Endometriosis: A complication of the female reproductive system - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Endometriosis: A complication of the female reproductive system


Endometriosis is a medical condition that affects a woman's reproductive system. The uterus, also known as the womb, is an organ where the baby develops till birth. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Endometriosis: A complication of the female reproductive system

  • A disorder in which the tissue that forms the
    lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterine
    cavity is Endometriosis and the lining of the
    uterus is called the endometrium.
  • When the endometrium grows on the ovaries, bowel,
    and tissues lining the pelvis, Endometriosis
  • For endometrial tissue to spread beyond the
    pelvic region is unusual, but it's never
  • An endometrial implant is known when endometrial
    tissue growing outside of the uterus.
  • The area to become inflamed and painful caused by
    hormonal changes of the menstrual cycle affect
    the misplaced endometrial tissue.

Symptoms of endometriosis
  • There are certain symptoms which may include
  • Pelvic pain is the most common symptom of
  • Painful periods
  • Pain in the lower abdomen before and during
  • Cramps one or two weeks around menstruation
  • Heavy menstrual bleeding or bleeding between
  • Infertility
  • Pain following sexual intercourse
  • Discomfort with bowel movements
  • Lower back pain that may occur at any time during
    your menstrual cycle

Causes of endometriosis
  • There are various causes which are as follows
  • Retrograde menstruation Menstrual blood
    containing endometrial cells flows back into the
    pelvic cavity instead of out of the body in
    retrograde menstruation and these cells can stick
    and become thick over the period of time.
  • Transformation of peritoneal cells It is found
    that hormones or immune factors promote
    transformation of peritoneal cells, cells that
    line the inner side of the abdomen, into
    endometrial cells.
  • Embryonic cell transformation During puberty,
    hormones such as estrogens may transform
    embryonic cells into endometrial cell implants.
  • Surgical scar implantation Endometrial cells may
    attach to a surgical incision such as
    a hysterectomy or C-section, after a surgery.

Causes of endometriosis
  • Endometrial cells transport The blood vessels or
    tissue fluid system may transport endometrial
    cells to other parts of the body.
  • Immune system disorder Any immune system
    disorder may make the body unable to recognize
    and destroy endometrial tissue that's growing
    outside the uterus.

Risk factors of endometriosis
  • There are several risk factors which include
  • Never giving birth
  • Starting period at an early age
  • Going through menopause at an older age
  • Short menstrual cycles , for instance, less than
    27 days
  • Having higher levels of estrogens in the body or
    greater exposure to estrogens the body produces
  • Low body mass index
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Family history of endometriosis
  • Any medical condition that prevents the normal
    passage of menstrual flow out of the body
  • Uterine abnormalities

Treatments of endometriosis
  • Certain treatments may be
  • Pain medication Over-the-counter pain
    medications such as ibuprofen can be used to
    release symptoms, but it can't decrease
  • Hormonal therapy Taking supplemental hormones
    can sometimes relieve pain and stop the
  • Hormonal contraceptives Hormonal contraceptives
    decrease fertility by preventing the monthly
    growth and build-up of endometrial tissue. Birth
    control pills, patches, and vaginal rings can
    reduce or even eliminate the pain in less-severe
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GRNH) agonists
    and antagonists GNRH stops the release of
    hormone estrogens. This prevents menstruation and
    creates an artificial menopause. But it can cause
    certain side effects such as hirsutism etc.

Treatments of endometriosis
  • Conservative surgery It is for women who want to
    get pregnant or suffer from severe pain and for
    whom hormonal treatments are not working.
    Conservative surgery removes or destroys
    endometrial growths without damaging your
    reproductive organs.
  • Laparoscopy Small hole surgery, is used to both
    visualize, diagnose, and remove the endometrial
    tissue. Small incisions are made in the abdomen
    to remove the growths of the tissue surgically
    and to burn or vaporize them. Laser is commonly
    used for these tissues.
  • Hysterectomy It is used as a last method if the
    patient doesn't respond to other treatments.
    During a total hysterectomy, doctor will remove
    the uterus and cervix. Doctor can also remove the
    ovaries because they make estrogens and estrogens
    cause the growth of endometrial tissue.

Diagnosis of endometriosis
  • Certain diagnosis techniques are
  • A detailed family or medical history may help the
    doctor to rule out other issues
  • Physical test of the cysts or scar behind the
    uterus may help the doctor to diagnose
  • Use a trans-vaginal ultrasound or an abdominal
    ultrasound ma be done to rule out cysts
    associated with endometriosis.
  • Laparoscopy is the method to identify
    endometriosis accurately by seeing it physically
    through a small operation.
  • Fertility is the most common complication which
    occurs in endometriosis. About one-third to
    one-half of the women with endometriosis has
    serious issues with pregnancy. Certain IVF
    techniques can be their survivor.

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