Muscular dystrophy: Group of more than 30 inherited diseases. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Muscular dystrophy: Group of more than 30 inherited diseases.

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Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of more than 30 inherited diseases. It causes weakening and breaking down of muscle fibres. The muscles become weak and susceptible to damage. This disease affects the voluntary or skeletal muscles, which control the movements of legs, arms, and trunk. It can also affect the heart muscles and other involuntary muscles, such as muscles in the gut. To know more visit here: www.lazoi.com – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Muscular dystrophy: Group of more than 30 inherited diseases.


1
MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY (MD)
  • CAUSES SYMPTOMS TREATMENTS

2
What is Muscular Dystrophy ?
  • Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of more than
    30 inherited diseases. It causes weakening and
    breaking down of muscle fibres. The muscles
    become weak and susceptible to damage.
  • This disease affects the voluntary or skeletal
    muscles, which control the movements of legs,
    arms, and trunk.
  • It can also affect the heart muscles and other
    involuntary muscles, such as muscles in the gut.
  • Some forms of muscular dystrophy are found in
    infancy or childhood, while some may not appear
    until middle age. This progressive disease is
    more common in boys than girls.

3
Types of Muscular Dystrophy
  • The most common types of MD that affect children
    include Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) and
    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). They result
    from a genetic deficiency of the muscle protein,
    dystrophin. Other common types of muscular
    dystrophy are
  • Congenital muscular dystrophy
  • Myotonic muscular dystrophy
  • Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy
  • Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy
  • Distal muscular dystrophy
  • Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy

4
Causes of Muscular Dystrophy
  • Muscular dystrophy is a genetic disorder caused
    by a defective gene. Each type of muscular
    dystrophy is caused by a genetic mutation. A
    genetic deficiency of muscle protein, namely
    dystrophin is also responsible for the most
    common types of muscular dystrophy.

5
Symptoms of Muscular Dystrophy
  • Signs and symptoms vary with every type but some
    common are
  • progressive muscular wasting,
  • Drooping eyelids, Atrophy,
  • Scoliosis,
  • Inability to walk, Frequent falls
  • limited range of movement,
  • Respiratory difficulty, Joint contractures,
  • Cardiomyopathy, Arrhythmias,
  • Muscle spasms,
  • Gowers' sign.

6
Diagnosis of Muscular Dystrophy
  • Family history
  • Blood test
  • Electromyography
  • Muscle biopsy
  • Histopathology
  • DNA test
  • Gene sequencing
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging

7
Treatments of Muscular Dystrophy
  • In fact, there is no cure for any type of
    muscular dystrophy. A treatment is given to slow
    the progress of the disease. It is designed to
    reduce or prevent the deformities in the spine
    and joints.
  • Various treatment options include medications
    such as mexiletine, baclofen, carbamazepine and
    anti-inflammatory corticosteroids in order to
    manage muscle weakness, spasms, and stiffness,
    and improve muscle strength, physical therapy,
    assistive devices, and surgery.
  • Physical therapy focuses on providing regular
    range-of-motion exercises to delay the
    progression of contractures and keep the joints
    flexible.
  • Some assistive devices such as braces, walkers,
    canes, and wheelchairs help maintain the mobility
    and independence. A tendon release surgery is
    advised in order to release the contractures.

8
Preventions of Muscular Dystrophy
  • This disease is genetic, and there is no cure,
    therefore, there are no ways to prevent it
  • Children can only get if a parent is a carrier.
  • Genetic testing to see if you are a carrier.

9
Cure of Muscular Dystrophy
  • There's no cure for any form of muscular
    dystrophy. But treatment can help prevent or
    reduce problems in the joints and spine to allow
    people with muscular dystrophy to remain mobile
    as long as possible. Treatment options include
    medications, physical therapy, and surgical and
    other procedures.

10
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