Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) : Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Complication and Treatment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) : Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Complication and Treatment

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Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a state in which a woman's levels of the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone are out of balance. This leads to the growth of ovarian cysts. PCOS can affect a women's menstrual cycle, fertility, cardiac function, and appearance etc. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) : Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Complication and Treatment


1
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
2
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)  is a
    condition in which a woman's levels of the sex
    hormones estrogen and progesterone are out of
    balance. This leads to the growth of ovarian
    cysts (benign masses on the ovaries) on the
    lining of the ovaries.
  • The ovaries make a tiny amount of male sex
    hormones (androgens). In PCOS, they start making
    slightly more androgens.
  • This may cause the patient to stop ovulating,
    get acne, and grow extra facial and body hair.
  • The body may have a problem using insulin, called
    insulin resistance. When the body doesn't use
    insulin well, blood sugar levels go up.
  • Over time, this increases the chance of getting
    diabetes.

3
Symptoms of PCOS
  • Certain symptoms may include
  • Acne.
  • Weight gain and trouble losing weight.
  • Extra hair on the face and body. Often women get
    thicker and darker facial hair and more hair on
    the chest, belly, and back.
  • Thinning hair on the scalp.
  • Irregular periods. Often women with PCOS have
    fewer than nine periods a year. Some women have
    no periods. Others have very heavy bleeding.
  • Fertility problems. Many women who have PCOS have
    trouble getting pregnant (infertility).
  • Depression

4
Causes and Risk factor of PCOS
  • Exact cause of PCOS is not known, but it is
    thought to occur through hormone imbalance, and
    it can run in families through father's or
    mother's side. Genetics may be the factor
    contributing to PCOS. Person has high risk of
    getting PCOS if her mother, sister or any
    relative have history of PCOS and diabetes.

5
Diagnosis technique may include
  • Ask questions about patients past health,
    symptoms, and menstrual cycles.
  • To do a physical exam to look for signs of PCOS,
    such as extra body hair and high blood pressure.
  • Different lab tests may include
  • Thyroid function tests to determine how much of
    the thyroid hormone the patient's body produces
  • Fasting glucose test to measure the blood sugar
    levels
  • Lipid level tests to assess the amount
    of cholesterol in the blood
  • Vaginal ultrasound A pelvic to vaginal
    ultrasound to look for the cysts on the ovaries.

6
Treatments of PCOS
  • Eating a healthy diet-A healthy diet and regular
    exercise is recommended for all women with PCOS,
    particularly those who are overweight. This can
    help to regulate the menstrual cycle and lower
    your blood glucose levels.
  • Birth control pills- Women who don't want to
    become pregnant may be prescribed birth control
    pills. These can help treat acne, regulate the
    menstrual cycle, and lower levels of male
    hormones, such as testosterone, in the body.
  • Medications-. Anti-androgens are drugs that
    reduce male hormone levels. These can help stop
    excess hair growth and reduce acne. Diabetes
    medications may also be prescribed to lower blood
    glucose and testosterone levels.
  • Surgery-Surgery may be recommended for some women
    with PCOS. Ovarian drilling is a procedure in
    which doctor punctures your ovary with a small
    needle that carries an electric current. This is
    done in order to destroy part of the ovary. It's
    a short-term solution that can promote ovulation
    and reduce male hormone levels.

7
Complications of PCOS
  • Certain complications may include
  • Infertility
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure)
  • High cholesterol
  • Anxiety and depression
  • Sleep apnea
  • Endometrial cancer
  • Heart attack
  • Diabetes
  • Breast cancer

8
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