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All That You Must Know About Power Transformers - Miracle Electronics

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Learn all that you must about power transformers here – their composition, applications, properties, and types. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: All That You Must Know About Power Transformers - Miracle Electronics


1
All That You Must Know About Power Transformers
Miracle Electronics
Power transformers are electrical components used
in a variety of residential, commercial, and
industrial applications to transfer energy
between circuits with the help of
electromagnetic induction. These equipment
have a primary and secondary winding with
varying magnetic fields that induce a varying
electromotive force or voltage. Depending upon
the application, power transformers can step up
or step down the voltage level within the power
network.
Power transformers in India are generally used
where large amounts of electrical energy or
voltage levels are required. They are widely
used in power stations, transformer
stations, industrial operations, auxiliary
plants, reactors, etc. One of the major
applications of power transformers is to raise
the voltage of electricity before being
transmitted across long distances through wires.
It is this property that leads to economic
transmission of power supply over long distances
across the nation. Such transmission also
reduces power loss to a great extent due to
lower current. Depending upon the application to
be used in, the type of power
2
transformer is chosen. There is a long list of
power transformer types that one can choose
from, which includes step-up, step-down,
high-voltage, low-voltage, current, isolation,
dry-type, and oil-filled transformers. Parts of
a power transformer Core The most important part
of a power transformer the core is used to
support the windings within the transformer. It
is generally a soft iron core that reduces eddy
current loss and Hysteresis loss. Its dimension
is directly proportional to copper loss, and is
inversely proportional to iron loss. The core
provides low reluctance path to the flow of
magnetic flux. Windings As mentioned above,
power transformers comprise of primary and
secondary windings that are insulated from each
other. They are comprised of several turns of
copper coils bundled together, with each bundle
connected in series to form a winding. Conservat
or This is a metallic air-tight cylindrical drum
fitted above the transformer with a vent at the
top that conserves the transformer oil. The
normal oil level is approximately half of the
conservator height so as to provide space for the
oil to expand and contract as the temperature
varies. Breather This is a cylindrical container
filled with silica gel that absorbs the moisture
from the atmospheric air within the transformer.
With the temperature variations, moisture can
arise, resulting in pressure changes, which is
not controlled, can lead to internal faults.
Thus, it is very important to keep the tank
moisture-free, and this is where the breather
helps.
3
Cooling tubes As the name suggests, cooling tubes
are used to cool the transformer oil. The oil is
circulated through these tubes, either naturally
or forcefully. In natural circulation, the rise
in temperature oil raises the hot oil to the top
and sinks the cold oil downward. And, in forced
circulation, an external pump is used for the
same. Buchholz Relay This is a protective
container placed over the connecting pipe from
main tank to the conservator tank. This device
senses the faults occurring within the
transformer, thus protecting it. Tap
changer This is the equipment that balances the
voltage variations. Off-load or on-load tap
changers are used. In off-load tap changers, the
transformer is required to be separated from the
supply, which is not the case with on-load tap
changers. Explosion vent This device, placed
above the level of the conservatory tank, is used
to expel the boiling oil in the transformer in
case of heavy internal faults, to avoid
transformer explosion. Insulating
materials Insulating paper and cardboard are
other important parts of a power transformer
that isolate the windings from each other and
from the transformer core too. Another
insulating material is the transformer oil, into
which the core and windings are completely
immersed.
For more details, visit Miracle Electronics
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