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Bacterial skin infections : Causes, Symptoms, Treatment and Diagnosis

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Bacterial Skin Infection An infection caused by bacteria. The growth of many disease causing bacteria can be halted by the use of antibiotics. Diseases caused by bacterial infections include diphtheria, gonorrhea, tuberculosis, and typhoid fever. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Bacterial skin infections : Causes, Symptoms, Treatment and Diagnosis


1
Bacterial skin infections
2
Bacterial skin infections
  • Skin is the largest organ of your body. Its
    function is to protect your body from infection.
    Sometimes the skin itself becomes infected.
  • Skin infections are caused by a wide variety of
    germs, and symptoms can vary from mild to
    serious.
  • Mild infections may be treatable with
    over-the-counter medications and home remedies,
    whereas other infections may require medical
    attention.
  • Bacterial skin infections often begin as small,
    red bumps that slowly increase in size. Some
    bacterial infections are mild and easily treated
    with topical antibiotics, but other infections
    require an oral antibiotic.

3
Symptoms
  • Symptoms of bacterial infections
  • Leprosy- The main symptoms of leprosy include
  • Muscle weakness
  • Numbness in the hands, arms, feet, and legs
  • Skin lesions
  • Skin lesions decrease sensation to touch,
    temperature, or pain.
  • They dont heal after several weeks and are
    lighter than the normal skin tone.
  • Impetigo- The symptoms of impetigo may include
  • Red sores that pop easily and leave a yellow
    crust
  • Fluid-filled blisters
  • Itchy rash
  • Skin lesions

4
Symptoms
Continue
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Cellulites- The symptoms of cellulites may
    include
  • Pain and tenderness in the affected area
  • Redness or inflammation of your skin
  • A skin sore or rash that appears and grows
    quickly
  • A tight, glossy, swollen appearance of the skin
  • A feeling of warmth in the affected area
  • A central area that has an abscess with pus
    formation
  • A fever
  • Furuncle- Certain symptoms may include
  • Benign-looking bump on the skin, similar to a
    pimple.
  • The boil can become hard and painful with
    increasing infection
  • Bacteria and dead skin cells may build up under
    the skin, forming pus
  • Pressure builds, which may cause the furuncle to
    burst and release its fluids

5
Diagnosis of bacterial infections
  • Leprosy- A physical exam is done to look for the
    signs and symptoms of the disease.
  • A skin biopsy or scraping is done, e a small
    piece of skin is removed and tested to see the
    bacteria.
  • A lepromin skin test to determine the form of
    leprosy
  • Cellulites- A physical exam must be known to know
    the extents of spread of symptoms. In some cases
    blood test is also done to confirm the diagnosis.
  • Impetigo Most diagnosis is done by physical
    test. In some cases culture may be done, to know
    the bacteria causing the infection.
  • Furuncle It is also diagnosed by a physical
    test.

6
Types of bacterial infections
  • Leprosy- Leprosy is a chronic, progressive
    bacterial infection caused by the bacterium
    Mycobacterium leprae.
  • It primarily affects the nerves of the
    extremities, the lining of the nose, and the
    upper respiratory tract.
  • Leprosy produces skin sores, nerve damage, and
    muscle weakness.
  • If it isnt treated, it can cause severe
    disfigurement and significant disability.
  • Cellulitis- Cellulitis is a common bacterial skin
    infection. Cellulitis may first appear as a red,
    swollen area that feels hot and tender to the
    touch.
  • The redness and swelling often spread rapidly.
    Cellulitis is usually painful.
  • In most cases, the skin on the lower legs is
    affected, although the infection can occur
    anywhere on your body or face.

7
Types of bacterial infections
Continue
  • Cellulitis usually affects the surface of your
    skin, but it may also affect the underlying
    tissues of your skin.
  • Cellulitis can also spread to the lymph nodes and
    bloodstream
  • Impetigo- Impetigo is caused by skin infection
    with one of two types of bacteria, Streptococcus
    pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus.
  • It is very contagious and can spread from one
    person to another.
  • It usually occurs on the face, neck, and hands of
    young children and infants.
  • Furuncle- Furuncle or boils are bacterial or
    fungal infections of hair follicles.
  • The infected hair follicle can be on any part of
    your body, not only in scalp.
  • When the hair follicle becomes infected, the skin
    around it becomes inflamed.
  • The furuncle looks like a red, raised bump on the
    skin and will rupture and weep fluid.

8
Causes of bacterial infections
  • Impetigo- AN impetigo can occur in different
    ways, which are
  • Skin-to-skin contact with a person who has
    impetigo
  • Touching things a person with impetigo has had
    contact with, such as towels, bedding, or toy
  • Injury to the skin
  • Insect bites
  • Animal bites
  • Cellulitis Cellulitis occurs when certain types
    of bacteria enter through a cut or crack in the
    skin.
  • Cellulitis is commonly caused by Staphylococcus
    and Streptococcus bacteria.

9
Causes of bacterial infections
Continue
  • Skin injuries such as cuts, insect bites, or
    surgical incisions are commonly the sites of the
    infection.
  • A weakened immune system
  • Skin conditions that cause breaks in the skin,
    such as eczema and athletes foot
  • Intravenous (IV) drug use
  • Diabetes
  • A history of cellulitis
  • Furuncle The most common bacterium is
    Staphylococcus aureus, hence why furuncles can
    also be called staph infections.
  • Everyone has S. aureus on their skin as a normal
    occurrence.

10
Causes of bacterial infections
Continue
  • The bacterium causes an infection only if it
    enters your bloodstream through an open wound,
    such as a cut or a scratch.
  • Once the bacterium is in your blood, your immune
    system tries to fight it and the boil is actually
    the result of your white blood cells working to
    eliminate it.

11
Treatment
  • Treatments of bacterial infections
  • Leprosy-Certain antibodies are used to treat
    leprosy, which include
  • Dapson
  • Rifampin
  • Clofazamine
  • Minocycline
  • Ofloxacin
  • Cellulites- Oral antibodies are used to treat
    cellulites.
  • Impetigo- For impetigo tropical antibiotic to
    apply directly to the skin may be used, or oral
    antibiotic is used.
  • Furuncle- For boils (furuncle) tropical
    antibiotic to apply directly to the skin may be
    used, or oral antibiotic is used

12
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