Arteriovenous Malformations Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Risk factor, Prevention Treatment in India - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Arteriovenous Malformations Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Risk factor, Prevention Treatment in India

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An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal tangle of blood vessels connecting arteries and veins, which disrupts normal blood flow and oxygen circulation. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Arteriovenous Malformations Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Risk factor, Prevention Treatment in India


1
Arteriovenous Malformations
2
What are Arteriovenous Malformations?
  • Veins carry deoxygenated blood towards the heart
    and the arteries carry oxygenated blood from the
    heart to the brain. Arteriovenous
    Malformations interrupt this process.
    Arteriovenous Malfunctions may occur in the
    spinal cord, brain or the brain stream. The only
    main cause of Arteriovenous Malfunctions is a
    genetic disorder passed on by parents.
  • Normally, arteries carry blood containing oxygen
    from the heart to the brain, and veins carry
    blood with less oxygen away from the brain and
    back to the heart. When an arteriovenous
    malformation (AVM) occurs, a tangle of blood
    vessels in the brain or on its surface bypasses
    normal brain tissue and directly diverts blood
    from the arteries to the veins.

3
What are Arteriovenous Malformations?
Continue
  • An arteriovenous malformation can develop
    anywhere in your body but occurs most often in
    the brain or spine. Even so brain Arteriovenous
    Malformations (AVM) is rare and affects less than
    1 percent of the population.
  • Some people with brain arteriovenous
    malformation (AVM) experience signs and symptoms,
    such as headache or seizures. Arteriovenous
    malformations (AVM) are commonly found after a
    brain scan for another health issue or after the
    blood vessels rupture and cause bleeding in
    the brain (hemorrhage).
  • Once diagnosed, a brain arteriovenous
    malformation (AVM) can often be treated
    successfully to prevent complications, such as
    brain damage or stroke.

4
Symptoms
  • What is the cause of Arteriovenous Malformation?
  • The cause of brain Arteriovenous Malformation
    (AVM) is unknown, but researchers believe most
    brain Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM) emerges
    during fetal development.
  • Normally, your heart sends oxygen-rich blood to
    your brain through arteries. The arteries slow
    blood flow by passing it through a series of
    progressively smaller networks of blood vessels,
    ending with the smallest blood vessels
    (capillaries). The capillaries slowly deliver
    oxygen through their thin, porous walls to the
    surrounding brain tissue.
  • The oxygen-depleted blood then passes into small
    blood vessels and then into larger veins that
    drain the blood from your brain, returning it to
    your heart and lungs to get more oxygen.
  • The arteries and veins in an Arteriovenous
    Malformation (AVM) lack this supporting network
    of smaller blood vessels and capillaries.
    Instead, the abnormal connection causes blood to
    flow quickly and directly from your arteries to
    your veins, bypassing the surrounding tissues.

5
Treatment
  • What is the cost for the treatment of
    Arteriovenous Malformation in India?
  • The cost for the treatment of Arteriovenous
    Malformation in India is approx 8 lakhs.
  • Which specialty of doctor is to be consulted for
    the treatment of Arteriovenous Malformation in
    India?
  • Vascular neurosurgeons specialize in surgically
    removing brain Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM).
  • Radiation therapists/neurosurgeons specialize in
    the stereotactic radiosurgery treatment of brain
    Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM).
  • Interventional neuroradiologists/endovascular
    neurosurgeons specialize in the endovascular
    therapy of brain Arteriovenous Malformation
    (AVM).
  • Stroke neurologists specialize in the medical
    management of brain Arteriovenous Malformation
    (AVM).

6
Treatment
Continue
  • These specialties of doctor are to be consulted
    for the treatment of Arteriovenous Malformation
    in India.
  • Which hospital is to be preferred for the
    treatment of Arteriovenous Malformation in India?
  • Medanta - The Medicity hospital in India is to
    be preferred for the treatment of Arteriovenous
    Malformation in India.

7
FAQ's
  • 1. What are the symptoms of Arteriovenous
    Malformation?
  • A brain arteriovenous malformation may not cause
    any signs or symptoms until the Arteriovenous
    Malformations (AVM) ruptures, resulting in
    bleeding in the brain (hemorrhage). In about half
    of all brain Arteriovenous Malformations (AVM),
    hemorrhage is the first sign.
  • But some people with brain Arteriovenous
    Malformations (AVM) may experience signs and
    symptoms other than bleeding related to the
    Arteriovenous Malformations (AVM).
  • In people without hemorrhage, signs and symptoms
    of a brain Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM) may
    include
  • Seizures
  • Headache or pain in one area of the head
  • Muscle weakness or numbness in one part of the
    body

8
FAQ's
Continue
  • Some people may experience more-serious
    neurological signs and symptoms, depending on the
    location of the Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM),
    including
  • Severe headache
  • Weakness, numbness or paralysis
  • Vision loss
  • Difficulty speaking
  • Confusion or inability to understand others
  • Severe unsteadiness
  • Symptoms may begin at any age but usually emerge
    between ages 10 and 40. Brain Arteriovenous
    Malformations (AVM) can damage brain tissue over
    time. The effects slowly build up and often cause
    symptoms in early adulthood.
  • Once you reach middle age, however, brain
    Arteriovenous Malformations (AVM) tends to remain
    stable and is less likely to cause symptoms.

9
FAQ's
Continue
  • Some pregnant women may have worsened symptoms
    due to changes in blood volume and blood
    pressure.
  • One severe type of brain Arteriovenous
    Malformation (AVM), called a vein of Galen
    defect, causes signs and symptoms that emerge
    soon or immediately after birth. The major blood
    vessel involved in this type of brain
    Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM) can cause fluid
    to build up in the brain and the head to swell.
    Signs and symptoms include swollen veins that are
    visible on the scalp, seizures, failure to thrive
    and congestive heart failure.
  • 2. Who is at the risk for Arteriovenous
    Malformations?
  • There are certain genetic syndromes that can put
    you at increased risk of having Arteriovenous
    Malformations (AVM), such as hereditary
    hemorrhagic telangiectasia or Osler-Weber-Rendu
    syndrome. There have been rare reports of
    Arteriovenous Malformations (AVM) in several
    family members, though it's unclear if this is
    genetic or coincidental.

10
FAQ's
Continue
  • Being male - Arteriovenous Malformations (AVM)
    are more common in males.
  • 3. How are Arteriovenous Malformations diagnosed?
  • Most Arteriovenous Malformations (AVM) are
    detected with either a computed tomography (CT)
    brain scan or a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    brain scan. These tests are very good at
    detecting brain Arteriovenous Malformations
    (AVM). They also provide information about the
    location and size of the Arteriovenous
    Malformation (AVM) and whether it may have bled.
    A doctor may also perform a cerebral angiogram.
    This test involves inserting a catheter (small
    tube) through an artery in the leg (groin). Then
    it's guided into each of the vessels in the neck
    going to the brain, and a contrast material (dye)
    is injected and pictures are taken of all the
    blood vessels in the brain. For any type of
    treatment involving an Arteriovenous Malformation
    (AVM), an angiogram may be needed to better
    identify the type of Arteriovenous Malformation
    (AVM).

11
FAQ's
Continue
  • 4. When to see a doctor in case of Arteriovenous
    Malformation?
  • Seek immediate medical attention if you notice
    any signs or symptoms of a brain Arteriovenous
    Malformation (AVM), such as seizures, headaches
    or other symptoms. A bleeding brain Arteriovenous
    Malformation (AVM) is life-threatening and
    requires emergency medical attention.
  • 5. How are Arteriovenous Malformations treated?
  • There are a few potential treatment alternatives
    for Arteriovenous Malformation. The primary
    objectives of the treatment are to avoid
    hemorrhage, to control seizures or neurological
    difficulties. Your specialist will decide the
    most suitable treatment for your condition
    depending on your age, well-being, and the size
    of the malformation.
  • Stereotactic Radiosurgery
  • Stereotactic radiosurgery  uses radiation to
    breakdown the Arteriovenous malformation.

12
FAQ's
Continue
  • A beam of radiation is directed towards the
    Arteriovenous malformation for a small duration.
  • Endovascular Embolization
  • In Endovascular embolization, the specialist
    embeds a catheter (thin tube) into the patient's
    leg artery and strings it through the veins to
    the cerebrum using X-Ray imaging.
  • The thin tube (catheter) is positioned in one of
    the artery to the Arteriovenous malformation and
    infuses an embolizing agent like a paste or micro
    coils to hinder the supply route (artery) and
    decrease blood stream into the Arteriovenous
    malformation. Endovascular embolization is less
    obtrusive than conventional surgery.
  • Surgical Removal
  • The patient may need a conventional brain
    surgery to remove an Arteriovenous Malformation.
    Depending on the size of the Arteriovenous
    malformation the technique may vary. The
    Arteriovenous malformation is removed through
    making a window in the patient skull.

13
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