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Title: Biomass Energy Road Map


1
The Road Map of ChineseBiomass Energy Development
  • Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion,
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences
  • Prof. Chuangzhi Wu, Prof. Haibin LI

2
  1. Biomass resources in China
  2. Status of Biomass Energy Utilization
  3. Targets of RD
  4. Technology Road Maps

3
Significance of Biomass Energy in China
Increase the supply of clean energy
Improve environment protection sustainable
development
Promote rural economy
4
1.Biomass resources in China
Straw from agriculture 650 Mton, 50 can be used
as energy, 210 MTCE
Forest industry and timber work waste 270Mton,
30 can be used as energy, 50MTCE
Biomass Energy Potential 385 MTCE
Biogas from livestock excreta and waste water
100MTCE
Municipal solid waste 155 Mton, about 25MTCE
Energy crops and plants industry are not
established!
5
1.1 Agricultural waste
1.Biomass resources in China
  • The amount of straw that can be utilized as
    modern energy increased by 12 every year.
  • 60 of the total amount can be used as energy.
  • After 2030, about 400500 mil. tons of straw can
    be used as energy, 200300 M TCE.

The consumption of straw for different
purposes(2004)
Unit million tons Unit million tons Unit million tons Unit million tons Unit million tons Unit million tons Unit million tons
Total 546 Consumption Consumption Consumption Potential as fuel Potential as fuel Potential as fuel
Total 546 Return to soil Feedstuff Paper making 290 Burned as fuel The rest
Total 546 82 153 21 290 152 138
Power generation is the most efficient technology
before the maturation of liquefaction technologies
6
1.Biomass resources in China
1.2 Forestry residues
125 million tons 71.66 M TCE
Logging and timber processing 77.60M tons 44.23
MTCE
Firewood 48.13 M tons 27.43 M TCE
The preferential option for forestry residues
should be raw materials for industries, then be
used as fuel
7
1.3 Livestock excreta
1.Biomass resources in China
  • It is estimated that by the year of 2010 and
    2020, the excreta yield will be 2.5 and 4billion
    tons.
  • The collectable resource will be 180 and 290 M TCE

Complex composition and high water content Low
energy utilization Efficiency Environmental
protection requirement
8
1.4 Industrial organic wastes
1.Biomass resources in China
  • 50 billion m3 biogas can be produced from food
    processing wastes 35 MTCE

1.5 Municipal solid waste
  • MSW production increased by 8 each year. More
    than 80 of the total was treated by landfill.
  • Average calorific value of MSW 45 MJ/kg
  • According to the data of 2004 (150 M tons)25 M
    TCE.
  • If 10 used for energy2.5 M TCE

9
1.5 Waste Vegetable Oil Tallow
1.Biomass resources in China
Biodiesel 2 million tons/year
Cottonseed Oil 1 million tons/year of cottonseed
oil can be collected for biodiesel
production 1.6 million tons of cottonseed oil 9
million tons of cottonseed 4.86 million
tons/year cotton production
Waste oil and fat 1 million tons/year
10
1.6 Energy crops
1.Biomass resources in China
Marginal Land Availability in China 32-75 million
ha.
Set-aside land 7.349.37 million ha. Energy
crops
Cropland not in use in wintertime -8.66 million
ha. Set aside woodland - 1657 million ha. Woody
crops
Existing oil plant forest 3.43 million
ha. Biodiesel resource
11
1.Biomass resources in China
Estimation Energy crops production
Set-aside land 7.349.37 million ha.
Cropland not in use in wintertime -8.66 million
ha.
9.53 MTCE/yr
12
Estimation Woody crops
1.Biomass resources in China

2010 800 thousand ha. of woody oil plant
2020 13 million ha. of woody plant, 54 million
tons dry material
35 million TCE/yr 6.7 million tons of biodiesel
13
Biomass resource potential evaluation MTCE
1.Biomass resources in China
14
1.Biomass resources in China
The potential biomass development
capacity about 1 billion TCE
Types of Biomass
Fundamentals
a. Waste material Large amount-clean
energy b. Energy crops Scale-up c.
Non-edible species Food security-
Marginal land for production
Priority Resource utilization and
environmental protection
Development of energy crop agriculture and energy
forest industry-enlarge the supply of biomass
resource

Marginal land development- Protect existing
cropland, forest and grassland
15
2. Status of Biomass Energy Utilization
Types of Biomass Energy Utilization
Power generation
16
2. Status of Biomass Energy Utilization
  • Characteristics of Biomass utilization
  • About 14 of the primary energy consumption in
    the world
  • Outside China
  • Power generationgtFuel ethanolgtBiodieselgtIndust
    rial biogas
  • In China
  • Household biogasgtFuel ethanolgtothers
    including power generation
  • The motivation differences
  • Developed countries CO2 emission reduction,
    environmental protection
  • Developing countries Energy supplements,
    promote agriculture development

17
2. Status of Biomass Energy Utilization
18
2. Status of Biomass Energy Utilization
  • There stages of biomass utilization
    technology
  • Commercialized technologies
  • High subsidy technologies Biodiesel from oil
    plants, bioethanol from sugar and starch
  • Low subsidy technologies Biogas, pelleting,
    direct combustion power generation
  • Engineering demonstration
  • Fuel ethanol from cellulose, gasification power
    generation, synfuel from gasification, direct
    liquefaction, combined cooling-heating-power
    generation(CHP)
  • Technologies under development
  • Algae utilization, biosynthesis, H2 from biomass
  • Technologies need to be explored
  • Polygeneration, et al.

19
2. Status of Biomass Energy Utilization
The trend of biomass energy utilization
20
2. Status of Biomass Energy Utilization
Bio-ethanol
In the near future
Status in China
Marginal land for the production of cassava,
sweet sorghum
Just started Mainly from corn
Mid to long term direction
Promote the development of fuel ethanol from
cellulose
21
2. Status of Biomass Energy Utilization
At present, power generation is still the main
technology for biomass waste utilization
  • Trend of biomass power generation
  • Developments of different kinds of technology
  • CHP and comprehensive utilization
  • Small to medium scale and stand alone power system

22
2. Status of Biomass Energy Utilization
Factors affect the generation capacity
  • 6MW-10MW, the bigger the better
  • The capacity for direct combustion 6-12MW
  • The capacity for gasification(BIGCC) 4-12MW

23
3.Targets of RD in China
Basic principles for the energy utilization of
biomass
Resource cultivation and exploitation
Clean fuel for rural area Fuel gas and solid
fuel
Promote the development of liquid fuel-
substitution of fossil fuel
Power generation, comprehensive utilization
24
3.Targets of RD
  • Mid-term target(2020)
  • Biomass power generation 3000MW
  • Biomass liquid fuel 15 million ton/yr
  • 1520 of agriculture and forestry waste can be
    used

Missions of development
  • Mid-term target(2030)
  • Biomass power generation 5000MW
  • Biomass liquid fuel 50 million ton/yr
  • 3040 of agriculture and forestry waste can be
    used

25
3.Targets of RD
  • Direction of Development
  • Development of Resources
  • Short to mid-term mainly agriculture and
    forestry waste Give attention to energy crops
    and energy plants
  • Long term Mainly energy agriculture and energy
    forestry Give attention to new resources, such
    as energy algae..
  • Route of Technology Development
  • Short to mid-term Biogas, pelleting, fuel
    ethanol, biodiesel, power generation, CHP.
  • Mid to long term Synfuel from gasification,
    ethanol from cellulose, biochemical engineering
  • Long term Algae technology, ocean biomass, H2
    production

26
4.Technology Road Maps
Summary of technologies
High moisture content biomass
Product separation
Non-edible sugar and starch
Fermentation
CH4/H2
Separation
Gas fuel
Hydrolysis
Combustion
Heat Power
Power
Cellulose
Pretreatment
Gasification
Synthesis
Microbe
Pyrolysis catalytic cracking
Residue
Refining
Liquid fuel
Non-edible oil fat
Component separation
Esterify
Chemicals
27
4.Technology Road Maps
Technologies for bio-conversion
Ethanol
Cellulose enzyme
Bacteria reconstruction
Butanol

Stepped Fermentation
Separation Concentrating
Straw sugar crops
Pre-treatment
Chemical conversion
Hydrolysis
Ethene
Acetic acid
Synchro fermentation
SiO2
Residue
Fertilizer
Micro-algae
Combustion
Heat/ Power
Residue
Drying
Feedingstuff
28
4.Technology Road Maps
Road Map for Biomass Bio-Conversion
2005 2010 2015
2020
Cellulose fermentation fuel ethanol 3000t/Y
Pretreatment
Cellulose ethanol 10000t/Y
Large scale application
Genetic tech. for bacteria cultivatio
Solid state fermation
Cellulose enzyme solid state fermentation
Residue combustion tech
SiO2 from ash
Coupled Vaporized tech.
Large scale high-grade clean fuel application
H2 from micro-algae demonstration
Bench scale H2 from micro-algae
Large scale bio-gas application
Coupled tech. for CH4/H2 production
100M3 CH4/H2 Demonstration
Continuous fermentation for biogas
Large scale biogas 10000M3
Nearly zero emission
Large scale application
Industrialization
Demonstration
Pilot scale
Exploration
29
4.Technology Road Maps
Technologies for solid biomass thermal-chemical
conversion
Separation
Chemicals
Pyrolysis liquefaction
Chemical modulation
Boiler Fuel
Bio-oil
Vehicle fuel
Solid biomass
Refining
Combustion
Heat Power
CH4
Fuel gas
Gasification
Reforming
H2
DME
Catalytic synthesis
Syngas
Methanol
Diesel
Catalytic de-oxygen liquefaction
Fractionation
Gasoline
30
4.Technology Road Maps
Road Map for biomass thermal chemical conversion
2007 2010 2015
2020
Industrialization of BIGCC
BIGCC
Large scale application
Advanced gasificaiton
Demonstration gt3000t/a
Gas refinery
Indirect liquefation gt10000t/a
Pilot scale 1000t/a
Syngas synthesis gt3000t/a
CO2 rich synthesis
Pilot scale 1000t/a
Large scale biomass energy application
Selectivity liquefaction
3000t/a
Direct liquefaction gt10000t/a
1000t/a
Bio-oil separation refinery
1000t/a
200t/a
Large scale application
Nearly zero emission
Industrialization
Demonstration
Pilot scale
Exploration
31
4.Technology Road Maps
Technologies for biodiesel
Enzyme
Chemicals
Separation
Biodiesel
Lipid
Esterification
Fertilizer
Oil plant algae
Lipid abstraction
Glycerin
Catalyst
Other lipid
acetone
High value conversion
Glycol

Feedingstuff
Residue
High value conversion
Medicine

32
4.Technology Road Maps
Road Map for Biodiesel
2005 2010 2015
2020
Continuous reaction
Pilot plant 3000t/Y
30000t/Y
Large scale polygeneration process
500t/Y
Magnetism nano-catalytic reaction
Glycerin high value conversion
Residue high value conversion
Medicine component abstraction
Pilot scale comprehensive utilization
Large scale high grade liquid fuel application
Large scale application
Nearly zero emission
Industrialization
Demonstration
Pilot scale
Exploration
33
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