Type 1 Diabetes in Children: Symptoms, causes and treatment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Type 1 Diabetes in Children: Symptoms, causes and treatment

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Diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to metabolize the glucose completely, which can result in the increase of blood sugar levels. There are two types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Type 1 Diabetes in Children: Symptoms, causes and treatment


1
Type 1 Diabetes in Children
2
Type 1 Diabetes in Children
  • The digestive system in the body breaks down the
    food into nutrients and glucose, which are
    absorbed in the blood. The insulin produced by
    the pancreas breaks down the carbohydrates into
    glucose molecules, which are then absorbed by the
    cells through the bloodstream to release energy.
    Sometimes, due to the malfunctioning of the
    pancreas, not enough insulin is produced to break
    down these molecules. This condition can lead to
    diabetes, which is also known as diabetes
    mellitus. Diabetes is a condition where the body
    is unable to metabolize the glucose completely,
    which can result in the increase of blood sugar
    levels. There are two types of diabetes type 1
    and type 2. In type 1, the body's tendency to
    produce insulin is completely destroyed, whereas
    in type 2, the pancreas fails to produce the
    required amount of insulin and the body tends to
    become resistant to insulin, in spite of the body
    producing it.

3
Causes of type 1 diabetes in children
  • Though the exact cause of type 1 diabetes is not
    yet known, some doctors believe that it is caused
    due to a faulty gene. Though this condition can
    affect individuals of any age group, it is
    usually observed during childhood. This is the
    reason why it is also known as juvenile/childhood
    diabetes. Sometimes, it is also known as
    insulin-dependent diabetes, since the sufferer
    requires insulin shots to bring the glucose
    levels back to normal. In type 1 diabetes, the
    body's immune system tends to destroy the
    insulin-producing beta cells of the islets of
    Langerhans in the pancreas. With the destruction
    of these essential cells, the body is unable to
    produce insulin, due to which metabolism of
    glucose fails. Instead of being processed in the
    cells, the glucose levels begin to build up in
    the bloodstream, which can prove to be
    life-threatening, if not treated in time. Family
    history is also another causative factor for this
    health condition. 

4
Causes of type 1 diabetes in children
Continue
  • Type 1 diabetes can lead to several
    complications, such as multiple organ failure,
    disease of the heart and blood vessels, damage to
    the nerves, and kidney diseases. These conditions
    can be aggravated as the child grows older. The
    child may also suffer from eye problems, since
    the nerves and blood vessels in the eyes can get
    damaged due to excess glucose levels. This
    condition is known as diabetic retinopathy and
    can lead to partial/total blindness, cataracts,
    and even glaucoma. It is very essential to
    diagnose this disorder in time to prevent these
    complications.

5
Symptoms
  • Though type 1 diabetes is most common in
    children and young adults, it can occur at any
    age. Some of its symptoms in children are given
    below. These symptoms usually take a few days to
    develop 
  • Excessive thirst and frequent urination
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Intense hunger
  • Fatigue and drowsiness
  • Genital yeast infections seen mostly in girls
  • Blurred vision
  • Slow or prolonged healing of wounds
  • Other symptoms include abdominal pain, vomiting,
    and dehydration in very young children

6
Treatments
  • Though there is no certain cure for type 1
    diabetes, the severity of this condition can be
    brought under control by regular monitoring of
    the blood sugar level and keeping a check on the
    foods consumed. Before going for treatment, the
    doctor may ask the patient to undergo random
    blood test to determine blood sugarlevels. Once
    the level is diagnosed, the doctor may prescribe
    certain drugs and medications for treatment.
    Insulin injections and other medications to
    produce insulin in the body are prescribed.
    Flexibility in the diet is also essential
    to control diabetes. Children with this problem
    are taught to monitor their blood sugar level and
    inject insulin. They are also encouraged to
    actively participate in diabetes management, in
    order to improve their quality of life.

7
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