G6PD deficiency
Polycythemia vera Polycythemia is a blood cancer
caused by a gene mutation. If a patient has
polycythemia, his bone marrow makes too many red
blood cells. This causes his blood to thicken
and flow more slowly, putting him at risk for
blood clots that can cause heart attacks or
strokes. There is no known cure. Treatment
involves phlebotomy, or removing blood from the
veins, and medication.
White Blood Cell Disorders
White blood cells (leukocytes) help defend the
body against infection and foreign substances.
White blood cell disorders can affect the body's
immune response and body's ability to fight off
infection. These disorders can affect both
adults and children. Lymphoma Lymphoma is a blood
cancer that occurs in the body's lymphatic
system. White blood cells change and grow out of
control. 'Hodgkins lymphoma and 'non- Hodgkins
lymphoma are the two major types of
lymphoma. Leukemia Leukemia is blood cancer in
which malignant white blood cells multiply inside
the body's bone marrow. Leukemia may be either
acute or chronic. Chronic leukemia advances more
slowly. Myelodysplastic syndrome
(MDS) Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a
condition affecting the white blood cells in the
bone marrow. The body produces too many immature
cells, called blasts. The blasts multiply and
crowd out the mature and healthy cells.
Myelodysplastic syndrome may progress either
slowly or quite fast. It sometimes leads to
leukemia.
Onco Life Cancer Centre
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Lymphoma
Platelet Disorders
Blood platelets are the first responders when
patient has a cut or any other injury. They
gather at the site of the injury, creating a
temporary plug to stop blood loss. If patient
has a platelet disorder, his blood has one of
three abnormalities Not enough platelets
Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) Having
too few platelets is quite dangerous because
even a small injury can cause serious blood
loss. Too many platelets Thrombocystosis If
patient has too many platelets in the blood,
blood clots can form and block a major artery,
causing a stroke or heart attack. Platelets that
don't clot correctly Sometimes, deformed
platelets can't stick to other blood cells or
the walls of the blood vessels, and so can't clot
properly. This can also lead to a dangerous loss
of blood.
Platelet disorders are primarily genetic,
meaning they are inherited. Some of these
disorders include -
ITP
Von Willebrand disease Von Willebrand disease is
the most common inherited bleeding disorder. It
is caused by a deficiency of a protein that
helps the blood clot, called Von Willebrand
factor (VWF). Hemophilia Hemophilia is probably
the best-known blood clotting disorder. It occurs
almost always in Males. The most serious
complication of hemophilia is excessive and
prolonged bleeding. This bleeding can be either
inside or outside the body. The bleeding can
start for no apparent reason. Treatment involves
a hormone called desmopressin for mild
Hemophilia, which can promote release of more of
the reduced clotting factor, and infusions of
FFP cryoprecipitate, recombinant
factors. Acquired Platelet Function
disorders Certain drugs and medical conditions
can also affect the functioning of platelets.
The Canadian Hemophilia Association (CHA) warns
that the following common drugs may affect
platelets, especially if taken long-term.
Onco Life Cancer Centre
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Aspirin Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAIDs)
Some antibiotics Heart drugs Blood thinners
Antidepressants Anesthetics Antihistamines
Multiple Myeloma
Plasma Cell Disorders
There are a large variety of disorders that
affect the plasma cells, the type of white blood
cells in the body that make antibodies. These
cells are very important to the body's ability
to ward off infection and disease. Multiple
Myeloma Multiple myeloma is a rare blood cancer
that develops in the plasma cells in the bone
marrow. Malignant plasma cells accumulate in the
bone marrow and form tumors called
plasmacytomas, generally in bones such as the
spine, hips, or ribs. The abnormal plasma cells
produce abnormal antibodies called monoclonal (M)
proteins. These proteins build up in the bone
marrow, crowding out the healthy proteins. This
can lead to thickened blood and kidney damage.
The cause of plasma cell myeloma is unknown. How
are blood cell disorders diagnosed ? A complete
blood count (CBC) to see how many of each type of
blood cells patient has. A bone marrow biopsy to
see if there are any abnormal cells developing
in the marrow. This will involve removing a small
amount of bone marrow for testing.
Bone Marrow Biopsy
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  • What are the treatment options for blood cell
    disorders ?
  • The Treatment plan depends on the cause of
    patient's illness, age and overall health
    status. There may be a combination of treatments
    to help correct the blood cell disorder.
  • Dietary supplements such as iron and Folic acid
    can treat anemia due to deficiencies.
  • For white blood cell disorders, antibiotics can
    help fight infections- inj. GCSF.
  • Some medicinal treatment such as Eltrombopag to
    stimulate the bone marrow to produce more
    platelets in a platelet disorder.
  • Chemotherapy - Use of one or more anticancer
    drugs in standardized regimens.
  • Transfusion Therapy - A blood transfusion is
    another option to help replace lost or damaged
    blood cells. During a blood transfusion, patient
    receives an infusion of healthy blood from a
    donor.
  • Bone marrow stem cell transplant may repair or
    replace damaged marrow. These involve
    transferring stem cells, usually from a donor, to
    the patient's body to help his bone marrow begin
    producing normal blood cells.
  • Gene Therapy Stem Cell Therapy
  • Both procedures require specific criteria to
    succeed.
  • Bone marrow donors must match or be as close as
    possible to the patient's genetic profile.
  • Blood transfusions require a donor with a
    compatible blood type.

Autologous Allogenic Bone Marrow Transplant
Onco Life Cancer Centre
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When To Refer To Hematologist Pyrexia of Unknown
Origin (PUO) Unexplained anemia,
thrombocytopenia, leucopenia Unexplained
Pancytopenia All types of Blood Cancer Abnormal
cells on peripheral smear like blasts, atypical
lymphocyte, schistocytes, leukoerythroblastic
picture Unexplained Lymphadenopathy,
Hepatomegaly, Splenomegaly Unexplained Fever,
weight loss Suspected case of bleeding disorder,
family history of bleeding Blood clots in
body(thrombosis) High Hemoglobin, White blood
cells count and Platelets count Abnormal
coagulation tests Suspecting storage
disorder Quality Care Begins with Right
Referrals Dr. Varun Ashok Bafna Consultant
(Adult Pediatric) Hematologist
Hemato-Oncologoist Bone Marrow Stem Cell
Transplant Physician
Onco Life Cancer Centre
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