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Amnesia Facts

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Amnesia is a form of memory loss. Some people with amnesia have difficulty forming new memories. Others can’t recall facts or past experiences. People with amnesia usually retain knowledge of their own identity, as well as motor skills. Mild memory loss is a normal part of aging. Significant memory loss, or the inability to form new memories, may indicate the presence of an amnestic disorder. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Amnesia Facts


1
Amnesia
  • By Must4care

2
Description of Amnesia by Must4care
  • Amnesia is when a person can no longer memorize
    or recall information that is stored in memory.
    It is very rare, despite being a popular theme
    for movies and books.
  • Being a little forgetful is completely different
    to having amnesia. Amnesia refers to a
    large-scale loss of memories that should not have
    been forgotten.
  • These may include important milestones in life,
    memorable events, key people in our lives, and
    vital facts we have been told or taught.

3
Fast Facts on Amnesia
  • Amnesia is an inability to lay down new memories,
    recall old memories, or both.
  • Other symptoms of amnesia can include confusion
    and uncoordinated movements.
  • Alcohol abuse can lead to a type of amnesia known
    as Wernicke-Korsakoff's psychosis.
  • Amnesia can be caused by many things including
    traumatic experiences and brain injury.
  • Amnesia usually resolves without treatment.

4
What is Amnesia?
  • People with amnesia also find it hard to remember
    the past, memorize new information, and imagine
    the future. This is because we construct future
    scenarios on the basis of our recollections of
    past experiences.
  • Our ability to recollect events and experiences
    involves a variety of complex brain processes. We
    still don't understand exactly what happens when
    we commit something to memory, or when we try to
    retrieve data stored in our brain.
  • Most people with amnesia are usually lucid and
    have a sense of self. However, they may
    experience severe difficulties in learning new
    information, struggle to recall memories of past
    experiences, or both.

5
Types of Amnesia
  • Anterograde Amnesia
  • The person cannot remember new information.
    Things that happened recently and information
    that should be stored into short-term memory
    disappear. This usually results from a brain
    trauma, when a blow to the head causes brain
    damage, for example. The person will remember
    data and events that happened before the injury.
  • Retrograde Amnesia
  • In some ways the opposite of anterograde amnesia,
    the person cannot remember events that occurred
    before their trauma, but they remember what
    happened after it. Rarely, both retrograde and
    anterograde amnesia can occur together.
  • Transient Global Amnesia
  • A temporary loss of all memory and, in severe
    cases, difficulty forming new memories. This is
    very rare and more likely in older adults with
    vascular (blood vessel) disease.

6
Types of Amnesia
  • Wernicke-Korsakoff's psychosis
  • Extended alcohol abuse can lead to progressive
    memory loss that worsens over time. The
    person may also have neurological problems, such
    as poor coordination and a loss of feeling in the
    toes and fingers. It can also be caused
    by malnutrition, specifically a thiamin
    (vitamin B1) deficiency.
  • Hysterical (fugue or dissociative) amnesia
  • Rarely, a person can forget not only their past
    but also their identity. They may wake up and
    suddenly have no sense of who they are. Even if
    they look in the mirror, they do not recognize
    their own reflection. A driving license, credit
    cards, or ID card will be meaningless. It is
    usually triggered by an event that the person's
    mind is unable to cope with properly. The ability
    to remember usually returns either slowly or
    suddenly within a few days, but the memory of the
    shocking event may never come back completely.
  • Childhood amnesia (infantile amnesia)
  • The person cannot recall events from early
    childhood, possible because of a language
    development problem or some memory areas of the
    brain not fully maturing during childhood.

7
Types of Amnesia
  • Posthypnotic Amnesia
  • Mustforcare says that in this Amnesia Events
    during hypnosis cannot be recalled.
  • Source Amnesia
  • The person can remember certain information but
    not how or where they got that information.
  • Blackout Phenomenon
  • A bout of heavy drinking can leave a person with
    memory gaps, where they cannot remember chunks of
    time during the binge.
  • Prosopamnesia
  • The person cannot remember faces. People can
    either acquire it or be born with it.

8
Symptoms of Amnesia
  • The ability to learn new information is impaired
    in anterograde amnesia.
  • The ability to remember past events and
    previously familiar information is impaired in
    retrograde amnesia
  • False memories may be either completely invented
    or consist of real memories misplaced in time, in
    a phenomenon known as confabulation.
  • Uncoordinated movements and tremors indicate
    neurological problems.
  • Confusion or disorientation may occur.
  • There may be problems with short-term memory,
    partial or total loss of memory
  • The person may be unable to recognize faces or
    locations.

9
Causes of Amnesia
  • Any disease or injury that affects the brain can
    interfere with memory. Memory function engages
    many different parts of the brain simultaneously.
  • Medical Amnesia- Amnesia resulting from brain
    injury or damage. Possible causes are
  • Stroke
  • Encephalitis, or brain inflammation, due to a
    bacterial or viral infection or an autoimmune
    reaction
  • Celiac disease may be linked to amnesia,
    confusion, and personality changes
  • Oxygen deprivation, resulting, for example, from
    a heart attack, respiratory distress, or carbon
    monoxide poisoning
  • Some medications, such as the sleeping drug,
    Ambien
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage, or bleeding in the area
    between the skull and the brain
  • A brain tumor that affects a part of the brain
    involved in memory
  • Some seizure disorders
  • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)), or electroshock
    therapy, a psychiatric treatment where seizures
    are induced for therapeutic effect, may lead to
    temporary memory loss
  • Head injuries, which can lead to loss of memory
    that is usually temporary

10
Causes of Amnesia
  • Psychological amnesia- Also known as
    dissociative amnesia, this is caused by an
    emotional shock, such as
  • A Violent Crime
  • Sexual Or Other Abuse
  • Military Combat
  • A Natural Disaster
  • A Terrorist Act

11
Treatment of Amnesia
  • In most cases, amnesia resolves itself without
    treatment. However, if an underlying physical or
    mental disorder is present, treatment may be
    necessary.
  • Psychotherapy can help some patients. Hypnosis
    can be an effective way of recalling memories
    that have been forgotten.
  • Family support is crucial. Photographs, smells,
    and music may help.
  • Treatment often involves techniques and
    strategies to help compensate for the memory
    problem.
  • This may involve
  • Working with an occupational therapist to acquire
    new information to replace lost memories, or to
    use existing memories as a basis for acquiring
    new information.
  • Learning strategies for organizing information,
    to make it easier to store.
  • Using digital aids, such as smartphones, to help
    with daily tasks and remind patients about
    important events, when to take medications, and
    so on. A contact list with photographs of faces
    may be helpful.
  • There are currently no drugs for restoring memory
    lost due to amnesia.
  • Malnutrition or wernicke-korsakoff syndrome can
    involve memory loss due to a thiamin (vitamin b1)
    deficiency, so targeted nutrition can help.

12
God Bless Us
13
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