Interstitial Lung Disease: Causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Interstitial Lung Disease: Causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

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Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a group of lung disorders that affect the interstitium of the lungs. Interstitium refers to those tissues that surround the alveoli or tiny air sacs of the lungs. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Interstitial Lung Disease: Causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment


1
Interstitial Lung Disease
2
Interstitial Lung Disease
  • Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a group
    of lung disorders that affect the interstitium of
    the lungs. Interstitium refers to those tissues
    that surround the alveoli or tiny air sacs of the
    lungs. This disease causes scarring and
    inflammation of these tissues, thus disturbing
    the overall functioning of the lungs. Usually, it
    affects all the tissues. This hampers the
    breathing ability and oxygen exchange in the
    bloodstream.

3
Symptoms
  • Scarring of the lung tissues is caused due to
    injury and abnormal healing responses of the
    body. Various factors may trigger
    the inflammation of the interstitium. Some of the
    factors include prolonged exposure to
    environmental pollutants, allergies, infections
    by microorganisms bacteria, virus and fungi,
    exposure to radiation therapy, side effects of
    strong medications, and other underlying
    diseases. Many times, this disease is caused
    due to unknown reasons, which is a type of
    idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. People who smoke
    or those having a family history of interstitial
    lung disease are more susceptible to the
    idiopathic type. One of the most common types of
    interstitial lung disease is usual interstitial
    pneumonitis that affects only a portion of the
    lung tissues.  

4
Symptoms
Continue
  • In spite of the name, it is not caused due to
    infection. Women who are above 50 years are at a
    higher risk of developing interstitial
    pneumonitis.
  • The most common symptoms of interstitial lung
    disease are difficulty in breathing, shortness of
    breath or breathlessness during physical
    activities, and prolonged dry cough. Though these
    symptoms are similar to many health conditions
    like aging process, obesity, and upper
    respiratory infection, patients tend to ignore
    the symptoms. Hence, early diagnosis is
    difficult. As the damage of the lung tissue
    progresses, the symptoms may worsen. In such a
    condition, patients may feel breathlessness
    without exertion, during rest, or while doing
    routine activities.

5
Symptoms
Continue
  • Other less noticeable signs include wheezing,
    chest pain, and finger clubbing. In most cases,
    it develops gradually. However, at times, people
    suffer from sudden onsets of the symptoms.

6
Treatments
  • Interstitial lung disease is diagnosed based on
    the symptoms and physical examination of the
    patient. For confirmation, the pulmonologist may
    conduct chest X-rays, lung function test, blood
    test, and computed tomography (CT) of the thorax.
    In case the results of these laboratory tests are
    unclear, the pulmonologist may conduct a biopsy
    of the lung tissues in order to rule out other
    medical problems. If scarring of the
    interstitium occurs, it cannot be cured. Hence,
    once a patient develops this disease, he/she
    cannot regain the normal metabolic activity of
    the lungs. The main objective for treatment is to
    manage the symptoms and slow down the damage.
    Treatment usually differs from one patient to
    another, and is based on the particular symptoms
    manifested by the patient. Based on the symptoms,
    the pulmonologist may prescribe corticosteroids,
    oxygen supplementation, and other vaccination. In
    severe cases, the pulmonologist may conduct lung
    transplantation.

7
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