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Ovarian Cysts: Common Uterine Conditions (1)


An ovarian cyst is a sac filled with fluid or a semisolid material that forms on or within one of the ovaries, the small organs in the pelvis that make female hormones and hold egg cells. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ovarian Cysts: Common Uterine Conditions (1)

Ovarian Cysts
Ovarian Cysts
  • An ovarian cyst is a sac filled with fluid or a
    semisolid material that forms on or within one of
    the ovaries, the small organs in the pelvis that
    make female hormones and hold egg cells. There
    are different types of cysts, many of which are
    normal and harmless (benign). Functional cysts,
    which are not disease-related, occur as a result
    of ovulation (the release of an egg from the
    ovary). Functional cysts generally shrink over
    time, usually within 60 days, without specific
    treatment.  Functional ovarian cysts, which are
    relatively common, should not be confused with
    other types of cysts that are disease-related.
    Conditions such as polycystic ovary
    syndrome and ovarian cancer also involve growths
    on the ovaries. Tell your gynaecologist if you
    have any of the symptoms listed below. He or she
    can determine the type of cyst you have.

  • Some smaller cysts cause no symptoms you may not
    even know you have a cyst. Larger cysts may cause
    the following symptoms 
  • Pelvic pain or a dull ache in your back
  • A feeling of fullness (bloating) in your lower
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Painful periods
  • Some prolonged symptoms may be associated with a
    condition called polycystic ovary syndrome,
    a hormonal imbalance that causes irregular
    periods and other hormone-related problems,
    including obesity and infertility. Other symptoms
    of polycystic ovary syndrome include Hirsutism
    (increased growth of body hair) and obesity. The
    exact cause of ovarian cysts is not known.

How is an ovarian cyst diagnosed?
  • Your gynaecologist will first rule out pregnancy
    as the cause of your symptoms. He or she then may
    use the following tests to diagnose an ovarian
  • A pelvic examination During this exam, the
    doctor uses an instrument to widen the vagina,
    which allows the doctor to examine the vagina,
    cervix and uterus. The doctor also feels the
    reproductive organs for any lumps or changes.
  • Blood tests These tests are used to measure the
    levels of certain hormones in the blood.
  • Ultrasound This test uses sound waves to create
    images of the body's internal organs. It can be
    used to detect cysts on the ovaries.

  • Functional ovarian cysts generally go away
    without treatment. Your health care provider may
    give you medications containing hormones (such as
    birth control pills) to stop ovulation. If you do
    not ovulate, you will not form functional cysts.
    In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove
    a cyst.  Types of surgeries to remove ovarian
    cyst  The type of surgery used depends on the
    size of the cyst and how it appears on the
    ultrasound. The different procedures used
  • Laparoscopy This is a procedure in which the
    doctor inserts a small device through an incision
    in the abdomen.

  • He or she views the reproductive organs and
    pelvic cavity using the device. The doctor can
    remove the cyst through tiny incisions.
  • Laparotomy This procedure uses a bigger incision
    to remove the cyst. The cyst will be tested for
    cancer. If it is cancer, the doctor may need to
    remove one or both ovaries, the uterus, a fold of
    fatty tissue called the omentum and some lymph
    nodes. Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped
    structures found throughout the body that produce
    and store infection-fighting cells, but may
    contain cancer cells.

Are ovarian cysts preventable?
  • Taking medications that contain hormones (such
    as birth control pills) will stop ovulation.
    However, many women taking low-dose oral
    contraceptives may still ovulate. Although there
    has been no study that shows that oral
    contraceptive pills reduce the formation of the
    ovarian cysts, many gynaecologists still do
    prescribe this regimen.

When to visit a gynaecologist?
  • Schedule an appointment with your gynaecologist
  • Your menstrual periods are late, irregular, or
  • Your abdominal pain doesn't go away
  • Your abdomen becomes enlarged or swollen
  • You have trouble urinating or emptying your
    bladder completely
  • You have pain during intercourse
  • You have feelings of fullness (bloating),
    pressure, or discomfort in your abdomen
  • You lose weight for no apparent reason
  • You feel generally ill

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