Hepatitis (Jaundice) : Overview, causes, symptoms, sign, diagnosis and treatmemt - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Hepatitis (Jaundice) : Overview, causes, symptoms, sign, diagnosis and treatmemt


Hepatitis refers to an inflammatory condition of the liver. It's commonly caused by a viral infection, but there are other possible causes of hepatitis. These include autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis that occurs as a secondary result of medications, drugs, toxins, and alcohol. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Hepatitis (Jaundice) : Overview, causes, symptoms, sign, diagnosis and treatmemt

Hepatitis (Jaundice)
Hepatitis (Jaundice)
  • Hepatitis means the injury and inflammation of
    the liver. It is mostly caused by a virus, but
    there may be other causes such as autoimmune
    hepatitis, or that occur due to side effects of
    some medications.
  • Most liver damage is caused by three types of
    hepatitis, hepatitis A, B and C.
  • It can heal without any long term consequence,
    but in some cases it can cause scarring of the

Symptoms of hepatitis
  • Certain symptoms may include
  • Fatigue
  • Flu-like symptoms
  • Dark urine
  • Pale stool
  • Abdominal pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Yellow skin and eyes, which may be signs of

Diagnosis of hepatitis
  • Physical test- A physical test may be done by the
    doctor to see certain symptoms associated with
  • Liver function tests- Blood tests which determine
    the function of the liver must be done. As
    abnormal result may indicate certain condition
    for hepatitis.
  • Other blood tests- Certain blood test will check
    for the viruses of hepatitis. Presence of suc
    virus will confirm the condition of hepatitis
  • Ultrasound- An abdominal ultrasound will check
    for certain conditions of the liver
  • Fluid in your abdomen
  • Liver damage or enlargement
  • Liver tumours
  • Abnormalities of the gallbladder

Types of hepatitis
  • Hepatitis A- It is caused by an infection with
    the hepatitis A virus (HAV). It is transmitted by
    consuming food or water contaminated by feces
    from a person infected with hepatitis A.
  • Hepatitis B- It is not contaminated by food or
    water, rather it is contaminated bu body fluids
    such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids etc.
  • Hepatitis C- It is caused by hepatitis C virus
    (HCV). It is transmitted through direct contact
    with the body fluids of the infected person.
  • Hepatitis D- It is also called delta hepatitis,
    caused by hepatitis D virus (HDV). It occurs in
    conjunction with hepatitis B virus, it will not
    multiply without the presence of hepatitis B
    virus. It is also transmitted by contact with
    infected body fluids.
  • Hepatitis E- It is a waterborne disease caused by
    the hepatitis E virus (HEV). It is mainly found
    in areas with poor sanitation and typically
    results from ingesting fecal matter that
    contaminates the water supply.

Causes of infectious hepatitis
  • Alcohol and other toxins-Excessive alcohol
    consumption can cause liver damage and
    inflammation. It directly affects the cells of
    the liver. Over time, it can cause scarring and
    cirrhosis of the liver. It is called alcohol
    hepatitis. Other toxic causes of hepatitis
    include overuse or overdose of medications and
    exposure to poisons.
  • Autoimmune system response- In some cases, immune
    system can infect the healthy cells of the liver,
    which can cause inflammation in the liver in
    longer process. In some cases the inflammation
    can be highly severe, and it is more common in
    women than men.

Treatments of Hepatitis
  • Hepatitis A- No treatment is required for
    hepatitis A, as it is a short time illness. Bed
    rest and taking some hydration and nutrition can
    help to recover. The hepatitis A vaccine is
    available to prevent this infection. Most
    children begin vaccination between ages 12 and 18
    months. Its a series of two vaccines.
  • Hepatitis B- Acute hepatitis B doesnt require
    any medications. Chronic hepatitis B is treated
    with antiviral medications. Hepatitis B can be
    prevented with vaccination. Hepatitis B
    vaccinations for all newborns. The series of
    three vaccines is typically completed over the
    first six months of childhood.
  • Hepatitis C-Antiviral medications are used to
    treat both acute and chronic forms of hepatitis
    C. People who develop chronic hepatitis C are
    typically treated with a combination of antiviral
    drug therapies.

Treatments of Hepatitis
  • People who develop cirrhosis (scarring of the
    liver) or liver disease as a result of chronic
    hepatitis C may be ordered some advance treatment
    or liver transplant. There is no vaccination for
    hepatitis C.
  • Hepatitis D-No antiviral medications exist for
    the treatment of hepatitis D. but a drug named as
    alpha interferon, can be used to treat hepatitis
    D, but the success rate is much low. Vaccination
    for hepatitis B work for hepatitis D, as
    hepatitis D need hepatitis B to develop
  • Hepatitis E- There is no treatment of hepatitis
    E, but being a acute infection, it resolves on
    its own.
  • Autoimmune hepatitis- Corticosteroids, are the
    most early treatment used in case of autoimmune
    hepatitis. Drug that suppresses immune system can
    also be used to treat autoimmune hepatitis.

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