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Embedded Systems

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Title: Embedded Systems


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TechieNest Pvt. Ltd
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Embedded Systems
  • An embedded system is a combination of computer
    hardware and software, either fixed in capability
    or programmable, that is specifically designed
    for a particular function.
  • Industrial machines, automobiles, medical
    equipment, cameras, household appliances,
    airplanes, vending machines and toys (as well as
    the more obvious cellular phone and PDA) are
    among the myriad possible hosts of an embedded
    system.

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Continue.
  • Physically, embedded systems range from portable
    devices such as digital watches and MP3 players,
    to large stationary installations like traffic
    lights, factory controllers, or the systems
    controlling nuclear power plants.
  • Embedded systems that are programmable are
    provided with programming interfaces
    and embedded programming is a specialized
    occupation.
  • It is embedded as part of a complete device often
    including hardware and mechanical parts.

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Continue.
  • The key characteristic is being dedicated to
    handle a particular task.
  • The embedded system is dedicated to specific
    tasks, design engineers can optimize it to reduce
    the size and cost of the product and increase the
    reliability and performance. Some embedded
    systems are mass-produced, benefiting from
    economies of scale.
  • Complexity varies from low, with a single
    microcontroller chip, to very high with multiple
    units, peripherals and networks mounted inside a
    large chassis or enclosure.

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Examples of Embedded Systems
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Characteristics of Embedded Systems
  • An Embedded systems must have the following
    characteristics
  • User Interfaces
  • Simple Systems which Stem from Limited
    Functionality
  • CPU Platforms with Microprocessors or
    Microcontrollers

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User Interfaces
  • Originally, an embedded system had no user
    interface.
  • There was no need for human interaction or
    intervention except to install the device and
    test it.
  • Many modern embedded systems however, have
    full-scale user interfaces although these are
    only inputs for data but are not supposed to
    provide additional functionality for the system,
    e.g. QWERTY keyboards for PDAs used to enter
    names, addresses, phone numbers and notes and
    even full sized documents.
  • The moment PDAs achieve full desktop computer
    functionalities, however, they may no longer be
    considered embedded systems.

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Simple Systems which Stem from Limited
Functionality
  • This refers to basic systems such as switches,
    small character- or digit-only displays and LEDs
    intended to show the health of the embedded
    system, but this has also achieved some level of
    complexity.
  • A cash register or an ATM with touch screen
    technology is considered an embedded system since
    it has limited uses, even if the user interface
    (the touch screen) is a complex system.

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CPU Platform
  • Limited functionality is the key in defining
    these as embedded systems.
  • In a sense, the BIOS chip is considered an
    embedded system since it has limited functions,
    and works automatically (when the computer is
    booted up).
  • Peripherals like the USB can also be considered
    as embedded systems.

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Parts of Embedded Systems
  • An embedded system consists of three parts
  • Input
  • Processing Unit
  • Output
  • The input device are responsible for providing
    input to the embedded system which is then
    processed by the processing unit to produce an
    desired output.

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Input Devices-sensors
  • These devices provide input to the
    microcontroller.
  • In general, we use sensors as input devices while
    dealing with microcontrollers.
  • A sensor is a device that measures a physical
    quantity and converts it into a signal which can
    be read by an observer or by an instrument.
  • The output of a sensor is an analog signal. This
    signal is utilized in analog sensors.
  • Digital sensors use this signal after passing
    them from comparator IC 741 or IC LM 393. Thus,
    Digital sensors are basically a combination of
    analog sensors and comparator ICs.

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Types of sensors
  • Temperature,
  • Pressure,
  • Level
  • Humidity
  • Speed
  • Motion
  • Distance,
  • Light

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Uses of sensors
  • Sensors are used in everyday objects such as
    touch-sensitive elevator buttons (tactile sensor)
    and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the
    base.
  • There are also innumerable applications for
    sensors of which most people are never aware.
  • Applications include cars, machines, aerospace,
    medicine, manufacturing and robotics

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Processing Unit
  • These devices process the input provided by the
    input devices and produces the output.
  • All the decisions are taken by this devices
    depending upon the algorithm provided by the
    user.
  • The user transfers the algorithm in the form of
    program.
  • Microprocessor or microcontrollers are used as
    the basic processing devices.

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Microprocessor
  • A microprocessor incorporates the functions of
     computer's central processing unit (CPU) on a
    single integrated circuit (IC or microchip).
  • It is a multipurpose, programmable, clock-driven,
    register-based electronic device that
    accepts digital data as input, processes it
    according to instructions stored in its memory,
    and provides results as output.
  • It is an example of sequential digital logic, as
    it has internal memory, i.e. its registers.

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Microprocessors Architecture
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Microcontroller
  • A digital computer having microprocessor as the
    CPU along with I/O devices and memory is known as
    microcomputer.
  • The microcontroller could be called a one-chip
    solution.
  • It typically includes
  • CPU (central processing unit),
  • RAM (Random Access Memory),
  • EPROM/ PROM/ROM
  • I/O (input/output)

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Continue.
  • By only including the features specific to the
    task (control), cost is relatively low. A typical
    microcontroller has bit manipulation
    instructions, easy and direct access to I/O
    (input/ output), and quick and efficient
    interrupt processing.
  • Microcontrollers are a one-chip solution which
    drastically reduces parts count and design costs.

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Microcontrollers Architecture
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Microcontroller Vs Microprocessor
  • Microcontroller
  • CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O and timer are all on a single
    chip
  • Fix amount of on-chip ROM, RAM, I/O ports
  • For applications in which cost, power and space
    are critical
  • Not versatile
  • Single-purpose
  • Microprocessor
  • CPU is stand-alone, RAM, ROM, I/O, timer are
    separate
  • Designer can decide on the amount of ROM, RAM
    and I/O ports.
  • Expansive
  • Versatility
  • General-purpose

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Output Devices
  • These devices show the result of our algorithm.
    A number of devices can be used. Some of them
    include LEDs, Motors (DC, Stepper, Servo) etc.
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