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ecological restoration

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It is the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or or destroyed(society for Ecological restoration definition). – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ecological restoration


1
College of dry land agriculture.
  • Program Range ecology and Biodiversity
  • Course env.t degradation and restoration
    ecology
  • assignment Title restoration ecology.

2
Content 1. Ecosystem and concept of restoration
ecology
  • It is the process of assisting the recovery of an
    ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or or
    destroyed(society for Ecological restoration
    definition).
  • Restoration ecology is a complex conservation
    activity that creates plant and animal
    communities/ecosystems modeled on historical
    systems and ecological theory, on sites that have
    been significantly altered by modern human
    disturbance.

3
Content 1. Ecosystem and concept of restoration
ecology
  • there are a number of activities that may be
    employed to help improve injured ecosystems.
    Terms like restoration, rehabilitation,
    remediation, and reclamation are often used
    interchangeably in practice, but their
    definitions vary by authorizing laws and
    implementing agencies.
  • By The way degraded ecosystem can be returned to
    its original state using removal, cleanup,
    remediation.

4
Content 1. Ecosystem and Rest ecology
5
Cont 2. Restoring Ecological Function
  • The desire to restore species and communities
    stems both from their intrinsic ecological Value
    as well as the provision of critical ecosystem
    services.
  • a focus on ecological processes in a restoration
    context provides a different view of the State
    and dynamics of ecosystems and the services they
    may provide. Measuring ecological function
    require key ecological process such
  • Nutrient processing,
  • Productivity or decomposition.

6
Cont2.
  • The currency is typically a process rate, and it
    reflects system performance. Because ecosystem
    function may indicate important elements of
    system performance, environmental managers are
    also increasingly interested in the use of
    functional assessments.
  • Historically, many ecological restoration efforts
    have focused on single species, populations, or
    the Composition of ecological communities.
    However, it is recognized increasingly that
    restoration of ecological processes, such as
    nutrient turnover or hydrological flux, may be
    critical components of restoration outcomes.

7
Cont2 restoring eco function
  • However, it is recognized increasingly that
    restoration of ecological processes, such as
    nutrient turnover or hydrological flux, may be
    critical components of restoration outcomes. This
    understanding has been paralleled by an upsurge
    in ecological research on the linkage between
    ecological structure (e.g., species diversity,
    habitat complexity) and ecological function
    (e.g., biogeochemical processes, disturbance
    regimes).

8
Cont3.Restoring of soil degradation
  • Soil the most basic of all resources, the mother
    of every productivity, it is the essence of all
    terrestrial life and a cultural heritage. Yet,
    soil is finite in extent, prone to degradation by
    natural and anthropogenic factors.
  • Any way in order to restore the soil it must
    be focused on the Physical restoration,
    Chemical restoration, Biological restoration and
    Ecological restoration.

9
Content 3 restoring of soil
  • 1.Physical restoration
  • 2. Chemical restoration
  • By alleviating acidification,
  • improving capacity nutrients pools
  • decreasing Salinization,
  • creating elemental favorable balance etc.
  • improving activity and capacity of nutrient
    pools,
  • Reducing desertification,
  • improving aggregation,
  • improving plant available water capacity,
  • improving aeration

10
Content 3.restoration of soil degradation
  • 3.Biological restoration . by
  • 4 ecological restoration
  • Increasing microbial biomass carbon
  • Enhancing soil Biodiversity
  • Creating disease suppressive soils
  • Increasing mycohorhizal and Rhizobial population.
  • Increasing soil C pool
  • Strengening elemental cycling
  • Creating favorable hydrological balance
  • Enhancing ecosystem service

11
Soil Fertility Management to Restore Soil
quality
  • Use of organic amendments, by recycling organic
    by-products including urban waste, is a useful
    strategy to enhance soil fertility and improve
    structural stability or aggregates .
  • Sustainable intensification (SI), producing more
    from less by reducing losses and increasing the
    use efficiency, is attainable only through
    improvement of soil quality including chemical
    quality or soil fertility.
  • While, nitrogen (N) input is important to
    improving soil fertility, its improper and/or
    excessive use can also lead to environmental
    pollution.

12
Cont 4 Improving Soil/Agro-Biodiversity
  • Soil biota are important to soil restoration and
    reduce risks of degradation and desertification.
  • Indeed, soil biota comprise a major component of
    global terrestrial biodiversity and perform
    critical roles in key ecosystem functions (e.g.,
    biomass decomposition, nutrient cycling,
    moderating CO2 in the atmosphere, creating
    disease suppressive soils)
  • Improving activity and species diversity of soil
    fauna and flora (micro, meso and macro) is
    therefore essential to restoring and improving
    soil quality and reducing risks of soil
    degradation.

13
RANGELAND RESTORATION andmanagement
  • Natural ecosystems have been severely destroyed
    because of anthropogenic disturbances,
    unreasonable utilization, and neglect of
    protection and restoration (Hai et al., 2007).
    These disturbed or degraded ecosystems are
    confronted with poor soil fertility, shortage of
    water and deteriorated microenvironment, which
    would severely restrict their productivity.
  • In order to restore degraded ecosystems, it is
    crucial to identify which ecosystem functions
    should be restored first. It is therefore,
    important to define the functional status of the
    ecosystem beforehand. It is also important to
    establish the relationship between ecosystem
    structure and functioning, and to assess the
    potential for ecosystem restoration

14
RANGELAND RESTORATION and management
  • How to comprehensively restore and harness the
    degraded ecosystem is a key issue in increasing
    productivity, improving environmental conditions
    and achieving sustainable development. When the
    disturbance is removed, the degraded ecosystems
    will initiate a succession to the primitive
    community, and restoration process is considered
    as the progressive succession.

15
RANGELAND RESTORATION andmanagement
  • Management of rangeland degradation can be dived
    into preventative and restoration measures.
    Answers to preventative measures can often be
    found within the causes of land degradation.
  • Where restoration is of significant importance to
    land owners. The fast rate at which intact
    natural ecosystems are degraded and decline, has
    emphasized the importance of ecological
    restoration to maintain the earth's natural
    capital

16
The role of vegetation in restoration of degraded
rangelands
  • Vegetation plays an important role in erosion
    control it efficiently mitigates erosion by
    active and passive protection.
  • Active protection against erosive agents consists
    of raindrop interception and increase in water
    infiltration in soil, thermal regulation and soil
    fixation by root systems.
  • a passive protection by trapping and retaining
    sediments inside the catchment due to its aerial
    parts .

17
RANGELAND RESTORATION TECHNIQUES
  • Most techniques of Rangeland restoration aim at
    the improvement of soil water status by
    increasing infiltration or decreasing evaporative
    loss ( the mother of any production).
  • These restoration techniques include introducing
    transplants, Revegetation,
  • There are also biological and mechanical
    approaches. The biological approach includes
    planting methods of seeds using manure, gravel,
    and grass. where mechanical includes use of farm
    implements to disturb the soil.

18
Restoration Ecology and Evolutionary Process
  • Restoration activities have increased
    dramatically in recent years, creating
    evolutionary challenges and opportunities.
  • Any restoration program may thus entail
    consideration of evolution in the past, present,
    and future. Restoration efforts often involve
    dramatic and rapid shifts in habitat that may
    even lead to different ecological states (such as
    altered fire regimes) (Siding et al. 2003).

19
. Restoration Ecology for climate change
  • In the last two decades there have been
    significant theoretical breakthroughs and a
    proliferation of research on historical climate
    and climate-related sciences that have led to an
    overhaul of our understanding of Earths climate
    system (Smithand Uppenbrink 2001). And These
    new insights are relevant to restoration ecology
    for climate changeso much so that fuller
    understanding could trigger rethinking of
    fundamental principles. Conceptual views of the
    natural world influence tactical approaches to
    conservation, restoration, and resource
    management.

20
Restoration ecology for climate
  • By The way the phrase climate change usually
    connotes global warming, greenhouse gas impacts,
    novel anthropogenic threats, and international
    politics.
  • to understand and assimilate into restoration
    ecology theorythat is, the role of the natural
    climate system as a pervasive force of ecological
    change.

21
Thank you my dear audients
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