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Android App Development

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Title: Android App Development


1
ANDROID APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT IN AUSTRALIA
2
Contents

History
Introduction of android Android versions Android
architecture Security Features of
android Advantages of android Disadvantage of
android
3
HISTORY OF ANDROID
?Android Inc.founded in Palo Alto,
California ,United States in October 2003 by
Andy Rubin, Rich miner, Nick sears and
Chris white to develop Android.
4
WHAT IS ANDROID?
It is a open source software platform and
operating system for mobile devices
Based on the Linux kernel
Developed by Google and later the Open Handset
Alliance (OHA) Allows writing managed code in
the Java language
Android has its own virtual machine i.e.
DVM(Dalvik Virtual Machine),which is used for
executing the android application.
Google purchased the initial developer of the
software , android incorporated in 2005.
5
Open Handset Alliance
The open handset alliance(OHA) is a
business alliance of firm to develop open
standard for mobile devices.
Devoted to advancing open standards for mobile
devices
Develop technologies that will significantly
lower the cost of developing and distributing
mobile devices and services.
6
?
Open Handset Alliance (OHA) included several
companies
7
ANDROID VERSION
8
Code name N/A
Version number
Initial release date 23 September 2008 9 February
2009 27 April 2009
API level
1.0 1.1 1.5 1.6
1
2
Cupcake Donut Eclair
3
15 September 2009 26 October 2009 20 May 2010
4
2.0 2.1
57 8
Froyo
2.2 2.2.3 2.3 2.3.7 3.0 3.2.6 4.0
4.0.4 4.1 4.3.1 4.4 4.4.4 5.0 5.1.1 6.0
6.0.1 7.0
Gingerbread Honeycomb Ice Cream Sandwich Jelly
Bean
6 December 2010 22 February 2011 18 October
2011 9 July 2012
910 1113 1415 1618 1920 2122 23
KitKat
31 October 2013 12 November 2014 5 October
2015 22 August 2016
Lollipop
Marshmallow Nougat
24
9
Latest
Marshmallow(6.0)
Nought(7.0)
10
ANDROID ARCHITECTURE
The software stack is split into Four Layers

The application layer The application
framework The libraries and runtime The kernel
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LINUX KERNEL
The architecture is based on the Linux2.6
kernel. This layer is core of android
architecture. It provides service like power
management, memory management, security etc. It
helps in software or hardware binding for
better communication.
14
NATIVE LIBRARIES
Android has its own libraries, which is written
in C/C . These libraries cannot be accessed
directly. With the help of application framework,
we can access these libraries. There are many
libraries like web libraries to access web
browsers, libraries for android and video formats
etc.
15
Android Run Time
The Android Runtime was designed specifically
for Android to meet the needs of running in an
embedded environment where you have limited
battery, limited memory, limited CPU.
Dalvik is the process virtual machine in
Google's android operating system. It is the
software that runs the apps on android devices.
Dalvik is thus an integral part of android ,which
is typically used on mobile devices such as
mobile phones and tablet computers. Programs
are commonly written in java and compiled to byte
code.
16
Android Run Time
This is in blue, meaning that it's written
in the Java programming language.
The core library contains all of the
collection classes, utilities, IO, all the
utilities and tools that youve come to expected
to use.
17
Application Framework
This is all written in a Java programming
language and the application framework is the
toolkit that all applications use. These
applications include the ones that come with
a phone like the home applications, or the
phone application. It includes applications
written by Google, and it includes apps that will
be written by you. So, all apps use the same
framework and the same APIs.
18
Contd
These are as follows-
Ac tivity manager -It manages the lifecycle of
applications. It enable proper management of all
the activities. All the activities are
controlled by activity manager. Resourc e
manager -It provides access to non-code
resources such as graphics etc. Notific ation
manager -It enables all applications to display
custom alerts in status bar. Location manager-
It fires alerts when user enters or leaves
a specified geographical location.
Pac kag e manag er -It is use to retrieve the
data about installed packages on device. Window
manager -It is use to create views and layouts.
Telephony manager -It is use to handle
settings of network connection
and all information about services on device.
19
APPLICATION LAYER
the final layer on top is Applications.
It includes the home application the
contacts application , the browser, and apps.
It is the most upper layer in android
architecture.
All the applications like camera, Google maps,
browser,sms,calendars,contacts
are
native
applications. These applications works with end
user with the help of application framework to
operate.
20
Security
Android is a multi-process system, in which
each application (and parts of the system) runs
in its own process. Most security between
applications and the system is enforced at the
process level through standard Linux facilities,
such as user and group IDs that are assigned to
applications.
21
C
Android is designed having multi layer security
which provides flexibility for this platform.
When attackers attempt attack on device, android
platform help to reduce the portability of the
attack.
There are key components of android security
which are described as follows
? ? ? ?
Design review-when a security model is designed
then it will be reviewed by the developers so
that risk level will be very less while using the
model.
Code review and penetrating testing-the goal of
this code review is that in which it will be
checked that how the system will become strong?
Open source and community review-android uses
open source technologies that have significant
external review such as Linux kernel.
Incident response-android team enables the rapid
mitigation of vulnerabilities to ensure that
potential risks to all android users are
minimized.
22
Android Application Support
23
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