Mitral Valve Stenosis: Causes, Symptoms, Daignosis, Prevention and Treatment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Mitral Valve Stenosis: Causes, Symptoms, Daignosis, Prevention and Treatment

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Mitral Valve Stenosis means that the valve between the left ventricle and left atrium is narrower than it should be. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mitral Valve Stenosis: Causes, Symptoms, Daignosis, Prevention and Treatment


1
Mitral Valve Stenosis
2
Mitral Valve Stenosis
  • Mitral valve stenosis is generally a congenital
    heart disorder i.e. it was present when the child
    was born. Around 8 in every 1000 babies born are
    having a congenital heart disorder. Congenital
    mitral valve stenosis means that the valve
    between the left ventricle and left atrium is
    narrower than it should be. Blood regulates from
    the left atrium into the left ventricle and
    further on to the rest of the body. As the valve
    is narrow, blood get collected in the left
    atrium, builds up pressure and may flow back to
    the lungs. Even if the mitral valve is the main
    problem, some children with mitral stenosis have
    other abnormalities on the left side of the
    heart, perhaps in the aortic valve area or in the
    aorta as it leaves the heart.

3
What causes mitral valve stenosis?
  • The heart is formed early in pregnancy but
    doctors has not fully understand why some
    childrens hearts does not develop properly. For
    the majority of babies born with congenital
    mitral valve stenosis, doctors never find a
    cause. However, the chance of a child having
    this condition increases a little if one or both
    parents had a congenital heart defect.
    Occasionally some conditions such as diabetes or
    medicines taken during pregnancy can also
    increase the risk. Congenital heart defects are
    more common in children with other congenital
    conditions.

4
How mitral valve stenosis is normally diagnosed?
  • A childs defect may have been diagnosed
    antenatally by our foetal team and will be
    confirmed on admission. Doctors would like
    to  use chest X-rays, electrocardiograms (ECG)
    and echocardiograms (Echo) to diagnose congenital
    mitral valve stenosis. An ECG measures the
    electric current passing through the heart. An
    Echo is an ultrasound of the heart and shows not
    only the structure of the heart but the blood
    flow through it. Some children also have a
    cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan
    which uses a strong magnetic field, radio waves
    and a computer to make a very detailed image of
    the heart.

5
What are the signs symptoms of mitral valve
stenosis?
  • Symptoms are often present from birth when the
    baby can be seriously ill or symptoms can develop
    within the first two years of life. There can be
    feeding difficulties available which lead to poor
    weight gain and breathlessness after
    exertion. If the problem progresses, the childs
    nails, lips and skin may develop a blue tinge as
    there is not enough oxygen-rich blood circulating
    around the body. Generally, the heart becomes
    weaker as it has to work much harder to pump
    blood around the body.

6
How is mitral valve stenosis treated?
  • Doctors will advise treatment depending on the
    narrowness of the mitral valve stenosis and the
    results of the diagnostic tests. Some mild mitral
    valve stenosis, where the valve is only a little
    narrower than normal, might not need any
    treatment but will still need to be assessed
    regularly. If the narrowing is severe enough to
    interfere with a childs progress the treatment
    options will depend on the severity, the size and
    age of the child and whether other valves or
    blood vessels need attention. In young children,
    open heart surgery to repair or replace the valve
    may be the first option. In some of the older
    children, treatment carried out using a catheter
    (thin plastic tube) threaded through the blood
    vessel system to the heart might be possible.

7
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