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Acute Pancreatitis: Symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment of Acute Pancreatitis (1)

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Acute Pancreatitis is sudden swelling and inflammation of the pancreas. It is accompanied by severe abdominal pain. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Acute Pancreatitis: Symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment of Acute Pancreatitis (1)


1
Acute Pancreatitis
2
Acute Pancreatitis
  • Acute Pancreatitis is sudden swelling and
    inflammation of the pancreas. It is accompanied
    by severe abdominal pain. Acute Pancreatitis
    usually resolves itself within a few days with
    treatment but can be life-threatening with severe
    complications. This condition usually develops
    from gallstones or moderate to heavy alcohol
    consumption over a period of years.

3
Causes of Acute Pancreatitis
  • Most cases of acute pancreatitis are caused by
    gallstones and alcoholhowever in some cases the
    cause is unknown. Other causes of acute
    pancreatitis include
  • Autoimmune problems
  • High levels of triglycerides
  • Damage to pancreas during surgery
  • Blockage of pancreatic duct or common bile duct
  • Certain medications such as estrogens, corticoster
    oids and thiazide diuretics
  • Viral infections such as mumps
  • Heredity
  • Reyes syndrome

4
Symptoms
  • The main symptom for acute pancreatitis is
    abdominal pain felt in the upper left side or
    middle of the abdomen. This pain
  • Typically last for days and is relieved by
    leaning forward
  • Radiates to the back or below the left
    shoulder-blade
  • Worsen when lying flat on the back
  • Appears suddenly and becomes constant and more
    severe
  • Feels worse after eating
  • Other symptoms include
  • Jaundice
  • Clay coloured stools
  • Swollen abdomen

5
Symptoms
Continue
  • Indigestion
  • Skin rash
  • Skin lesions
  • Gaseous abdominal fullness
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Rapid pulse
  • Fever

6
Test and diagnosis of acute pancreatitis
  • To diagnose this disease, the doctor will ask
    for your medical history. He will also do
    a physical examination that may reveal
  • Abdominal tenderness or mass
  • Rapid heart beat
  • Rapid breathing
  • Low blood pressure
  • He may also order blood tests which include
    a complete blood count and a comprehensive metabol
    ic panel (it provides the overall picture of your
    body's chemical balance and metabolism). Imaging
    tests may also be done. These include Abdominal
    ultrasound to check for inflammation

7
Test and diagnosis of acute pancreatitis
Continue
  • CAT scan to check for gallstones and extent
    of damage to the pancreas
  • MRI to show the pancreas, gallbladder, and
    pancreatic and bile ducts.
  • Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) to create visual
    images of the pancreas and bile duct.
  • Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
    (ERCP) to remove stones from the bile duct if
    your condition is caused by gallstones. It can
    also be used to treat some causes of pancreatitis.

8
Treatments
  • Treatment usually requires hospitalization for
    intravenous fluids, antibiotics and pain
    medications. A tube may be inserted through the
    nose or mouth to remove stomach contents if you
    vomiting or have severe pain that does not
    improve. In severe cases, the patient may require
    nasogastric feeding in which a special feed is
    given through a thin long tube inserted through
    the nose and throat and into the stomach. This
    may be done for several weeks until the pancreas
    heals. If no complications occur, most cases of
    pancreatitis resolves itself within a few
    days. In some cases fluid around the pancreas
    may be collected, gallstones may be removed or
    blockages of the pancreatic duct may be relieved.
    In more severe cases, surgery may be needed to
    remove dead or infected pancreatic tissues.
    Before leaving the hospital, patient may be
    advised not to smoke, drink alcoholic beverages,
    or eat fatty meals.

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