Appendicitis: Symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Appendicitis: Symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment

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Appendix is a small, sac-like structure that is found attached to the right side of the colon or the large intestine. Its actual name is vermiform appendix, which means worm-like appendage. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Appendicitis: Symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment


1
Appendicitis
2
Appendicitis
  • Appendix is a small, sac-like structure that is
    found attached to the right side of the colon or
    the large intestine. Its actual name is vermiform
    appendix, which means worm-like appendage. The
    exact function of the appendix is not known,
    however, its removal has not been found to cause
    any problem. A small amount of mucus is produced
    by the inner lining of the appendix, which
    empties into the large intestine. Appendicitis is
    caused by the inflammation of the appendix. 

3
What are the causes of appendicitis? 
  • The vermiform appendix can get inflamed due to
    several factors, like the blockage of the
    appendix, development of ulcers, and bacterial
    infections. Sometimes, food or wastes (faeces)
    can enter the appendix and block it. Even
    swelling of the lymphatic tissues present on the
    wall of the appendix can cause a blockage. The
    blockage creates a favourable condition for
    bacterial growth leading to an infection and the
    consequent inflammation. Apart from bacteria,
    fungi, viruses, and parasites can also be
    responsible for causing infections. An infection
    causes the appendix to inflame and get filled up
    with pus. Sometimes, inflammatory bowel diseases
    like Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis may
    be associated with an inflammation of the
    appendix.

4
Symptoms
  • The most common symptom of this condition is
    abdominal pain, which can be initially felt in
    the middle of the abdomen and then in the right
    lower abdomen. It can produce some other symptoms
    like loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and
    fever. Sometimes, the affected individual can
    also experience constipation and diarrhoea.

5
Treatments
  • Appendicitis is diagnosed by evaluating the
    medical history of the patient, along with
    physical examination. The physician usually looks
    for tenderness in the right lower abdomen by
    gently pushing the area. If the infection spreads
    to the peritoneum, it can cause rebound
    tenderness. Rebound tenderness refers to the pain
    felt when the doctor releases his hand after
    pushing the abdomen. In addition to these, a
    patient can have a high-grade fever. A blood
    test is also carried out to find out the count of
    white blood cells, as any kind of infection can
    increase the number of white blood cells in the
    body. Sometimes, other tests like CT
    scan, abdominal X-ray, urinalysis,
    and ultrasound can be required for a confirmed
    diagnosis. 

6
Treatments
Continue
  • The treatment of this condition usually involves
    the surgical removal of the appendix from the
    body. If the appendix ruptures, the
    infection-causing bacteria and waste material can
    spread to other parts of the body. This can cause
    an infection in the abdomen or the peritoneum.
    The appendix can be removed by an open
    or laparoscopic surgery. In laparoscopy, a few
    small incisions are made in the abdomen to insert
    the laparoscope. The video camera present in the
    laparoscope gives a magnified image of the inside
    of the abdomen to carry out the surgery. For
    removing the appendix, some tiny surgical
    instruments are inserted through the incisions.
    The main advantage of this surgery is that it can
    ensure faster recovery and healing than open
    surgery. But, if the appendix ruptures, then open
    surgery can be required to treat the condition.
    In open surgery, a large abdominal incision is
    made to remove the appendix.

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