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Fibre Channel Storage Area Networking

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Title: Fibre Channel Storage Area Networking


1
Fibre Channel Storage Area Networking
  • Objectives
  • Understand the SAN concept
  • Fibre Channel Architectural Layers
  • Explain Fibre Channel Topologies
  • Discuss the benefits, Components and Features of
    FC topologies

2
FC and SAN Functional Definitions
  • Fibre Channel (FC) A data transport standard
    which provides for high speed delivery of data in
    a flexible network-like architecture with
    channel-like speed and reliability
  • Storage Area Networking (SAN) An arrangement of
    storage devices and servers, connected in a loop
    or fabric, using the fibre channel protocol

3
Storage Area Networking
4
(No Transcript)
5
SAN vs NAS
6
What is Fibre Channel
  • Fibre Channel is the key enabling technology
    behind SANs
  • It is a high speed, high bandwidth multi-layered
    protocol for moving data across a SAN
  • It can transport most protocols
  • It is designed to overcome the limitations of
    existing architectures

7
Why Fibre and Not Fiber?
  • Originally developed to support Fiber Optic
    cabling
  • Copper support was added
  • Used to reduce the association to Fiber Optics
  • Name recognition for the Fibre Channel technology

8
Fibre Channel Topologies
9
Fibre Channel Fabric
10
FC Protocol and Layers
11
FC-0 Architectural Level
12
FC-0 Hardware
  • HBA-Host Bus Adapter
  • SFP- Small Form Factor Plug
  • Physical interface sub-assembly
  • Hot swappable
  • GBIC Gigabit Interface Connector
  • Physical interface sub-assembly
  • Hot swappable
  • Media Interface Adapter
  • DB9 Copper to Optical converter
  • Not as Common

13
Mixing Media Types
Different media types can be mixed together GBIC
or SFP are used to customize switch ports to a
particular media type.
14
Optical Fiber Connectors
SC and LC Connectors
15
Optical Fiber Connectors
ST Connectors
16
Multimode Fiber
  • Shortwave 850nm (Red) laser e.g. a CD-Rom uses
    this wavelength
  •  typically 50100 micrometers
  • 500 meters at 1.0625 Gbit/s using 50 micron
  • Use SC and LC connectors

17
Single Mode Fiber
  • Long wave laser 1300n (Infra red)
  • 9 Micron wide Lens like fiber
  • 10km depending on laser and fiber
  • SC and ST connectors

18
Fiber Optics Components
19
FC Media Safety and Handling
  • While current fiber optics ports use low power
    lasers
  • Do not look into the port or cable ends.
  • Hold it up to something that will catch the light
    as a quick check for a signal or use a cable
    tester
  • Fiber optic cable is fairly robust, however
  • The cable is not designed to be load bearing
  • Tight bends cause signal loss and can physically
    damage the cable
  • End connections are very fragile
  • Link and cable connectors are susceptible to dust
    and dirt

20
Architectural Levels FC-1
N O D E Upper layer Protocols SCSI, IP FC Mapping to ULP Common Node Services
P O R T Exchanges, Sequences and Framing Encoding and Decoding Media, Cables and Connectors
Upper layer Protocols
FC-4
FC-3
FC-2
FC-1
FC-0
21
FC-1 Encoding and Decoding
  • Each 8 Bit byte is encoded into 10 bits called
    transmission characters
  • 10 bit allows for
  • Excellent parity checking
  • Balanced transmissions equal numbers of 0s and
    1s
  • This increases speed and life of components by
    providing for an optimal duty cycle
  • This encoded bit stream also allows for the
    detection of the boundaries of the data bits
  • Not a Secure encryption
  • Transparent
  • You will never see it happen unless you use an
    analyzer
  • If it isnt working right you will be replacing a
    component or FRU (Field Replaceable Unit)

22
Architectural Levels FC-2
N O D E Upper layer Protocols SCSI, IP FC Mapping to ULP Common Node Services
P O R T Exchanges, Sequences and Framing Encoding and Decoding Media, Cables and Connectors
Upper layer Protocols
FC-4
FC-3
FC-2
FC-1
FC-0
23
FC-2 Framing Protocol
  • Frame is the smallest unit of information
  • Frames have headers, data and trailers
  • Sequence is a number of frames
  • Exchange is a number of sequences

Exchange
Sequence
Sequence
Sequence
Frame
Frame
Frame
Frame
Frame
Frame
24
Frame Protocol Structure
25
FC-2 Classes of Service
  • Different data types have different delivery
    requirements
  • Different classes of service address the
    differing delivery requirements

26
FC-2 Classes of Service
  • Class 1 Acknowledged Connection Service
  • Class 1 connection based, a virtual Pipe, 100
    bandwidth.
  • Class 2 - Acknowledged Connectionless Service
  • Class 2 connectionless, but frames are
    acknowledged.
  • Class 3 - Unacknowledged Connectionless Service
  • Class 3 Connectionless, unacknowledged Ship and
    pray
  • Class 4 Fractional bandwidth Connection
    Oriented Service.
  • Class 4 connection based, a virtual circuits
  • Class 5 Isochronous Service (Proposed)
  • Class 6 Simplex Connection Service
  • Class 6 multicast, video broadcast applications

27
Architectural Levels FC-3
N O D E Upper layer Protocols SCSI, IP FC Mapping to ULP Common Node Services
P O R T Exchanges, Sequences and Framing Encoding and Decoding Media, Cables and Connectors
Upper layer Protocols
FC-4
FC-3
FC-2
FC-1
FC-0
28
Architectural Levels FC-4
N O D E Upper layer Protocols SCSI, IP FC Mapping to ULP Common Node Services
P O R T Exchanges, Sequences and Framing Encoding and Decoding Media, Cables and Connectors
Upper layer Protocols
FC-4
FC-3
FC-2
FC-1
FC-0
29
FC-4 Mapping to ULP
  • Define how each ULP will map to FC
  • Separate one for each ULP
  • SCSI-3 FCP (Fibre Channel Protocol)
  • FC-4 ensures that products from different vendors
    are inter-operable (Use the standard)

30
Architectural Levels ULP
N O D E Upper layer Protocols SCSI, IP FC Mapping to ULP Common Node Services
P O R T Exchanges, Sequences and Framing Encoding and Decoding Media, Cables and Connectors
Upper layer Protocols
FC-4
FC-3
FC-2
FC-1
FC-0
31
Support Channels Networks
Channels
Networks
32
Upper Level Protocols
  • SCSI 2
  • SCSI 3

33
SAN Building Blocks
  • In Fibre Channel terminology, a communicating
    device is a node, this can be a workstation,
    server, disk array, tape drive, etc.
  • Nodes are interconnected using three topologies
  • Point-to-point
  • Arbitrated loop
  • Fabric

34
Fibre Channel Node
Node
Port
35
Point to Point
Node
  • Node

N Port
N Port
36
World-Wide Name (WWNN)
  • Also known as Node-Name
  • Protocol independent
  • 64-Bit Identifier
  • Implemented in much the same way as the IEEE
    48-bit MAC address

37
Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL)
NL_ports are N_ports with added loop functions,
they re-transmit packets not addressed to them
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