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Breast Cancer Causes And Effects


Breast cancer is a type of cancer that grows from breast cells and is the most common invasive cancer among females globally. Breast cancer also affects men though not as commonly as women. It accounts for up to 20% of all cancer deaths worldwide. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Breast Cancer Causes And Effects

Breast Cancer Causes And Effects
  • Breast cancer is a type of cancer that grows
    from breast cells and is the most common invasive
    cancer among females globally. Breast cancer also
    affects men though not as commonly as women. It
    accounts for up to 20 of all cancer deaths

  • The breast cancer rate is higher in developed
    countries as opposed to underdeveloped countries
    and experts believe this is attributed to the
    high life expectancy in developed countries and
    the tremendous difference in lifestyle and eating

  • Experts are not entirely certain what causes
    breast cancer. It is also hard to tell why one
    person develops the disease whereas another
    doesnt, but some risk factors can bring about a
    womans chances of developing breast cancer.
    These are

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  • Growing older age is one of the major risk
    factors. Growing older, for a woman, increases
    her odds of developing breast cancer. More than
    80 of all female breast cancer cases occur at
    the age of 50 and above.

  • Genetics if one has a close relative who
    developed breast or ovarian cancer, they too may
    develop breast cancer. On the other hand, if two
    family members develop the disease, it doesnt
    quite mean they share the genes that make them
    more susceptible since breast cancer is a common
    type of cancer, and majorities are not

  • BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes may be inherited, and
    women carrying these genes are likely to develop
    breast cancer. Other known possible causes
    include post-menopausal obesity, dense breast
    tissue, history of breast cancer, estrogen
    exposure (when one begins to experience periods),
    high alcohol consumption, exposure to radiations
    such as X-rays, and cosmetic breast implants.

Effects of Breast Cancer
  • Breast cancer frequently starts in the interior
    lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply
    the ducts with milk. A malignant tumor can spread
    to the remaining parts of the body. A breast
    cancer that develops in the lobules is referred
    to as lobular carcinoma while one that starts off
    from the ducts is known as ductal carcinoma.

  • Some of the initial effects of breast cancer are
    masses and localized lumps within the breast. The
    lumps may feel firmer, painful and immobile.
    Since the tumors grow without aid from the
    connective tissue, they may result in changes on
    the breasts surface. The tumors disrupt the
    ducts leading to the nipple resulting in a
    discharge from the nipples.

  • Again, breast cancer can spread to other tissues
    such as the liver, the bones, and the lungs a
    condition known as metastasis. Dysfunction of the
    lungs causes troubled breathing and pneumonia,
    problems with the liver resulting in issues with
    blood clotting and jaundice while bone problems
    lead to easy fracturing.

  • Treatment of breast cancer involves several
    stages and includes a multidisciplinary team
    ranging from a surgeon, radiologist, a dietitian,
    to a psychologist. Determining the best treatment
    for the patient, again, depends on the type of
    breast cancer (whether invasive or non-invasive),
    the stage of cancer, the patients general health
    and age, and whether the cancer cells are
    sensitive to hormones or not.

The main treatment options include
  • Surgery which may involve removing only the
    affected tumor, or surgically removing the
  • Radiation therapy controlled levels of
    radiation are directed at the tumor to destroy
    the cancerous cells.

  • Chemotherapy medication known as cytotoxic
    drugs are prescribed.
  • Hormone therapy used mostly after surgery for
    cancers that are sensitive to hormones to prevent
    cancer recurrence.
  • Biological treatment a monoclonal antibody that
    targets and destroys cancer cells.

Outcomes and Side Effects of Cancer Treatment
  • There are many side effects linked to cancer
    treatment. The most frequent ones are sudden
    weight loss, hair loss, vomiting, nausea,
    fatigue, a higher susceptibility to infections,
    and sore mouth.

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