An Overview of Coronary Heart Bypass Surgery - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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An Overview of Coronary Heart Bypass Surgery


In the late 1930s, Dr. John Gibbon performed a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with the help of the heart-lung machine. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: An Overview of Coronary Heart Bypass Surgery

An Overview of Coronary Heart Bypass Surgery
  • In the late 1930s, Dr. John Gibbon performed a
    cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with the help of the
    heart-lung machine.
  • In 1953, D. W. Gordon Murray reported placement
    of arterial grafts in the coronary circulation
  • In 1955, Sidney Smith was the first to produce
    saphenous vein and employ it as a graft from
    aorta to into the myocardium.
  • In 1958, Longmire performed the first open
    coronary artery endarterectomy without CPB at
    University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA).

  • In 1961, Dr. Robert Goetz executed the first
    human coronary artery bypass operation
  • In 1962, Proud fit by visualizing the coronary
    arteries conducted the first practical cardiac
    angiography successfully.
  • In 1964, Kolovos performed the first internal
    mammary artery-coronary artery anastomosis.
  • In the 1970s, continued development of technique
    and conduits took place.

  • Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) refers to
    a procedure, wherein, the blocked coronary
    arteries are bypassed with the help of a blood
    vessel graft in order to restore normal flood
    flow to the heart.
  • It alleviates angina, pain and diminishes the
    associated heart attack risks leading deaths.

Procedure Involved
  • The procedure of CABG can be divided into two
    main stages, that includes
  • Stage 1 the healthy blood vessel (the graft) is
    removed from body parts like chest wall or leg.
  • Stage 2 The graft is connected to the coronary
    artery by bypassing the diseased segment- it
    improves the blood flow to the heart

Latest Developments
  • A surgical robot is used to perform CABG in a
    minimally-invasive way- it does not require an
    incision, decreasing the patients recovery
    period to a few weeks
  • Keyhole surgery Much different to the
    traditional surgical methods, it requires an
    incision that varies from 2 to 3 inch.
  • Minimally-invasive surgery and stented
    angiosplasty in one-Hybrid procedures.
  • Beating heart bypass or off-pump.

Off Pump CABG
  • This CABG is performed without the use of a
    heart-lung machine (cardiopulmonary bypass)
  • In this procedure, the bypass is sewed onto the
    heart, while the heart keeps on beating.
  • For the surgeon to commence the operation, a wide
    range of heart stabilizers are used to restrain
    the heart one section at a time

Advantages of Off-Pump Over on Pump CABG
  • Lesser need of blood transfusions
  • Diminished risk of bleeding, stroke and kidney
  • Patients who are at a risk of health ailments
    such as lung disease, kidney failure, peripheral
    vascular disease can greatly benefit from this

Possible risks
  • Blood clots that may elevate the risks of a
    stroke, heart attack, or lung problems
  • Bleeding, infection and difficulty in breathing
  • Abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias)
  • Pneumonia, Fever and pain

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