Histoplasmosis (fungal infection of the lungs): Symptoms, causes and treatment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Histoplasmosis (fungal infection of the lungs): Symptoms, causes and treatment

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Histoplasmosis is a disease caused when airborne spores of the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum are inhaled into the lungs. This infectious disease primarily affects the lungs & sometimes can spread to other parts of the body. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Histoplasmosis (fungal infection of the lungs): Symptoms, causes and treatment


1
Histoplasmosis
2
Histoplasmosis
  • Histoplasmosis is a disease caused when airborne
    spores of the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum are
    inhaled into the lungs. This infectious disease
    primarily affects the lungs sometimes can
    spread to other parts of the body. This kind of
    the disease is known as disseminated
    histoplasmosis, and it can be critical if
    untreated. Histoplasma capsulatum is a
    microscopic dimorhous fungus that grows stronger
    in moderate temperatures and moist environments
    and appears as yeast at body temperature in
    mammals. Histoplasma capsulatum is commonly found
    throughout the world in river valleys and soil
    where chickens, pigeons, starlings, blackbirds,
    and bat droppings accumulate, is released into
    the air when soil is disturbed by ploughing
    fields, sweeping chicken coops, or digging
    holes.

3
Histoplasmosis
Continue
  • The soil in indigenous region gives an acidic
    damp environment with high organic content that
    is good for mycelia production. Highly
    contaminated soil is found near areas inherent by
    bats and birds. Birds cannot be infected by the
    fungus because of their high body temperatures,
    but they do carry it on their feathers. But bats
    can become infected because they have a lower
    body temperature than birds, and they spread the
    fungus through droppings.

4
How histoplasmosis is caused?
  • Histoplasmosis is produced by a microscopic
    dimorhous fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. The
    fungus produces spores that can be inhaled when
    they get into the air. Spores are hardy forms of
    the fungus that can live in the environment for a
    long time. The spores are extremely light and can
    be float into the air when dirt or other polluted
    material is disturbed .There are large number of
    cases appears in farmers, landscapers,
    construction workers the people who are living
    near construction sites and spelunkers.Histoplas
    mosis is generally not harmful in primary stages
    and so mild that it produces no apparent sign
    symptoms. Any sign that might appear are
    generally just like to those from a common cold.
    If any individual had histoplasmosis symptoms, he
    /she might dismiss them as those from a flu or
    cold, since the body's immune system generally
    overcomes the infection in some days without
    treatment.

5
Symptoms
  • Histoplasmosis can affect generally any region
    of the body such as eyes, liver, bone marrow,
    skin, adrenal glands intestinal tract. The
    condition of the disease show which organs are
    affected. Individuals with this kind of the
    disease may have anaemia, pneumonia,
    pericarditis, meningitis, adrenal insufficiency
    mouth ulcers, tongue or intestinal tract.
    Histoplasmosis, in even mild conditions can later
    produce a critical eye disease known as ocular
    histoplasmosis syndrome (OHS), a leading cause of
    vision loss. Symptoms of this disease include
  • Discomfort feeling
  • Bloody spitting
  • Weakness
  • Headache
  • Muscles pain

6
Symptoms
Continue
  • Joint pain
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Inflammation of the sac around the heart
  • Gastrointestinal tract
  • Chest pain
  • Dry or non-productive cough
  • Breathing uneasiness
  • Weight loss
  • Mouth sores
  • Bulging of liver and spleen
  • Skin rashes
  • Vision loss
  • Tuberculosis

7
Treatments
  • Treatment of histoplasmosis depends on the
    complexity of the disease. Anti fungal treatments
    are taken to cure the complex cases of acute
    histoplasmosis and all cases of chronic and
    disseminated disorders. Mild diseases generally
    cure without treatment may require only
    symptomatic measures.Efficacious treatments are
    available in the market for even the most complex
    forms of histoplasmosis. Amphotericin
    B or itraconazole may be used to treat the
    disease histoplasmosis. Patients with acquired
    immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) may need
    treatment with an anti fungal medication for
    their long life to prevent further attacks of
    histoplasmosis.

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