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Bio Gas Plant by Kitchen waste

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this bio gas plant is modified as possible as much because we are using here kitchen waste coming from college hostel to produce green energy . it include all data , analysis , idea and more. copyright to Neeraj Chauhan. This idea is totally new. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Bio Gas Plant by Kitchen waste


1
RECYCLING OF KITCHEN WASTE
2
MAIN AIM
  • BIOGAS PRODUCTION
  • AND
  • SLUDGE AS MANURE

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  • USES OF BIOGAS
  • Biogas can replace LPG to some extent.(Can be
    supplied to hostel kitchens)
  • It can be used as fuel in running machines like
    vehicles
  • It can be used to produce electricity.
  • The digested sludge is used as manure directly.
  • ADVANTAGES OF BIOGAS
  • It causes no environmental effects .
  • There is no loss of mass.
  • It is cheaper and affordable.

5
What is BIOGAS?
  • BIOGAS is a mixture of gases which are produced
    due to anaerobic fermentation of any organic
    matter.
  • The typical mixture of gases contains -

Gas Percentage
Methane 50 70
Carbon Dioxide 25 50
Hydrogen 0 - 1
Nitrogen 0 - 10
Hydrogen Sulfide 0 - 3
Oxygen 0 - 0.5
6
Where does BIOGAS come from?
  • Biogas can be produced from any raw materials
    like
  • Agriculture waste
  • Manure
  • Municipal Waste
  • Plant Material
  • Sewage
  • FOOD WASTE or GREEN WASTE
  • In this project we use only food waste from our
    Hostel Kitchen.

7
Who Produce BIOGAS?
  • BIOGAS production is a COMPLEX process which
    include several kinds of MICROORGANISMS.
  • Bacteria
  • Fungi
  • The complete process is more of a symbiosis
    between many microorganisms.
  • In this project we use only BACTERIA.

8
FUNGI
  • It produces BIOGAS mainly from materials
    containing high LIGNOCELLULOSE.
  • Fungi can produce Biogas from food waste but the
    yeild is very low which is uneconomical.

SUBSTRATE LIGNIN CONTENT FUNGI
Wheat Straw 16 21 Neocallimastix frontalis
Rice Straw 18 Pyromyces M014
Hard Wood 18 25 Neocallimastix sp.
9
BACTERIA
  • Four types of bacteria are used in BIOGAS
    production.
  • They are-

TYPE EXAMPLES
Hydrolytic Bacteria Bacillus,Cellulomonas, Eubacterium
Acedogenic Bacteria Propionibacterium, Butyrivibrio,Acetovibrio
Acetogenic Bacteria Clostridia,Acetovibrio
Methanogenic Bacteria Methanococcus, Methanobacterium
10
How BACTERIA produce BIOGAS?
11
ENHANCEMENT IN YIELD
  • Introducing H2 Producing Bacteria
    (Bioaugmentation)
  • In the overall process, conversion of H2 and CO2
    to methane(CH4) is the rate limiting step.
  • Co2 H2 methanogenotropic bacteria
    CH4
  • From the studies, it is evident that production
    of high H2 leads to production of high CH4
  • From the study done by K.L.Kovax et.al, the H2
    producing bacteria enhanced the production of
    BIOGAS.

12
  • Two Bacteria were used in the experiment but, we
    use only mesophilic bacteria (Enterobacter
    cloacae)
  • Because, It grows in normal temperature and no
    external heat is required.
  • Initially the bacteria is cultured in the lab and
    then it should be added in the substrate i.e
    fermentor
  • As it is a anaerobic bacteria it is very easy for
    bacteria to grow in the biogas fermentor.

BACTERIA NAME TYPE
Enterobacter cloacae Mesophilic
Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus Thermophilic
13
  • Where can we get these Bacteria
  • There are many laboratories which sell bacteria.
    NATIONAL CHEMICAL LABORATORIES (NCL),PUNE is one
    of the best laboratories which sell Enterobacter
    cloacae.
  • They cost Rs.3000 per culture.
  • The purchased strain is further cultured in the
    laboratory and then immobilized.
  • The immobilization of the strain is achieved by
    Polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE) Membranes.

14
  • Problems associated with H2 production -
  • High H2 Production - Due to high production of
    H2,there is a chance of decreased production of
    methane.
  • Presence of high H2 causes popping sound when
    burning.
  • Low H2 production- 30 of methane is produced
    from conversion of CO2 and H2. Low H2 may
    decrease this amount even less.
  • To overcome these problems we are
    going for IMMOBILIZATION OF BACTERIA.

15
FERMENTOR MODEL
  • Two stage fermentor is ideal for the higher yield
    of biogas.
  • It reduces the Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT)
  • HRT is the total time that
    substrate spends in the fermentor.
  • MIXING MECHANISM-
  • First Stage- It includes Hydrolysis and
    Acidogenesis.The fermented slurry is recirculated
    through pump.
  • Second Stage-It includes acetogenesis and
    methanogenesis. The gas from this stage is
    compressed and resent to the same fermentor from
    bottom.This helps in mixing the slurry.

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Working Mechanism
  • COLLECTION OF WASTE
  • On an average 150-200 kg of food waste comes from
    every boys hostel and 100-120 kg of food waste
    comes from every girls hostel.
  • From calculations it is found that 1500-2000 kg
    waste comes from 7 boys hostels and 6 girls
    hostel.
  • These are collected in big plastic drums.
  • SEGGREGATION
  • Since the collected waste is from kitchens there
    are very less chances of mixing of unwanted
    wastes like plastic and Aluminum foils.

18
  • Contd..
  • Incase of plastic and other waste manual
    separation is done itself in the mess by
    allotting separate bins for them.
  • CRUSHING
  • A 5HP motor is used for crushing which runs by 10
    panel solar unit.
  • MIXING
  • Mixing is done in a separate tank in which
    impellors run by common motor that is used for
    crushing.

19
  • STAGE ONE
  • Stage one is an underground fixed dome shaped
    fermentor.
  • For the start up of the fermentor, an activated
    microbial slurry from nearby biogas plant should
    be taken and cultured for 15 20 days because
    already working biogas plant contains most
    effective bacterial consortia.
  • Along with this bacteria,the suspended
    Enterobacter cloacae membrane is fixed in the
    fermentor for more H2 production.
  • After the culture is done,the premixed slurry is
    added into the fermentor for initial
    fermentation.
  • The HRT is 3o days in which hydrolysis and
    acidogenesis is done.
  • Mixing is done by slurry recirculation by 10 HP
    drive pump.

20
  • STAGE TWO
  • It is an underground floating drum type
    fermentor.
  • For the startup the same process is done as in
    first stage.
  • The initially digested slurry is transferred into
    the fermentor through a pipe by gravity (as the
    fermentors are held in different heights).
  • Acetogenesis and Methenogenesis are done in this
    stage.
  • The mixing is done by recirculating the formed
    gas.
  • The fully fermented sludge is drived out of the
    fermentor through the opening present at the
    bottom.

21
GAS PURIFICATION
  • WATER
    SCRUBBING
  • Carbon dioxide is soluble in water.
  • Water scrubbing uses the higher solubility of
    CO2 in water to separate the CO2 from biogas.
  •  This process is done under high pressure and
    removes H2S as well as CO2.
  • The main disadvantage of this process is that it
    requires a large volume of water that must be
    purified and recycled.

22
Analysis
  • Analysis on biogas production
  • A typical study says that 1 KG of Kitchen waste
    produces 0.75 m3 of biogas
  • Therefore,2000 kg waste gives
  • 2000 0.75 1500 m3.
  • Analysis on LPG usage
  • On an average 100 of 14.2 kg LPG cylinders are
    used in the Hostels.
  • The density of LPG is 1.85 m3.
  • Therefore,100 cylinders of LPG contains 766 m3 of
    gas.

23
COMPARISION
  • METHANE
  • LPG
  • Calorific value of methane is 38.7 MJ/m3
  • Therefore ,total energy from 1500m3 is equal to
    58050 MJ
  • This is the one time investment and Just
    maintenance costs
  • Calorific value of LPG is 93.2 MJ/m3
  • The total energy from 766 m3 is equal to 71391 MJ
  • As per now, the cost for 100 cylinders exceeds
    RS 70,000 and this is a daily investment

24
  • PERCENTAGE SAVING OF LPG
  • Total LPG saved per day (58050/71391)100

  • 81.13
  • Therefore it is evident that the biogas can be
    used as alternative substitute for fossil fuels.

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BIO GAS PLANT VISIT AT HISAR, HARYANA
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THANK YOU ANY QUESTIONS????
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