History of Anatomy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

History of Anatomy

Description:

Historical development of anatomy – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:360
Slides: 437
Provided by: Manirathnam
Tags:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: History of Anatomy


1
  • T.MANIRATHNAM
  • Faculty in Anatomy
  • KOCHI- India

2
Prelude
  • The study of human anatomy was always a result of
    struggle between human desire to learn and
    religious restrictions, later combined with
    philosophical orientation

3
Total ban to public dissection
  • Through the times it travelled from total
    negation to full opening and public dissection in
    anatomical theatres

4
OLDEST SCIENCE
  • The study of the human body has its origin in the
    prehistoric times, making it one of the oldest
    known science

5
PREHISTORIC AGE
  • Anatomy is the oldest medical science.
  • Cave paintings of the Stone Age, about 30000
    years ago show a simple knowledge of the anatomy
    of animals, and in some cases, humans, making it
    one of the oldest known science.

6
Cave paintings
  • Stone age cave paintings in Spain suggests that
    primitive hunters knew about the location of
    vital organs like heart in elephant.

7
Markings
  • Cave paintings also depicts pictures of animals
    on which the critical areas are marked areas
    when hit would have killed the animal. It is the
    evidence of first ever lesson in surface anatomy

8
Anatomy knowledge for survival
  • The prehistoric man needed a practical knowledge
    of animal anatomy for his survival

9
Gross anatomy
  • Prehistoric men performed some particular rituals
    with human and animal remains which indicates
    general knowledge of gross anatomy

10
EARLY HUMAN FORM
  • The earliest sculpture of the human form is the
    lime stone figurine, known as the Venus of
    Willendorf(22000 B.C), found in
    Austria.----Fertility Goddesses

11
Indus valley civilization
  • Male nude torso (2700B.C) showing the muscular
    composition

12
Mesopotamia 4000 B.C
  • A few anatomical descriptions are found in the
    clay tablets of Mesopotamia.

13
Liver
  • In Mesopotamia priests dissected sheep, searched
    the liver and mapped the findings in the clay
    model.

14
Liver as center of life
  • The liver was known as collecting point of blood
    and believed as the center of life.

15
Divination
  • The priests made clay models of liver of the
    sheep to predict the future from observations
    made on the internal organs of sacrificed
    animals-divination

16
Trephination 10000-5000B.C
  • The process of making hole in the skull of a
    living person was the first surgical procedure to
    cure epilepsy, migraine, and mental disorders by
    prehistoric people in West Europe, South America,
    and Asia

17
ANCIENT EGYPT
18
Egypt medicine
  • Medicine and other sciences was built upon
    religion and the physicians were priests

19
Birth of anatomy
  • Anatomy as a science came to birth in ancient
    Egypt.
  • The precursor of the anatomist is the embalmer
    who mummified the bodies of Pharaohs

20
Embalmer
  • Anatomical study was neither the objective nor
    the interest of the embalmer.
  • He was a technician concerned solely with
    preventing the dissolution of the cadaver.

21
No complete dissection
  • Egyptian knew where the major organs were.
  • But because they believed the body was needed for
    the afterlife, it could not be completely
    dissected.

22
Mummification
  • The embalmers with their knowledge of human
    anatomy opened the abdomen on the left side to
    extract internal organs in the process of
    mummification.

23
Canopic jars
  • The intestine, stomach, lungs, and liver (only
    four organs) were removed and stored in carved
    limestone canopic jars with a different shaped
    head of gods who looked after body parts.

24
Jar for intestine
  • The falcon headed Qebhsnuf (west) looked after
    intestine.

25
Jar for stomach
  • The jackal headed Duamutef (east) protected the
    stomach.

26
Jar for lungs
  • Baboon headed Hapi(north) cared for the lungs.

27
Jar for liver
  • Human headed Imseti(south) was the guardian of
    the liver.

28
No jar for heart
  • There was no jar for heart. It was believed to be
    the seat of the soul, and so it was left inside
    the body.

29
Skull anatomy
  • They also got into the cranial cavity through
    nostrils to remove the brain tissue, which
    required the knowledge of the skull anatomy.

30
Brain not important
  • The brain was not considered to be important
    you think with your heart and not with your
    brainand so removed and was thrown away.

31
3400 B.C
  • First manual of anatomy was written in Egypt
    about 3400B.C by the first king and physician
    Menes even before the pyramids were built

32
Papyrus
  • Egyptologists have found documents written on a
    paper called papyrus, that describes human body
    and medical techniques

33
Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus-1600 B.C
  • The oldest anatomical treatise extant is Egyptian
    papyrus Edwin Smith Papyrus which describes
    various organs and surgical procedures.
  • It contains the first written account of brain.

34
Egyptologist
  • The papyrus was named after Edwin Smith an
    American Egyptologist

35
Imhotep
  • The information in the papyrus is considered as
    the work of Imhotep the first pharaoh during
    3000B.C and regarded as the copy of several
    earlier works

36
God of medicine
  • Imhotep was a famous physician, but was most
    known for building the pyramid.
  • He was worshiped as a god of medicine.

37
Other Egyptian papyrus
  • Ebers papyrus
  • An Egyptian stamp on Ebers papyrus which
    describes diabetes

38
  • Khaun gynecological papyrus

39
ANCIENT GREECE
40
Philosophical approach
  • The ancient Greek medicine and anatomy were built
    on the ideas of the Egyptians by adding
    philosophical approach to knowledge.
  • DISSECTION OF HUMAN BODY NOT ALLOWED on
    religious grounds

41
Homer -800B.C
  • The poet Homer in his Iliad describes 150 wounds
    of Trojan war soldiers with surprising anatomical
    accuracies.

42
Honor to Homer
  • Alexander the Great honors the work of Homer

43
Alcmaeon-500B.C
  • He dissected animals and published a treatise
    entitled On Nature.
  • This great anatomist was the first to describe
    and locate the optic nerve.

44
HIPPOCRATES 460-377 B.C
45
Father of medicine
  • Hippocrates is the Greek philosopher and the
    Father of medicine". Earlier to him diseases
    were thought to be punishment from god.
  • Credit should go to him for scientific approach
    to medical diagnosis and treatment replacing the
    treatment based on magic and religion

46
Hippocrates oath
  • He developed an Oath of Medical Ethics for
    physicians to follow.

47
Hippocrates anatomy
  • He declared anatomy is the foundation of
    medicine (Persaud, p 33), but at the same time
    he believed that one could learn sufficient
    anatomy by observing wounds and human bones,
    without dissecting corpses.

48
Book by Hippocrates
  • In his book Hippocratic Corpus we find a fairly
    good account of bones, especially of the skull,
    including the sutures, and the joints of the body.

49
ARISTOTLE 384-322B.C
50
Stamps
51
Philosopher and teacher
  • Aristotle, a pupil of Plato was a famous natural
    philosopher and a creative thinker in various
    fields like zoology, logic, psychology, and
    politics.
  • He was the teacher of Alexander the Great.

52
Dissection of animals
  • He developed theories of human anatomy based only
    on exterior physical examination and the
    dissection of animals.
  • His treatise History of Animals(10books) and On
    Parts of Animals(4books) constitute the great
    monument of Aristotelian anatomy

53
Comparative anatomy and embryology
  • The books by Aristotle made him as the Founder
    of Comparative Anatomy
  • He wrote the first known account of embryology,
    in which he described the development of heart in
    chick embryo.

54
Heart as the source
  • However, he erroneously believed that the heart
    is the source of all mental processes and argued
    that because the brain is bloodless it functions
    as a radiator, cooling hot blood that ascends
    from the heart.

55
Diocles of Carystus(300B.C)
  • According to Roman physician Galen(129 to 216AD)
    Diocles of Carystus Greece was the first to use
    the term anatomy.
  • He was the student of Aristotle and known as
    Younger Hippocrates

56
Alexandria(300-30B.C)CRADLE OF ANATOMY AND
PHYSIOLOGY
57
Alexander the Great
  • 2300years ago. Alexander the Great, the Greek
    Emperor, and the student of Aristotle conquered
    Egypt and established Alexandria, the Greco-Egypt
    capital.

58
Wonders of the ancient world
  • Alexanders general Ptolemy I developed the city
    and built the light house, one of the seven
    wonders of the ancient world.

59
Library of Alexandria
  • But the greatest achievement was the Library Of
    Alexandria launched in 288 B.C

60
Three in one
  • It was part academy, part research center, and
    part library.
  • 70000 scrolls filled the shelves of library,

61
Place for scholars
  • Philosophers, mathematicians, astronomers
    ,artists ,poets and physicians were all
    encouraged to come and work there.
  • Archimedes was in this library.

62
Father of anatomy and father of physiology
  • Two Greek physicians attracted to Alexandria were
    Herophilus of Chalcedon and Erasistratus of Ceos
    . They are known as Father of Anatomy and
    Father of Physiology". They studied and
    catalogued works of Hippocrates and Aristotle.

63
HEROPHILUS (325-255B.C)
64
Human dissection permitted
  • Before Alexandrian school human dissection was
    not permitted and ancient anatomy was animal
    anatomy.
  • During the Herophilus time for a brief period the
    ban on human dissection was lifted.

65
First person to dissect human body
  • Ptolemy I permitted the human dissection of human
    body and he was present at some of the
    dissections.
  • Herophilus is the first man in the history of
    anatomy to dissect the human body. Dissected
    about 600 human bodies.

66
First anatomy department
  • He founded the medical school in Alexandria with
    the first department of anatomy.
  • Human vivisection -dissection of living body was
    allowed on criminals.

67
Contributions of Herophilus
  • Two monumental books of Herophilus are On Anatomy
    and Of the Eyes.
  • The name duodenum is attributed to him.
  • He is the first person to give the general
    description of the nervous system.
  • He differentiated veins from arteries and nerves.
  • The first person to distinguish between sensory
    and motor nerves..

68
Torcular herophili
  • He developed the anatomy register by determining
    anatomy nomenclature.
  • The confluence of sinuses was named torcular
    Herophili after him.

69
Study of pulse
  • Herophilus studied pulse by using water clock

70
Erasistratus(310-250B.C)
  • Anatomy is to physiology as geography to history.
  • Erasistratus of Alexandria was more of a
    physiologist and referred to as Father of
    physiology because of his interpretations of
    various body functions.

71
Decline of Alexandria
  • Alexandria began to decline during the rule of
    last Ptolemy Cleopatra.

72
Julius Caesar
  • It is because of the Roman invasion by Julius
    Caesar. The Alexandria library was accidentally
    set on fire by Caesar in 48 B.C.

73
Marc Antony
  • Marc Antony gave Cleopatra the 200000 scrolls of
    Pergamon, to make for the loses.
  • Later it was totally destroyed by Roman armies.

74
Writings of Celsus and Galen
  • What is known about Alexandria was obtained from
    writings of later Roman physicians like Celsus
    and Galen.

75
ROMAN EMPIRE(27B.C-476A.D)
76
HUMAN DISSECTION BANNED
  • The Romans conquered Greek Alexandria.
  • Human dissection was banned and anatomy became
    more theoretical.
  • Roman history mostly starts after Jesus Christ.

77
Roman emperor Nero(37-68 A.D)
  • Nero supervised the dissection of his mother
    Agripinna to see where he had come from and to
    satisfy his eccentric curiosity.

78
Not included in the history of anatomy
  • So the history of anatomy do not include this
    event in its timeline.

79
Two anatomists
  • Two important anatomists from the Roman Era are
    Celsus and Galen.

80
Aulus Cornelius Celsus(25B.C-50A.D)
  • Celsus the Roman encyclopedist and physician
    gathered the Greek Alexandria anatomy and surgery
    and translated them into Roman- De Re Medicina or
    On Anatomy in 8 volumes.

81
GALEN OF PERGAMON(130-201A.D)
  • Also known as Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus

82
Physician to Gladiators
  • Galen was born in Greece and after Romans
    conquered Greeks he emigrated to Rome and became
    celebrated physician for Roman gladiators.

83
Human dissection forbidden
  • Human dissection was forbidden in ancient Rome.
  • Galen never dissected a human body and he learned
    anatomy from the wounds of gladiators, later he
    called windows into the body.

84
Animal dissection
  • Most of Galens knowledge of anatomy came from
    dissection of animals particularly pigs and apes
    because he could not dissect humans under Roman
    law.

85
Galens dissection of pigs
86
Galen as a writer
  • Galen was a prolific writer, and he kept as many
    as 20 scribes to write down his every dictum.
  • The most important book of Galen is On the
    Anatomical Procedures.

87
Books by Galen
  • His other books include On the Use of the Parts
    of the Human Body

88
Other books by Galen
  • The Best Doctor is Also a Philosopher and
  • On the Natural Faculties

89
15Century manuscript showing Galen, his
assistant, and scribe
90
Volumes of books
  • One third of his writing survived and is
    equivalent to 20 volumes of an encyclopedia.
  • His writing examine every area of medicine
    including anatomy, psychiatry, reproduction, diet
    and pharmaceutical intervention.

91
Guide to Galens books
  • Even he published a guide to his writings,
    entitled On His Own Works, because Galen
    compiled all medical, and anatomical knowledge
    including his own observations into gigantic
    multivolume work.

92
Galens contributions
  • Galen studied the anatomy of the heart, but he
    did not discover the circulation of blood
    (William Harvey)

93
Functioning of kidney
  • To study the function of the kidneys in producing
    urine, he tied the ureters of the dog and
    observed the swelling of the kidneys.

94
Blood in arteries
  • . Galen severed a live animals artery to show
    that only blood, but not air flowed through it.
  • Since arteries were empty in cadavers early
    anatomists proposed that arteries carried air.

95
Galens mistakes
  • Because his knowledge was derived from animal
    dissection, rather than human dissection, Galen
    made many mistakes
  • For instance, he thought a group of blood vessels
    near the back of the brain, the rete mirabile
    was common in humans , but so only in animals.

96
Galens authority
  • Galen for all his mistakes remained an
    unchallenged authority for 1300 years.
  • For 1300 years studying medicine and anatomy was
    to study Galen until Renaissance

97
Nobody questioned Galens authority
  • During the Middle Ages questioning Galen was
    questioning authority and because authority came
    from God, it was punishable by death so nobody
    questioned Galens conclusions.

98
Admission and evaluation methods
  • The university of Padua ( Italy) made students to
    read Galen work before admission.
  • Students were failed if their knowledge about
    Galens work was inadequate.

99
Stagnation in anatomy
  • After Galens death in 201 A.D the study of
    anatomy stagnated for 1300 years after the fall
    of Roman Empire .
  • The world entered into the dark period of Middle
    Ages with the fall of Roman Empire

100
Fall of Roman Empire
  • Factors such as constant war, heavy military
    spending and political crisis caused the fall of
    Rome.
  • The last emperor was Romulus Augusts.

101
THE MIDDLE AGES(480-1400A.D)
  • The middle age is the age of faith in religion
  • Science and medicine was suppressed for more than
    1000 years.
  • Human dissections were forbidden by many
    religions.
  • The study of anatomy was frowned upon by church.

102
Animal dissection again
  • In the Middle Ages following the fall of Roman
    Empire anatomical knowledge was based chiefly
    upon Galens books and not on dissection of human
    cadavers.
  • Anatomists were reduced to dissect animals again.

103
CONTRIBUTION OF ARABIA
  • Arabic speaking people made a profound
    contribution to the history of anatomy.
  • It was the Islamic world that saved much of the
    works of Aristotle, Hippocrates and Galen from
    the suppression of science by the Middle Ages
    and the ban on writings of anatomical subjects by
    church, through translation.

104
Anatomy in Arabia (600-1100A.D)
  • When dark ages pervaded medicine and anatomy
    shifted to Arabia.
  • Islamic science and medicine were popular in the
    world from 6th to 11th centuries.

105
Translations of Galens work in Arabic by Hunayn
ibn Ishag
  • In 850 A.D the Arab physician Hunayn ibn Ishaq of
    Baghdad travelled to Greece collected Galens
    manuscripts and translated from Greek to Arabic.

106
Arabic version of Galen's On the Use of the Parts
of the Human Body
107
Arabic translation
  • Galens great anatomical works On Anatomical
    Procedures in fifteen books of which the last
    seven exist only in Arabic translation.

108
Translation
  • Galens work spread throughout the Arabic Empire
    after the translations of his 129 works by Hunayn
    ibn Ishaq.

109
AVICENNA(980-1037A.D)
110
Avicenna
111
Avicenna
112
Arabic Galen
  • Abn Ali Hosain Ibn Abdallah Ibn Sina---Shortly
    Ibn Sina called by Latins Avicenna.
  • He combined the principles of Galen and Islamic
    principles in his book Canon of Medicine

113
The book Canon of Medicine
  • The Canon of Medicine remained as the most
    authoritative book on anatomy in the Islamic
    world.

114
Popular personalities
  • Hippocrates, Galen and Avicenna are the popular
    personalities in the history of medicine.

115
Abul Casis(936-1013A.D)
  • Abu Qasim ibn-Zahrawi also known as Abul Casis
    created a system and method of human dissection
    along with the first formal surgical techniques
    in his book Kitab-al-Tasrif.

116
Ibn Zuhr(1091-1161A.D)
  • Ibn Zuhr commonly known as Avenzoar broke the
    tradition and conducted dissection and postmortem
    autopsy of human bodies.

117
Book by Ibn Zuhr
  • He wrote the book Kitab-Al -Taisir Fil Mudawat
    Wal(Book of Simplification Concerning
    Therapeutics and Diet.)

118
Abdel Latif Al Baghdadi(1162-1231A.D)
  • During the famine in Egypt in 1200 he examined a
    large number of skeletons and found that Galen
    was incorrect regarding the bones of sacrum.

119
Ibn Al Nafis(1210-1288A.D)
120
Pulmonary circulation
  • The first person to describe pulmonary
    circulation in his book Commentary on Anatomy in
    Avicenna

121
From Arabia to Europe again
  • During 1100 A.D all Arabic translations of
    medicine and anatomy were returned to Europe in
    turn translated to Latin.
  • The most important one is the Latin version of
    Avicennas The Canon of Medicine

122
Greek and Latin terms
  • During translation process Arabic terms were
    removed, so today we find few anatomical terms of
    Arabic origin.

123
Last part of middle age 1100 A.D
  • Despite the restriction on human dissection and
    the study of anatomy some continue to perform.

124
Enter the Galen
  • .
  • Galens translated work from Arabic to Latin
    became the basis of medical training in Europe.
  • He is known as the Medical Pope of the Medieval
    Ages

125
Reading Galen
  • A tradition had emerged in which professor who
    wore a long robe that almost concealed his shoes
    ( in order to show his status) read Galens book

126
Assistant performed dissection
  • The assistant performed the dissection, wore a
    short gown (which showed his inferior rank).
  • The students will listen to the professor.
  • The professor will not look at the body because
    everything worth learning could be found in
    Galens book.

127
(No Transcript)
128
THIRTEENTH CENTURY
129
First medical school 1235A.D
  • First European medical school founded at Salerno
    Italy in 1235.
  • Human bodies were publically dissected.

130
THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY
131
Mondino de Luzzi- 1316 A.D
  • Mondino de Luzzi- physician staged public
    dissection at Bologna university Italy

132
First manual
  • He developed the first manual for anatomic
    dissection Mundinus De Anathomia used for 200
    years.
  • It is the first European text book of anatomy
    with 44 pages and without any illustrations.
  • He relied largely upon Galens writings to write
    the manual.

133
BULL by Pope Boniface VIII 1300 A.D
134
Bull
  • A bull is an official document issued by the Pope
    with lead seal ( bulla ) at the bottom.

135
Bull de Sepulturies
  • The title of the Bull runs as follows "Persons
    cutting up the bodies of the dead, barbarously
    cooking them in order that the bones being
    separated from the flesh may be carried
    for burial into their own countries are by the
    very fact excommunicated."

136
Mistaken
  • The bull was mistaken and the study of anatomy
    was abandoned.

137
Later Popes
  • The problem posed on anatomy was resolved by
    other Popes.
  • A postmortem was performed on Pope Alexander V in
    1410.

138
Sanction of dissection
  • Pope Clement VII (1478-1534) sanctioned human
    dissection for educational purposes.

139
Impact on anatomy
  • As a consequence Italy (Rome) later became the
    main center for the study of anatomy.

140
FIFTEENTH CENTURY- RENAISSANCE
141
RENAISSANCE(1400-1550)
142
Beginning of science and arts
  • The name renaissance means rebirth and is the
    period of innovations in both arts and science.
  • Its birth place was Italy.

143
Separation of religion and science
  • There was a significant separation of religion
    and science.
  • The general dates given for renaissance are
    1400-1550.

144
Anatomy in Italy
  • Anatomy flourished in Italy.
  • Many European went to Italy as the educational
    center of anatomy.
  • Only in Italy research methods like dissection of
    female body could be conducted.

145
Artists and Physicians
  • Italian artists like Leonardo da Vinci and the
    physicians like Andreas Vesalius of Padua
    university developed anatomy

146
Artist Anatomist
147
Leonardo da Vinci(1452-1519A.D)
148
Mona Lisa and The last supper
149
Private dissection
  • Da Vinci received permission to dissect corpses
    at hospitals in Milan and Rome.
  • He made about 750 anatomical drawings
  • He performed 30 dissections himself.

150
Anatomical drawings
151
Less celebrated
  • Da Vinciss anatomical work was less celebrated
    than his art.
  • This is because his anatomical works were
    disappeared until the later part of eighteenth
    century and were not published during his life
    time.

152
Discovery of anatomical work
  • The anatomical work of da Vinci were discovered
    in England in the Royal Library at Windsor Castle
    by the famous physician and anatomy teacher
    William Hunter.

153
Printing technology
  • The invention of printing press during 1450s and
    the development of woodcut and copperplate
    engravings made it possible to publish multiple
    copies of illustrated anatomies.

154
SIXTEENTH CENTURY
155
Jacopo Berengario da Carpi-(1470-1530A.D)
  • He is the successor of Mondino de Luzzi at the
    university of Bologna, Italy.

156
Isagogae Breves
  • He published in 1521 Isagoge breves perlucide ac
    uberrime in anatomium humani corporis.

157
Based on human anatomy
  • His book Isagoge Breves- A Short Introduction to
    Anatomy is the first anatomy text based on human
    anatomy.

158
FATHER OF MODERN ANATOMY ANDREAS VESALIUS
159
Andreas Vesalius(1514-1564A.D)
  • Andreas Vesalius- (An-dre-as-vi-salus) Latinized
    form of Andries van Wessel.
  • Also known as Andreas Vesal, Andre Vesalio, and
    Andre Vesale.

160
Human dissection after 1800 years
  • After 1800 years of human dissection by
    Herophilus of Alexandria, Andreas Vesalius
    started the tradition again.

161
Vesalius birth place in Brussels
162
Vesalius statue in Brussels
  • The statue was erected in 1847 with an anatomy
    book in his left hand.

163
  • Vesalius the Belgian anatomist, physician, and
    author at his young age of 23 was made Head of
    the dept of Surgery at the university of Padua in
    Italy, the most important medical school then.

164
Anatomy teaching
  • Vesalius challenged the traditional method of
    teaching by performing dissections himself rather
    than reading Galens book and having assistants
    open up the cadaver.

165
  • A Paduan judge made bodies of criminals available
    to Vesalius for dissection.
  • Obsessed with dissection, he even stacked up
    cadavers in his bed room

166
Vesalius preparing the body
  • Andreas Vesalius and his assistant scavenging
    corpses for anatomical studies.

167
Correcting Galens mistakes
  • Vesalius showed that Galens work (based upon
    animal dissection) was merely an attempt to apply
    animal structure to the human body.
  • He corrected about 200 mistakes of Galens work.

168
Examples
  • The sternum which is made up of three parts is
    one of Vesaliuss discoveries which proved that
    Galen had the wrong idea of a seven part sternum
    which he found in his ape dissections.

169
Ribs
  •  Vesalius also claimed that men and women have
    the same amount of ribs
  • , whereas in the Bible it is written that during
    the night when Adam was asleep, God took out one
    of Adams ribs and created Eve out of it.
  • This claim did create a lot of chaos but as
    Vesalius had public dissections the church had to
    simply accept that it was true.

170
Brain
  • The area that created most problems with the
    church for Vesalius was the nervous system.
  • The church believed that the heart controls the
    whole body, emotion, feelings, and even contains
    the soul. Vesalius proved that all come not from
    the heart but from the brain

171
De Humani Corporis FabricaTHE ANATOMY BOOK
172
Anatomy book
  • In 1543 he published seven volumes book De Humani
    Corporis---On the Fabric of the Human Body
    commonly known as Fabrica.

173
Dedicated to
  • The book dedicated to Charles v was a ground
    breaking work of human anatomy which began the
    modern science of anatomy.

174
Vesalius sent a copy to king Charles v with 200
hand colored illustrations book
  • .

175
Original copy of Fabrica
176
Illustrations of Fabrica
  • Vesalius was an anatomist and not an artist. The
    200 woodcut illustrations were produced by the
    Jan Stephen Van Calcar, the student of popular
    Renaissance painter Titian.

177
Woodcuts
  • The woodcut blocks were cut in Venice and
    transported across Alps by mule to Basel where
    the printer Oporinus received them with strict
    instructions from Vesalius.

178
Destroyed
  • Four hundred years later in 1943 the original
    wood blocks for the Fabrica were destroyed by the
    Allied bombings of Munich.

179
Interesting information in the front page of the
book,
  • The front page shows Vesalius, breaking the
    tradition, himself dissecting corpse with his own
    hands.

180
Female corpse
  • It is also interesting to note the use of a
    female corpse in the front page.

181
Classical authors
  • Some larger figures wearing ancient robes are the
    classical authors- Hippocrates, and Galen.

182
Assistants
  • The assistants ( barber surgeons) previously
    opened the cadavers at dissections have been
    banished to the floor, where they quarrel over
    who will sharpen Vesaliuss razor.

183
Surface anatomy
  • The nude figure clinging to the column on the
    left indicate importance of surface anatomy.

184
Skeleton
  • The centre of the first page is dominated by a
    skeleton because Vesalius believed the skeleton
    to be the starting point for anatomy and the
    first volume is devoted to skeleton.

185
Importance of corpse
  • The female corpse is drawn in such a way that the
    dissected body is larger than Vesalius himself.

186
Animals
  • The dog on the right and the monkey on the left
    can be seen as reference to Galens animal
    dissection.

187
Dog with human foot
  • The dogs hind leg is a human foot to suggest
    that using animal was not a good way to
    understand the human body.

188
Worlds oldest anatomical preparation
  • In 1546 Vesalius assembled the bones of a
    executed criminal.

189
The Basel Skeleton
  • This preparation The Basel Skeleton is the only
    Vesaliuss well preserved skeletal preparation
    today, and also worlds oldest anatomical
    preparation.

190
Basel skeleton at
  • It is preserved in the Anatomical Museum of the
    University of Basel-Switzerland.

191
Humerus bone prepared by Vesalius
  • The 450 year old humerus bone prepared by
    Vesalius preserved at Museo Anatomico, Naples, is
    still glistering in varnish.
  • Next to the bone is the donation letter.

192
Leaving the medical school
  • Vesalius masterpiece De humani fabrica was met
    with harsh criticism from church and Galenic
    anatomists.

193
Burned his works
  • As a response to harsh criticism he burned the
    reminder of his unpublished works in the same
    year of publication.

194
  • He left medical school and lived out the rest of
    his life as a court physician to Charles v.

195
Death of Vesalius
  • For unknown reason in 1564, he undertook a
    pilgrimage to the Holy Land Jerusalem, from which
    he never returned.

196
Died at the age of 50
  • On his return, he was caught in a storm and
    shipwrecked on a Greek island,Zakynthos, where he
    fell ill and at just 50 years of age he died and
    buried in an unidentified site.

197
BARTOLOMEO EUSTACHI(1500-1574)
  • Eustachi( aOOsta ke) Italian anatomist,
    contemporary of Vesalius, taught at university of
    Rome.

198
Contributions
  • He extended the knowledge of inner ear.
  • Discovered the adrenal gland.
  • Studied the structure and development of teeth.

199
Tabulae Anatomicae
  • He died suddenly and all his works were deposited
    in the Vatican library.
  • Later after 140 years they were recovered and
    published as Tabulae Anatomicae by Pope Clement
    xi.

200
REALDO COLOMBO(1516-1559)
  • Italian anatomist and became assistant to
    Vesalius in 1541.
  • Later he became his successor as Professor of
    anatomy at the university of Padua.

201
Public dissection
  • Later he moved to Papal University at Rome and
    became the physician to Pope Julius III.
  • Several hundred people attended his anatomical
    dissections and cardinals and archbishops were
    often present.

202
Anatomy book
  • Published his only work De Re Anatomica(On
    Things Anatomical) in 1559.

203
Book De Re Anatomica
  • Picture showing British anatomist John
    Banister(1533-1610) teaching visceral anatomy by
    reading De Re Anatomica of Colombo

204
Pulmonary circuit
  • In his book he explained pulmonary circuit which
    paved the way for William Harveys discovery of
    circulation later.

205
Colombo treated Michelangelo
  • The Paduan anatomist Colombo diagnosed and
    treated Michelangelo for nephrolithiasis

206
MICHELANGELO (1475- 1564)
  • The Italian renaissance artist and sculptor had a
    life long interest in anatomy.
  • He participated in public dissection and
    performed his own dissections.

207
Paintings in the ceiling of Sistine chapel of
Vatican
208
Anatomical drawings in the paintings
  • Michelangelo cleverly disguised drawing of human
    brain which has remained unnoticed for 500 years
    cleverly concealed from the eyes of Pope Julius
    II and other worshipers and its has been coded to
    the clash between science and religion.

209
Brought into light
  • The disguised anatomical drawings were brought
    into light by an article appeared in the journal
    Neurosurgery May 2010 issue- Official journal of
    the Congress of Neurological Sciences

210
The painting- Separation of Light from Darkness.
Brain Drawing
211
The painting- God creating Adam
212
The painting- Separation of Land and Water
  • This painting depicts kidney which was familiar
    to him as he suffered from kidney stone
  • The picture is in the shape of a bisected right
    kidney

213
GABRIELE FALLOPIO(1523-1562)
214
Italian anatomist
  • He succeeded Realdo Colombo as Professor of
    Anatomy and Botany at Padua university.
  • He extended Vesaliuss work and extended its
    details.

215
Observationes Anatomicae
  • His exhaustive observations made during
    dissections of human cadavers are outlined in his
    book Observationes Anatomicae

216
Contributions
  • He was the first to describe the Fallopian tubes
    as trumpets of the uterus

217
  • He also first described the semicircular canals,
    and several nerves of head and face.

218
Facial canal
  • The Fallopian canal or facial canal or aqueductus
    Fallopi, the longest bony canal for a nerve
    through which the facial nerve passes after
    leaving the auditory nerve is also named after
    him.

219
Died at young age
  • Though he died when less than forty, he made his
    mark on anatomy for all time.

220
COSTANZO VAROLIO(1543-1575)
  • Italian anatomist at Bologna university.

221
Brain dissection
  • He was the first to dissect the brain from its
    base upward, in contrast with previous
    dissections which had been performed from the top
    downward.

222
Pons varollii
  • He describe the Pons. Also known as Pons varolii

223
SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
224
NICOLAES TULP(1593-1674)
  • Tulp was a mayor of Amsterdam, surgeon and city
    anatomist.

225
Lesson and dissection
  • As a city anatomist he has to give anatomy lesson
    and dissection only once in a year performing
    them on victims of public hanging.

226
The painting Anatomy Lessons by Tulp
227
Painting by Rembrandt
  • The painting by Rembrandt in 1632 depicts Tulp
    dissecting the fore arm and investigating the
    inferior and superior flexor tendons.

228
Contribution
  • He discovered the ileocecal valve at the junction
    of large and small intestine, still known as
    Tulps valve.

229
WILLIAM HARVEY (1578-1657)
230
Studied at Padua
  • Harvey was an English physician who travelled to
    Padua of Italy to study anatomy.

231
Blood circulation
  • First person to describe completely and in detail
    the systematic circulation of blood.

232
Book De Motu Cordis
  • He published his observations about blood
    circulation in his book Exercitatio Anatomica de
    Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus in 1628

233
English translation of the book
  • Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart
    and Blood in Animals

234
Not seen capillaries
  • The only incomplete point in his explanation of
    circulatory system is the capillaries.
  • He could not see the capillaries, that connects
    the arteries to the veins, since their minute
    size lies below the limits of visual acuity.
  • He had no access, and perhaps, no knowledge of
    existence of microscope.

235
Embryology
  • Harvey in 1651 wrote the book on embryology De
    Generatione AnimaliumOn the Generation of
    Animals.
  • He is the first to suggest that humans and other
    animals are reproduced via fertilization.

236
Dissection of fathers and sisters bodies
  • Harvey dissected the bodies of his father,
    sister, and his cousins husband.

237
Mentioning of body parts
  • Although these anatomical dissections were
    conducted privately, Harvey mentioned them in his
    lectures.
  • In his lectures he mentioned the huge size of the
    colon he removed from his fathers abdomen and
    the heavy weight of his sisters spleen.

238
Attitude towards dissection
  • The dissection of the bodies of family members
    suggests the considerable extent to which Harvey
    had become able to divorce himself from corpse.

239
Royal physician
  • He became royal physician to
  • King James I and later to King Charles I.

240
Died in 1657
  • Tomb of Harvey

241
Thomas Willis(1621-1675)
  • Physician of England who played an important part
    in the history of anatomy and neurology.

242
Cerebri Anatome-1664
  • His book Cerebri Anatome coined the term
    neurology.
  • Willis is known as father of neuroscience

243
Pathologicae Cerebri
  • In 1667 he published Pathologicae Cerebri et
    Nervosi Generis Specimen an important work on
    the pathology of brain.

244
Circle of Willis
  • The circle of Willis, a part of the brain was his
    discovery.

245
Numbers to cranial nerves
  • He was the first to number the cranial nerves.

246
Reflex action
  • He was the first to use the term the reflex
    action.

247
Diabetes Mellitus
  • Willis coined the term mellitus ( honey sweet) in
    diabetes mellitus.

248
Founder member
  • He was a founder member of Royal Society of
    London.

249
INVENTION OF MICROSCOPE
  • During the Renaissance occurred the inventions of
    printing, gunpowder, compass and microscope.

250
Microscope
  • In 1590 Dutch spectacle makers, Zacharias Janssen
    and his son Hans, made first microscope by
    placing two lenses in a tube.

251
Robert Hooke
  • Robert Hook of England improved the compound
    microscope.

252
Cell
  • Hooke in his book Micrographia coined the word
    cell in 1665 which he observed in cork.

253
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
  • Leeuwenhoek(lay-you-wen-hook) of Holland
    developed the simple microscope in 1674.

254
Very simple device
  • His simple device had only one powerful
    magnifying glass with the entire length of only 4
    inches.

255
Microorganisms
  • Using his simple handcrafted microscope he was
    the first to see the single celled organisms,
    which he originally referred to as animalcules,
    which we now refer to as microorganisms.
  • His drawing of animalcule

256
Founder of microbiology
  • He was the first person to record microscopic
    observations of muscle fibers, bacteria and
    spermatozoa

257
Letters
  • He has not written any book.
  • But he wrote letters to the Royal Society of
    London which published them in their journal
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

258
Died in 1723

  • Tomb

259
MARCELLO MALPIGHI(1628-1694)
  • An Italian anatomist of university of Bologna.
  • Malpighi (mahl-pee-gee) was born in 1628, the
    year in which William Harvey published his land
    mark book De Motu Cordis.

260
Founder of microscopic anatomy
  • For almost 40 years he used the microscope to
    study the anatomical structures of plants,
    insects and human organs.

261
Discovery of capillaries
  • Although William Harvey had correctly inferred
    the capillaries, he had never seen it.
  • It was reserved for Malpighi who first saw tiny
    microtubules and named capillaries in 1661 in the
    lungs of frog.

262
Letters
  • The discovery of capillaries was given to the
    world in the form of two letters De Pulmonibus
    ,which included in his book Opera Omnia,

263
Many firsts
  • Malpighi used microscope to discover many
    firsts
  • First person to see the capillaries.
  • First histologist.

264
Comparative study of liver
  • The first comparative study of liver, from the
    snail through the fishes, reptiles and mammals up
    to man.

265
Red blood cells
  • He observed a host of red atoms-red blood cells.

266
Microscopic embryology
  • His detailed observations of chick embryo and the
    book De Formatione Pulli in Ovo laid the
    foundation for microscopic embryology.

267
Papillae of tongue
  • He described the papillae of the tongue.

268
Spleen
  • He identified the spleen as an organ, not a gland.

269
Nerve fibers
  • He found that nerves and spinal cord both
    consisted of bundles of nerve fibers.

270
Silk worm
  • He discovered that silk worm had no lungs but
    breathed through a row of holes located on the
    side of their bodies.De Bombyce

271
Plant anatomy
  • He also studied little vessels in wood and he
    published Anatome Plantarum

272
Family Malpighiaceae
  • The great Swedish botanist Linnaeus named the
    genus Malpighia in honor of Malpighis work with
    plants.

273
Names associated with Malpighi
  • One of the layers of the skin is called as
    Malpighian layer.

274
Malpighian body of the kidney
275
Malpighian tubule in the excretory system of
insects
276
Malpighian corpuscles or splenic nodules
277
Fellow of Royal Society
  • First Italian to be elected a Fellow of Royal
    Society of London.
  • When a fire destroyed his microscope in 1684, the
    society compensated him and sent him new lenses.

278
Died in 1694
  • In accordance with his wishes an autopsy was
    performed.
  • His tomb in Bologna

279
ANATOMICAL THEATER
280
Public dissection
  • Anatomical dissections in the 1600 were open to
    the public and anatomical theaters were formed to
    allow people to come and watch dissections
    through pubic notices and wall posters

281
Notice for public dissection
282
Tickets
  • Exorbitantly priced tickets of admission were
    sold to the wealthy.

283
During winter
  • The performance of public dissections were
    scheduled during cold weather of winter because
    of perishable nature of cadaver.

284
University of Padua 1594
  • First permanent anatomy theater was built in
    Padua- Italy, which could hold 300 people.

285
Still can be visited
  • The theater had been used for 278 years before it
    became a museum in 1872.
  • The theater can still be visited today.

286
University of Leiden-1597
  • The second one was built at the university of
    Leiden, Italy.

287
Dissection table
  • The theater was equipped with a rotating table
    which made it possible to turn the tabletop
    toward the position of sunrays.

288
University of Bologna1637
  • The third one was built at university of Bologna,
    Italy.

289
FREDERIK RUYSCH(1638-1731)
  • A Dutch anatomist and botanist, studied medicine
    at university of Leiden, Italy.
  • His chief skill was the preparation of specimens
    in a secret liquor.
  • He prepared the first anatomical specimens.

290
Access to the bodies
  • As a instructor to midwives and doctor to the
    court, he had ample access to the bodies of
    stillborn and dead infants.

291
Artistic work
  • He made artistic arrangement of body parts and
    fetal skeletons.

292
Botanical background
  • The botanical background's were made from
    injected and hardened veins and arteries for
    trees and more ramified tissue of lungs and
    smaller vessels for grass

293
City anatomist
  • From 1666 he became city anatomist of
    Amsterdam(like Dr Tulp) and gave anatomy
    dissection and lecture, till his death.

294
Sold his collections
  • He sold his collections to the Russian Tsar Peter
    the Great, in 1717.
  • Several of the items are still held in the Museum
    of St. Petersburg.
  • The 79 year old Ruysch began to set up a new
    collection.

295
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY
296
GIOVANNI BATTISTA MORGAGNI(1682-1771)
  • FATHER OF ANATOMICAL PATHOLOGY

297
Italian anatomist
  • Taught anatomy at university of Padua for 56
    years.
  • His work Adversaria Anatomica is a series of
    researches on fine anatomy.

298
Pathological anatomy
  • Earlier anatomists established the normal human
    anatomy.
  • Morgagni explored the origin and seat of diseases
    that caused the changes observable in the cadaver
    at the postmortem autopsy.

299
Book on pathological anatomy
  • After 640 autopsy dissections he wrote the book
    De Sedibus et Causis Morborum per Anatomen
    Indagatis which became the foundation of
    pathological anatomy.

300
English translation
  • Seats and Causes of Disease Investigated by Means
    of Anatomy.

301
First person
  • To describe
  • Disease of the heart valve
  • Record the first instance of heart block
  • Tuberculosis
  • Cirrhosis of the liver
  • Prove that lesion in stroke occurs on the
    opposite from the resulting paralysis.

302
30 anatomical terms associated with his name
  • Four examples
  • Morgagni foramen

303
Morgagni hydatid
304
Morgagnis column
305
Morgagni cataract
306
JOSEPH LIEUTAUD (1703-1780)
  • SURGICAL ANATOMY began with the book of Essais
    Anatomiques by French anatomist Lieutaud.

307
WILLIAM HUNTER(1718-1783)
  • British anatomist, obstetrician, and avid
    collector of antiques and coins.

308
Individual dissection
  • He introduced the practice of providing
    individual medical students with cadavers for
    dissection.

309
Obstetrics
  • His work and the book Anatomy of the Human
    Gravid Uterus(1774) removed obstetrics from the
    purview of midwives and established it as a
    branch of medicine.

310
Popular anatomy teacher
  • He taught anatomy at Royal College of Surgeons in
    London

311
Hunterian museum
  • He opened the Hunterian museum at the Royal
    College of Surgeons with 13000 specimens of
    natural history, coins, books as well as
    anatomical and pathological specimens.

312
Skeleton of tallest man
  • The museum contains the skeleton of the Charles
    Byrne the tallest man of Ireland.

313
Discovered the anatomical drawings of Da Vinci
  • The anatomical drawings of da Vinci were
    discovered by Hunter at Royal Library of Windsor
    Castle.

314
NINETEENTH CENTURY
315
FIRST BODY DONATION
  • Jeremy Bentham(1748-1832), the British
    philosopher and social reformer donated his body
    in 1832.

316
University college of London
  • Bentham was one of the founders of university
    college of London.

317
Body dissected
  • As requested in his will Benthams body was
    dissected as a part of public anatomy lecture.

318
Auto-icon at university college of London
  • Auto-icon is a wooden cabinet that contains
    Bentham's preserved skeleton, dressed in his own
    clothes, and surmounted by a wax head.

319
Auto-icon in college meeting
  • Earlier it was brought to meeting of college
    council, where it is listed as present but not
    voting

320
SIR CHARLES BELL(1774-1842)
  • Scottish anatomist, surgeon and artist.

321
Anatomy to artists
  • He taught anatomy to artists and for instructions
    he wrote the book Essays on the Anatomy of
    Expression in Painting

322
Contribution to neurology
  • Bells book Idea of A New Anatomy of the Brain
    has been called the Magna Charta of Neurology

323
Motor and sensory roots
  • Bell announced that anterior roots of spinal
    nerves are motor, while posterior roots are
    sensory.

324
Book on anatomy
  • Along with his brother John Bell who was also a
    surgeon and anatomist Charles Bell wrote the book
    Anatomy of Human Body

325
Oil paintings by Bell
  • At the battle of Waterloo of Napoleon Bell
    operated on wounded and produced the oil
    paintings of wounds.

326
Names associated with Charles Bell
  • Bells nerve
  • The long thoracic nerve

327
Bells palsy
  • Paralysis of the facial muscle

328
Bells phenomenon
  • Up ward movement of the eye and eyelid when a
    person with Bells palsy tries to close the eyes.

329
Bells spasm
  • Involuntary twitching of the facial muscles.

330
Bell- Magendie law
  • States that the anterior branch of spinal nerve
    roots contain only motor fibers and the posterior
    roots contain only sensory fibers.

331
JAN EVANGELISTA PURKINJE(1787-1869)
  • Proper Czech spelling is Purkyne.
  • Czech anatomist and physiologist

332
Worlds first physiology department
  • He created worlds first Department of Physiology
    in 1839 at the university of Breslau, Prussia and
    world's first physiology laboratory in 1842.

333
Protoplasm
  • Purkinje introduced the term protoplasm into
    scientific literature.
  • He described the contents of animal embryo using
    the term protoplasm.
  • To him the term meant first formed, but
    eventually it took on more a general meaning, the
    living material inside the cell.

334
Origin of the term protoplasm
  • The selection of the term protoplasm came about
    because of his early religious training.
  • In an ancient manuscript there was an old church
    song in which the first man, Adam was described
    as created from Protoplast

335
Plasma
  • He introduced the term plasma.

336
Microtome
  • Purkinje was the first to use microtome.

337
Preparation of tissue sample
  • Purkinje was the first to use glacial acetic
    acid, potassium dichromate, in the preparation of
    tissue samples for microscopic examination.

338
Sweat glands
  • Purkinje first discovered sweat glands in 1833

339
Finger prints
  • Purkinje was the first to classify finger prints
    into patterns

340
Purkinje cells or neurons
  • Large branching neurons in the cerebellum

341
Purkinje fibers
  • Which conducts impulse from natural pacemaker to
    heart.

342
Vesicles of Purkinje
  • The germinal vesicle or nucleus in the birds egg.

343
Purkinje shift
  • As light decreases, red object appear to fade
    faster than blue ones.

344
Died in 1869
345
FUGITIVE SHEETS
  • Fugitive sheets were published throughout Europe
    till the late 17th century.

346
Pop up device
  • The printed sheets depict the human body, using a
    pop up device of super imposed flaps, to display
    the internal anatomy.

347
Mimicking anatomy
  • The fugitive sheet thus mimics the act of
    dissection.

348
BODY SNATCHING(1800)
  • Body snatching or grave robbery is a part of
    history of anatomy.

349
Demand for corpses
  • Thousands of corpses a year disappeared from
    burial grounds and sold to dissectors in England
    and Scotland.
  • Scotland medical students could pay for their
    tuition with corpses rather than coins.

350
Protection
  • Cemeteries of the rich were protected with cast
    irons, and watch towers were also constructed in
    the graveyard.

351
The case of Burke and Hare 1828
  • In 1828 William Burke and William Hare in
    Edinburg murdered 16 people(West Port Murders)

352
Sold the bodies
  • Burke and Hare sold the bodies to Robert Knox,
    the anatomist.

353
Burke hanged
  • They were caught in 1828.Hare was granted
    immunity from prosecution.
  • Burke was hanged, after which he was publically
    dissected at the Edinburg Medical college.

354
Burkes skeleton
  • Burkes skeleton is now displayed at Edinburgs
    museum.

355
Business card case
  • A business card case was made from his tanned
    skin and is displayed at Edinburgs museum.

356
Anthropodermic book
  • This is a antropodermic book Executed 28 Jan
    1829 bound in the skin and flesh of Burke.

357
New verb
  • A new verb was coined for the murder to burke
    killing by sitting on the chest, and suffocating
    them by putting a hand over their nose and mouth.

358
Anatomy Act 1832
  • To avoid the problem of grave robbery and murders
    for corpses Anatomy Act 1832 was enacted in
    England,
  • The act allowed the unclaimed bodies to be turned
    over to medical schools.

359
Warren Anatomical museum-1847
  • Founded by Johri Collins Warren of Harvard
    Medical School.

360
Most treasured item of the museum
  • Skull and tampering iron of Phineas Gage.

361
Phineas Gage
  • A railroad worker, who had a tampering iron rod
    blown through his head survived to tell the tale.

362
Change in personality
  • The accident damaged his frontal lobe, which
    resulted in personality
About PowerShow.com