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Title: CBRN Respirators3


1
Respiratory Protection Programs (RPP) in SWAT
Teams
  • Terrence K. Cloonan
  • Physical Scientist
    SCSS Team, Office of the Director,
    NPPTL, NIOSH
  • Los Angeles Police Department and Surrounding
    Jurisdictions
  • Los Angeles, California
  • October 21, 2010

2
Constitution Initiative - OATH
  • I, name, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I
    will support and defend the Constitution of the
    United States against all enemies, foreign and
    domestic that I will bear true faith and
    allegiance to the same that I take this
    obligation freely, without any mental reservation
    or purpose of evasion and that I will well and
    faithfully discharge the duties of the office on
    which I am about to enter. So help me God.
    5 U.S.C. 333¹

3
OVERVIEW
  • ? About NIOSH
  • Acronym List
  • CBRN Respirators
  • Why have a Respiratory Protection Program?
  • Examples of Respirator Use or Needs - in SWAT
  • OSHA and NIOSH References for Developing an RPP
  • Local Technology, Recognition Vignette, NIOSH CEL
  • Outlines of RPP in Use City, County, and State
  • Example Proposed MODEL RPP SWAT 10 Areas
  • Local Workplace Discussions

4
Federal Hierarchy FY2011
HHS
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
CDC
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH)
NIOSH
Div/Labs
National Personal Protective Technology
Laboratory (NPPTL)
5
About NIOSH
  • NIOSH The National Institute for Occupational
    Safety and Health is a federal agency
    responsible for conducting research and making
    recommendations for the prevention of
    work-related injury and illness.
  • MISSION The mission of NIOSH is to generate new
    knowledge in the field of occupational safety and
    health and to transfer that knowledge into
    practice for the betterment of workers.
  • OSH Act of 1970 The Occupational Safety and
    Health Act of 1970 created both NIOSH and the
    Occupational Safety and Health Administration
    (OSHA). Source NIOSH web page, 6/16/2010.

6
NIOSH Demographics
  • Division of Respiratory Disease Studies (DRDS)
  • Division of Safety Research (DSR)
  • Health Effects Laboratory Division (HELD)
  • Education and Information Division (EID)
  • Division of Applied Research and Technology
    (DART)
  • Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and
    Field Studies (DSHEFS) with State OSH activities
  • Division of Compensation Analysis and Support
    (DCAS)
  • Research to Practice (R2P) Initiative
  • Spokane Research Laboratory
  • Pittsburgh Research Laboratory
  • Alaska Regional ? Western State Offices
  • Office of the Director, NIOSH
  • Office of Extramural Programs
  • Office of Mine Safety and Health
  • National Personal Protective Technology
    Laboratory (NPPTL) Pittsburgh, PA
  • Source NIOSH web page, 6/16/2010

7
NIOSH Personal Protective Technology (PPT) Program
MISSION The mission of the NIOSH Personal
Protective Technology program is to prevent
work-related injury, illness, and death by
advancing the state of knowledge and application
of PPT. PPT in this
context is defined as the technical methods,
processes, techniques, tools, and materials that
support the development and use of personal
protective equipment worn by individuals to
reduce the effects of their exposure to a hazard.
VISION The NPPTL vision is to be the
leading provider of quality, relevant, and timely
PPT research, training, and evaluation.

Last updated by OAMS/ASB on
December 8, 2009

8
NIOSH PPT Program
  • Mine Escape Issues
  • Respirator Certification
  • Mine Emergency Respirator
  • Investigations
  • New Technology Research
  • Escape Respirator Research
  • Escape Respirator
  • Standards
  • MSHA Collaboration
  • CBRN Issues
  • Respirator Standards
  • Development
  • CBRN PPT Research
  • Respirator Certification
  • NFPA/IAFF Collaboration
  • TSWG IAA
  • OSHA Collaboration
  • Pandemic Issues
  • N95 Respirator Research
  • Standards (Total Inward
  • Leakage)
  • Respirator Certification
  • FDA Collaboration
  • National Academies
  • Activities
  • Pandemic Planning Response
  • Nanotechnology Issues
  • Filtration Research
  • Protective Clothing Research
  • Respirator Research
  • Respirator Certification
  • Workplace Guidance

9
Stakeholders in CBRN Protection
10
Acronym List
  • CBRN Chemical, biological, radiological, and
    nuclear
  • SCBA Self-contained breathing apparatus
  • APR Air-purifying respirator (Gas Mask)
  • PAPR Powered air-purifying respirator (Tight or
    Loose)
  • LAT Live agent test/testing
  • TRA,TIC, MSDS Test representative agent
    (TRA). Toxic industrial chemical (TIC). Material
    safety data sheet.
  • CWA Chemical warfare agent (i.e. GB/Sarin,
    HD/Blister)
  • RCA Riot control agent(s) (Irritants i.e. CS,
    CN, OC)
  • TC Number Testing and certification approval
    number
  • RPP Respiratory protection program

11
CBRN Respirator Standards Training
  • DHS/NIST/ECBC/CDC/NIOSH
  • CBRN SCBA Standard 2001
  • Flexible CBRN SCBA Program 2002
  • CBRN SCBA Retrofit Program 2003
  • CBRN Respirator RD Program 2003
  • CBRN APR Standard 2003
  • CBRN APER Standard 2003
  • DHS adopts NIOSH CBRN Standards 2004
  • CBRN PAPR Standard 2006
  • AIHce PDC 408 CBRN Training course 2010
  • DHS/ECBC/NIOSH Standards in Development
  • CBRN Closed Circuit SCBA (CC-SCBA),
  • CBRN SCER, and CBRN SAR w/10min Escape
  • Census data 2003

12
CBRN Tiers of Approval
  • 42 CFR Part 84 Applicable sections per
    respirator approval schedule
  • Third Party Standards Benchmarking and adoption
    of federal specifications or consensus standards
  • Common Special Tests
  • 1) Sarin (GB) aerosol-vapor SMARTMAN headform
    for live-agent testing (LAT)
  • 2) Mustard (HD) aerosol-vapor and liquid
    SMARTMAN headform for LAT
  • 3) Laboratory Respirator Protection Level (LRPL)
    w/corn oil particulate human test subjects and
    respirators donned per UI
    Source AIHA NIOSH PDC
    408 CBRN 8 hr course, 2010

13
CBRN Canister Capacity Testing
  • Air-Purifying Use 139 CBRN agent threats are
    filtered out.
  • Test Representative Agents (TRA) 139 respiratory
    threats are subdivided into 7 hazard families.
    Each family is then evaluated by one or more of
    11 NIOSH listed TRA.
  • TRA is Cyclohexane Organic Vapor (OV) 61 TIC.
    OV covers CS/CN
  • TRA are SO2, H2S, CNCL, COCL2, HCN
    Acid Gas (AG) family
    32 TIC
  • TRA is Ammonia Base gas family 4 TIC
  • TRA is Phosphine Hydride family 4 TIC
  • TRA is Nitrogen Dioxide Nitrogen Oxide 5 TIC
  • TRA is Formaldehyde Formaldehyde 1 TIC
  • TRA is DOP Particulate 3 chemical,16 RAD,
    and 13 BWA.
    RCA aerosol particulate is filtered
    Source Adapted from
    AIHA NIOSH PDC 408 CBRN 8 hour course, May 23,
    2010.

14
NIOSH CBRN SCBA TC-Number
  • Systems Approval NIOSH issues a testing and
    certification
  • TC- Number with CBRN Suffix
    TC-13F-XXXXCBRN
  • Recognition On labels located on the
    respirator and in UI.
  • Caution Limitation Statements Specific to the
    level and type of respiratory protection awarded
  • Interoperability Different parts may fit but
    that does not ? an approved system.
  • UI Know/keep Users Instructions

15
Why have a Respiratory Protection Program?
  • State OSHA plan for public sector workers
  • Insurance
  • Methodical purpose
  • Respiratory protection Program (RPP) orders
    define actions for
  • oxygen deficiency
  • CS, OC, RCA, Calmatives
  • CBRN/WMD, TIC, H1N1, H2S Suicides, and unknowns
  • Build a training foundation

16
Published Law Enforcement RPP
  • California Commission on Peace Officer Standards
    and Training (POST) http//lib.post.ca.gov/Public
    ations/respiratory-program2.pdf
  • Illinois Department of Labor and Illinois Law
    Enforcement Alarm System (ILEAS)
  • http//www.ileas.org/Policies/Respirator20Policy-
    Sample20Nov2007.pdf
  • http//www.ileas.org/respirators/labor_issues/idol
    august2003.pdf
  • http//www.ileas.org/respirators/Labor_Issues/idol
    july2003.pdf
  • http//www.ileas.org/respirators/Labor_Issues/matr
    ix.htm
  • http//www.ileas.org/respirators/Labor_Issues/main
    .htm
  • City and County of San Francisco Police
    Department, California
  • Seminole County, Florida. Broward County,
    Florida. Orange County, California. Fairfax
    County, Virginia.

17
Examples of Respirator Use
  • Use is prevalent but there are evolving written
    respiratory protection programs. PPE specific
    SOG/SOP still exist.
  • Chemical Agent CS/OC/Smoke Systematic and
    tactical Gas-Out (SGO/TGO) police tactics
    exist.
  • SCBA and combative (APR) 40 32 hour training
    courses exist.
  • City County WMD CS House confidence
    exercises.
  • DOD and Army Surplus APR.

18
Hot Gas (CS OC) Delivery Systems
  • Use of hand deployed versus via charged air
    cylinders
  • Is there a best practice?
  • The making of multi-mission aerosol delivery
    systems is to manufacturer specifications.
    Technology is marketed as
  • Non-lethal terrorist suppression or repel
    ocean-going Pirates
  • Crowd control and civil unrest
  • SWAT team tactical response
  • Prison riots/prisoner extraction

19
Discussions on CS House and Open Air HOT
GAS Training
  • SCBA, APR, PAPR used
  • Students with APR or SCBA APR
  • Instructors with PAPR or no mask
  • House or Open-Air Pyrotechnic CS
  • LCt 50 formula- 38 grenades calculated to create
    a lethal concentration 8 used in house
  • Exposure Levels 1, 2, or 3 Condition
  • 4-Gas Detectors CO , or not used
  • Decontamination H2O and open air

20
Debriefs on Confidence Training in CS
  • Multiple brands and makes of munitions used
    multiple types of MSDS multiple types and
    concentrations of toxic industrial chemicals
    possible (starter mixture, fuel mixture, and
    actual RCA)
  • CBRN Cap 1, CS/CN, OV/P100
  • SCBA two-finger function check as a user seal
    check
  • All batteries removed. Users prefer to use analog
    gauge

21
Other SWAT Team Workplace Hazards
  • Lead (Pb) exposure from indoor ranges. NIOSH
    publication 2009-136 http//www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs
    /2009-136/
  • Ship boarding missions
  • Rapid expansion of air or other TIC from
    targeted SCBA or mini-torch fuel cylinders worn
    and used by operators
  • Shooter inhalation of weapon discharge
    fume/aerosol/smoke
  • Operator exposure to breaching tool fumes
    signaling or diversionary munitions particulates
    or gases

22
Flash-Bang Detonation Discussions
  • MSDS for each type of munition should be
    available for user view
  • Section 2 of the MSDS where it lists the starter
    mixture, fuel mixture, and other compounds the
    TIC PEL/REL should be known for all TIC listed
    and the occupational exposure health impact for
    each compound listed should be assessed.
  • Door Entry Require APR

23
Flash-Bang Visible Particulate and ?
24
Riot Control Agent Scientific References
  • OSHA Health Guidelines for a-chloroacetophenone,
    Mace/CN/Tear Gas http//www.osha.gov/SLTC/healthg
    uidelines/a-chloroacetophenone/index.html
  • CDC Emergency Preparedness and Response
    Riot Control Agents (CN, CS, PS, CA, and CR)
    http//emergency.cdc.gov/agent/riotcontrol/
  • CDC/NIOSH Emergency Response Safety and Health
    Database Chloroacetophenone (CN)
    http//www.cdc.gov/niosh/ershdb/EmergencyResponseC
    ard_29750033.html
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, 2005
    o-Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS)
    http//www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0122.html

    and Chloropicrin (PS)
    http//www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0132.html
  • NIOSH STP 0050, Determination of CS Service
    Life Test for APR, 2005 http//www.cdc.gov/niosh/
    npptl/stps/pdfs/RCT-APR-0050.pdf

25
Literature Search on RPP CS/RCA Terms
  • Respirator Labor Issues, ILEAS Mask Project
    http//www.ileas.org/respirators/Main.html and
    www.ileas.org/respirators/Labor_Issues/main.htm
  • North Carolina DOL Facial Hair and Respirator
    Use http//www.nclabor.com/osha/PublicSN/SN55A.pd
    f
  • Measuring Respirator Use in the Workplace,
    NRC/NAS http//www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id
    11799page17
  • Military Authorized to Use Riot Control Agents in
    Iraq, Arms Control Association, 2003
    http//www.armscontrol.org/print/1277
  • 6th ILEF for Minimal Force Options Less-Lethal
    Technologies report, INLDT, PSU, 2008
    http//www.nldt.org/publications.php
  • Reno Nevada SWAT Use Tear Gas to End Stand Off,
    August 25, 2010 http//www.mynews4.com/story.php?
    id26319
  • Collier SWAT Uses Tear Gas to Force East Naples
    Man From Home, 8/23/10 http//www.naplesnews.com/n
    ews/2010/aug/23/collier-swat-team-east-naples-leaw
    ood-circle/

26
OSHA and NIOSH References for a RPP
  • OSHA Publication 3352-02, Assigned Protection
    Factors for the Revised Respiratory Protection
    Standard, 2009
  • OSHA Directive CPL 2-2.54A, RPP Guidelines, 2000
    http//www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_docum
    ent?p_tableDIRECTIVESp_id2125
  • NIOSH NPPTL Respirator Trusted Source Information
    Page, RPP Frequently Asked Questions
    http//www.cdc.gov/niosh/npptl/topics/respirators/
    disp_part/RespSource3.htmlrespirator
  • NIOSH Publication No. 99-143, TB RPP Health Care
    Facilities Administrators Guide,
    http//www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/99-143/
  • NIOSH Publication No. 87-116, Chapter 4,
    Respirator Use http//www.cdc.gov/niosh/pdfs/87-11
    6.pdf

27
Local Respirator Technology In-Use
  • SCBA SCOTT and DRAEGER
  • APR SCOTT M95, AVON FM12, C50, and M53
  • MIL-SPEC respirator technology with or
    without a facepiece- PATRIOT
    breathing and welding torch man-packed platform.
  • NIOSH-APPROVAL NOTE NIOSH issues certificates of
    approval for specific and complete respirator
    assemblies after the respirator has been
    evaluated and found to comply with all the
    requirements of the NIOSH regulations found at
    Title 42, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 84.

28
NIOSH-Approved CBRN SCBA ID
  • Vignette Told to use a SCBA. The UI is missing.
    The respirator might have labels on it, it might
    not. Is it MIL-SPEC? Is it NIOSH-Approved? Is it
    EN/CEN-approved? CSE compliant? How do you know?
    Counterfeits?
  • Answer 1) Know your respirator. 2)Locate and
    read the adhesive labels. 2) Locate the NIOSH
    TC-number. 3) Read and apply the user
    instructions (UI). 4) Know manufacturer unique
    markings from NFPA, NIOSH, NIJ labels
    5) Use the NIOSH CEL.

29
NIOSH Certified Equipment List (CEL)
  • CEL Electronic listing of approved respirators
    http//www.cdc.gov/niosh/npptl/topics/respirators/
    CEL/default.html
  • DHS FEMA RKB RKB lists the NPPTL homepage.
  • Ease-of-Use CEL quick defined search
    software http//www2a.cdc.gov/drds/cel/cel_form_co
    de.asp
  • Quick Search Capability Four categories of
    searchable CEL SCBA, APR, APER, PAPR
  • CBRN APPROVALS 94 records SCBA 62, APR
    12, APER 6, and PAPR 14 Source
    NIOSH CEL 10/14/2010.

30
RPP In Use Outline Extract Example
  • City and County Municipality-PD 43 pages
  • Title RPP. Prepared by Approved by Table of
    Contents
  • Purpose, Scope, Objectives, Roles and
    Responsibilities
  • PPE Equipment and Conditions of Use matrix
  • Threats Summary Exposure Matrix by Function
    team
  • Air-Purifying Media Change Out Schedule Use
    Guidance
  • Medical Physical Requirements, Evaluations by
    Zone
  • Pillars Fit Testing, Training, SCBA/APR Use,
    Maintenance
  • Logistics Storage, Program Evaluation, Record
    Keeping
  • 7 Appendices Fit test certificate, PPE
    Inspection Forms etc.

31
RPP in Use Outline Extract Example 2
  • City Municipality PD 14 pages
  • Title Respirator Protection (RP). Table of
    Contents.
  • Scope, Purpose, Minimum Requirements for RP
  • Responsibilities In General and RP
    Administrator
  • Selection Selection and Use of Respirators
  • Use Pillars Cleaning Disinfection, Storage, Fit
    Testing
  • What to Keep Records, Instruction/Training
    Information
  • Medical Status Analysis, Follow-Up,
    Questionnaires, etc.
  • Program Evaluation Employee Consultations
  • Updating the Written RPP. Disposition of Written
    RPP.

32
RPP in Use Outline Extract Example 3
  • County Municipality- Sheriffs Office 16 pages
  • Title RPP. SOP XX-XXX. Effective date.
    Replace/rescind
  • Purpose, Responsibilities WMD Coord, Fit Test
    Operators
  • Medical Evaluation OSHA 1910.134 cited
    exemptions
  • Selection and Use of Respiratory Protective
    Devices (RPE)
  • Training Operations Donning, Limitations, SCBA
    Use
  • Fit Testing Eligibility, Requirements, Checks,
    QNFT, Hair
  • Cleaning and Maintenance Specific to a make and
    model
  • Glossary 16 definitions/acronyms.
  • Effective date. Approved By First level and
    Second level

33
RPP in Use Outline Extract Example 4
  • County Municipality Sheriffs Office 13 pages
  • Title SOP-Tactical Opns in a Hazardous
    Environment (WMD Response), Revised October 7,
    2009
  • Purpose Scope/General Direction, Detailed
    procedures/Tng
  • Medical Evaluations Screening SWAT, EOD, TVO
    data
  • Pillars Fit Testing/QNFT, Equipment Inspections,
    Deployment, Repair, Maintenance, Air Monitoring
    Procedures, Operational Considerations, Pre Entry
    Procedures, Rapid Recon/Entry Team, PPE, Chemical
    Detection Equipment, Decon, Med Surveillance,
    Post Incident Debriefing
  • Diagrams SCBA/PPE Trailer Deployment Layout/load
    plan SCBA Air Supply Time Log for management of
    10 users

34
RPP in Use Outline Extract Example 5
  • State Government Law Enforcement 4 pages
  • Title RPP. Effective Date July 1, 2004
  • Policy The Anywhere Police Department generic
    form
  • Purpose. Definitions 8 listed. Applies to
    Sworn officers
  • Pillars Procedure-Responsibilities, Selection,
    Fit Testing, Use of the Respirator (APR,
    APR Canisters, Carried)
  • Maintenance and Inspection Cleaning done per
    training
  • Training Donning, Threading, Doffing, Annual
    Refresher
  • Special Use Any use that is not Escape Only.
    Full RPP.
  • Evaluation of Program Annual basis and who
    evaluates

35
MODEL SWAT RPP Outline 10 Areas
  • Official Title, Cover, Signature Pages, with
    effective date
  • Purpose, scope, and objectives paragraphs.
    Appoint RPPA
  • Applicable missions generate Task and Supply
    Lists
  • List and Define Roles and Responsibilities 19
    possible
  • Respirator Inventory Assign to task list. Make
    Load Plan
  • Conduct Hazard Analysis Create Master Mission
    Matrix
  • Create Training Support Matrix to mission matrix
  • Define Medical Evaluation and Re-evaluation of
    officers
  • Define regulatory compliance maintenance of
    respirators
  • Define program administration, evaluation, and
    appendices

36
Local Workplace Discussions
  • WILD LAND FIRES Wild land fire incident
    respiratory hazards for patrol officers. Is there
    a new standard?
  • HYDRATION DEVICES Use of NIOSH-approved
    respirators containing an integrated hydration
    device and the connection technologies to allow a
    user to drink potable water from a
    non-NIOSH-approved accessory, such as a connected
    canteen or other water reservoir container in an
    all-clear, decontamination corridor, or
    contaminated zone/hot zone/red zone type of
    environment. Is there a new standard to address
    the approval of the reservoir?
  • As understood from a telephone conversation with
    Officer Adams, October 12, 2010.

37
Wildland Firefighting and Hydration
  • NFPA 1984, Standard on Respirators for Wildland
    Fire Fighting Operations, proposed.
  • TIA to be issued.
  • Expect the new standard to be published on or
    around February 2011.
  • Only NIOSH-approved respirators (APR/PAPR) will
    be described. NFPA standard does not require the
    use of respirators that decision is determined
    by each agency. CO monitoring should also be
    implemented simultaneously.
  • Hydration 3.9 of CBRN APR Standard, 2003.
    Procedure RCT-APR-STP-0014 evaluates the dry
    drinking tube assembly for air leakage. Use is
    per NIOSH CL UI.

38
Remember A Users Seal Check
is not a Fit Test!
  • This concludes the training.
  • Subject to your questions.
  • Contact
  • Terrence K. Cloonan
  • tcloonan_at_cdc.gov
  • As of October 15, 2010

39
Acknowledgements
  • Officer Craig Adams, Los Angeles Police
    Department, Counter Terrorism Training Unit, Los
    Angeles, CA
  • Officer Scott Hurley, San Francisco Police
    Department, Special Operations Group, Tactical
    Unit, San Francisco, California
  • CPT Ed Allen, Sheriffs Office, Seminole County,
    Florida
  • LT Shane Francisco, San Francisco Fire
    Department, Intelligence Officer, Northern
    California Regional Intelligence Center (NCRIC),
    California
  • Edward L. Hughes, Applied Research Laboratory,
    The Pennsylvania State University, State
    College, PA

40
  • Disclaimer
  • The findings and conclusions in this
    presentation have not been formally disseminated
    by the National Institute for Occupational Safety
    and Health and should not be construed to
    represent any agency determination or policy.
  • The mention of any company name or product does
    not constitute endorsement by the National
    Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
    (NIOSH).
  • Source
  • NIOSH, National Personal Protective Technology
    Laboratory (NPPTL)
  • P.O. Box 18070
  • Pittsburgh, PA 15236
  • (412) 386-6701 http//www.cdc.gov/niosh/npptl/de
    fault.html

41
Questions for NPPTL
  • DTG
  • Source
  • Topic
  • Question
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