Myocardial infarction : Overview, Causes, Symptoms, treatment and diagnosis - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Myocardial infarction : Overview, Causes, Symptoms, treatment and diagnosis


Myocardial infarction: A heart attack. The term "myocardial infarction" focuses on the myocardium (the heart muscle) and the changes that occur in it due to the sudden deprivation of circulating blood. The main change is necrosis (death) of myocardial tissue. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Myocardial infarction : Overview, Causes, Symptoms, treatment and diagnosis

Myocardial infarction
Myocardial infarction
  • Myocardial infarction  is the medical name for
    a heart attack. Heart attacks occur when the flow
    of blood to the heart becomes blocked. They can
    cause tissue damage and can even be
  • The heart requires its own constant supply of
    oxygen and nutrients, like any muscle in the
  • The heart has three coronary arteries, two of
    them large, branching arteries that deliver
    oxygenated blood to the heart muscle.
  • If one of these arteries or branches becomes
    blocked suddenly, a portion of the heart is
    starved of oxygen, a condition called "cardiac
  • If cardiac ischemia lasts too long, the starved
    heart tissue dies. This is a heart attack

  • Symptoms of myocardial infarction
  • In many cases there may be no symptoms, but 25
    of the heart attacks show symptoms. Treating the
    symptoms at correct time can always rescue
    patients. Symptoms may include
  • Tightness in the chest
  • Pain in the chest, back, jaw, and other areas of
    the upper body that lasts more than a few minutes
    or that goes away and comes back (this may be the
    most early sign of heart attack)
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sweating
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Anxiety
  • Dizziness
  • Fast heart rate

Diagnosis of myocardial infarction
  • Physical test of the heart beat is the primary
    test which is done to know if the heart is
    working properly.
  • Stress test may also be done to see the beating
    of heart during any intense physical exercise.
  • Measuring of blood pressure
  • An electrocardiogram, to measure the hearts
    electrical activity
  • An angiogram, to look for the areas where the
    arteries are blocked
  • An echocardiogram, to look for the areas of the
    heart that arent working properly.

Causes of myocardial infarction
  • Most of the heart attacks are the result of
    atherosclerosis or "hardening of the arteries," a
    condition that clogs coronary arteries with
    fatty, calcified plaques over time.
  • Inflammation may also be the cause of heart
    attack, coronary artery walls become inflated
    over time, further increasing the build up of
    fatty plaques.
  • Bad cholesterol- Bad cholesterol, also
    called low-density lipoprotein (LDL), is one of
    the leading causes of a blockage in the arteries.
  • Saturated fat-Saturated fats also contribute to
    the build up of plaque in the coronary arteries.
    This fats are mostly found meat and dairy
    products, including beef, butter, and cheese
  • Trans fat- Another fat which can lead to the
    clogging of arteries are trans fat or
    hydrogenated fat which is artificially created.

Risk factors of myocardial infarction
  • Though anyone can have myocardial infarction, but
    there may be some risk factors. This may include
  • High blood pressure
  • Hugh cholesterol level
  • High triglyceride level
  • Age (Men are at higher risk after age 45 and
    women after 55)
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes/ High blood sugar level
  • Family history
  • Smoking

  • Treatments of myocardial infarction
  • Heart attack in most cases are emergency, in such
    cases surgical methods are used
  • Procedure called angioplasty may be used to
    unblock the arteries that supply blood to the
  • In some cases coronary artery bypass graft
    (CABG) is done. In this procedure, the surgeon
    will reroute the veins and arteries so the blood
    can flow around the blockage.
  • Certain medications can also be used to treat
    heart attack, which may include
  • Blood thinners, such as aspirin, are often used
    to break up blood clots and improve blood flow
    through narrowed arteries.

  • Thrombolytics are often used to dissolve clots.
  • Antiplatelet drugs, such as clopidogrel, can be
    used to prevent new clots from forming and
    existing clots from growing.
  • Nitroglycerine can be used to widen the blood
  • Beta-blockers lower the blood pressure and relax
    the heart muscle. This can help limit the
    severity of damage to the heart.
  • ACE inhibitors can also be used to lower blood
    pressure and decrease stress on the heart.

Complications of myocardial infarction
  • Depending on the severity of the heart attack,
    certain other complications can alaso occur, such
  • Heart failure
  • Arrhythmias or abnormal heart rhythms
  • Cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death, where the
    heart stops beating.
  • Cardiogenic shock, where the heart is so damaged
    from the heart attack that a person goes into
    shock, which may result in damage of other vital
    organs like the kidneys or liver
  • Death
  • Myocardial infarction can be treated, and
    certain fatality can be minimized if the symptoms
    are treated as early as possible.

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