Skin Cancer : Overview, Symptoms, Causes, Sign, Risk Factor, Complication, Diagnosis and Treatment (1) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Skin Cancer : Overview, Symptoms, Causes, Sign, Risk Factor, Complication, Diagnosis and Treatment (1)

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Skin cancer is the most common type of skin cancer among people. There are three common form of skin cancer the Basal cell carcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma and Melanoma. Mostly the cause of skin cancer is over exposure to the Ultra Violet rays of the sun or any other sources. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Skin Cancer : Overview, Symptoms, Causes, Sign, Risk Factor, Complication, Diagnosis and Treatment (1)


1
Skin Cancer
2
Skin Cancer
  • Skin cancer  is common and locally destructive
    cancerous growth of the skin. It originates from
    the cells that line up along the membrane that
    separates the superficial layer of skin from the
    deeper layers.
  • Unlike malignant melanoma, the vast majority of
    skin cancers has less potential to spread to the
    other parts of the body.
  • It is the most common form of cancer in United
    States.

3
Types of skin cancer
  • Basal cell carcinoma- It is the most common type
    of skin cancer, it can originate from the skin
    cells. It is not malignant is nature and can be
    easily treatable.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma - It is also the second
    most common type of skin cancer and also
    originates from the skin cells. Like basal cell
    carcinoma, it is not malignant in nature and can
    be easily treatable.
  • Melanoma- This skin cancer originates from the
    pigment-producing skin cells (melanocytes) but is
    less common from the first two varieties. But it
    can be far more dangerous than the other skin
    cancers. It can grow and spread to other parts.

4
Symptoms
  • Symptoms of skin cancer
  • Signs and symptoms of basal cell carcinomas
    include
  • Appearance of a shiny pink, red, pearly, or
    translucent bump
  • Pink skin growths or lesions with raised borders
    that are crusted in the center
  • Raised reddish patch of skin that may crust or
    itch, but is usually not painful
  • A white, yellow, or waxy area with a poorly
    defined border that may resemble a scar
  • Signs and symptoms of squamous cell carcinomas
    include
  • Persistent, scaly red patches with irregular
    borders that may bleed easily

5
Symptoms
Continue
  • Open sore that does not go away for weeks
  • A raised growth with a rough surface that is
    indented in the middle
  • A wart-like growth
  • Actinic keratoses (AK), also called solar
    keratoses, are scaly, crusty lesions caused by
    damage from ultraviolet light, often in the
    facial area, scalp, and backs of the hands. These
    are considered precancers because if untreated,
    up to 10 of actinic keratoses may develop into
    squamous cell carcinomas.

6
Diagnosis of skin cancer
  • Diagnosis of skin cancer may include
  • Examination of skin- The doctor may look at the
    patients' skin to determine whether the skin
    changes are likely to be skin cancer. Further
    testing may be needed to confirm that diagnosis.
  • Remove a sample of suspicious skin for testing
    (skin biopsy)- Doctor may remove the
    suspicious-looking skin for lab testing. A biopsy
    can determine whether the patient skin cancer
    and, if so, what type of skin cancer it is.
  • As most common skin cancer is not malignant, as
    it doesn't spreads to other tissues, so biopsy
    may be the only option of determination of
    cancer.

7
Diagnosis of skin cancer
Continue
  • But, in case of melanoma skin cancer, certain
    imaging test may be done such as Chest X-ray, CT
    scan, MRI imaging and Pet/CT scan to check
    whether the cancer has spread from skin to spine,
    chest, lymph nodes and other body organs.
  • \

8
Causes of skin cancer
  • Basal cell skin cancers arise from DNA mutations
    in the basaloid cells in the upper layer of the
    skin.
  • Many of these early cancers seem to be controlled
    by natural immune surveillance, which when
    compromised may permit the development of masses
    of malignant cells that begin to grow into
    tumours.
  • In squamous cell cancers, the tumours arise from
    normal squamous cells in the higher layers of the
    skin of the epidermis.
  • Here, cells are prevented from growing
    unnaturally, but when certain mutations occur or
    the immune system is compromised, certain cancer
    growth can occur.
  • For both the cases, ultraviolet rays may be
    leading cause of cancer.

9
Risk factors of skin cancer
  • Ultraviolet light exposure, either from the sun
    or from tanning beds. Fair-skinned individuals
    are more vulnerable. The problem is worse in
    areas of high elevation or near the equator where
    sunlight exposure is more intense.
  • A chronically suppressed immune system
    (immunosuppression) from underlying diseases such
    as HIV/AIDS infection or cancer, or from some
    medications such as prednisone or chemotherapy
  • Exposure to ionizing radiation (X-rays) or
    chemicals known to predispose to cancer such as
    arsenic
  • Certain types of sexually acquired wart virus
    infections
  • People who have a history of one skin cancer have
    a 20 chance of developing a second skin cancer
    in the next two years.
  • Elderly patients have more skin cancers

10
Treatment
  • Treatments of skin cancer
  • There are several effective means of treating
    skin cancer. The choice of therapy depends on the
    location and size of the tumor, and the general
    health of the patient.
  • Topical medications In the case of superficial
    basal cell carcinomas, some creams, gels, and
    solutions can be used, including imiquimod
    (Aldara), which works by stimulating the body's
    immune system. Side effects are not common but
    some may experience redness and inflammation.
  • Destruction by electrodessication and curettage
    (EDC) The tumor area is numbed with a local
    anesthetic and is repeatedly scraped with a sharp
    instrument (curette), and the edge is then
    attached with an electric needle.

11
Treatment
Continue
  • Surgical excision The area around the tumor is
    numbed with a local anesthetic. A football-shaped
    portion of tissue including the tumor is then
    removed and then the wound edges are closed with
    sutures. For very big tumors, skin grafts or
    flaps are needed to close the defect.
  • Mohs micrographic surgery The site is locally
    anesthetized and the surgeon removes the visible
    tumor with a small margin of normal tissue. The
    tissue is immediately evaluated under a
    microscope and areas that demonstrate residual
    microscopic tumor involvement are re-excised and
    the margins are re-examined. This cycle continues
    until no further tumor is seen.
  • Radiation therapy Ten to fifteen treatment
    sessions deliver a high dose of radiation to the
    tumor and a small surrounding skin area. This
    form of treatment is useful in those who are not
    candidates for any surgical procedure.

12
Treatment
Continue
  • The advantage of radiation therapy is that there
    is no cutting involved.. It is usually served to
    elderly patients.
  • Other types of treatments for skin
    cancers include cryosurgery where tissue is
    destroyed by freezing, photodynamic therapy (PDT)
    in which medication and blue light is used to
    destroy the cancerous tissue, laser surgery to
    vaporize (ablate) the skin's top layer and
    destroy lesions, and oral medications .
  • In most cases, Skin cancer patients are left out
    from the society, due to their appearance from
    the changing skin, a patient must be always given
    full support from family, friends and society so
    that they can recover fast and well.

13
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