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A FIFTH FORCE

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Title: A FIFTH FORCE


1

addicted
for
innovations
Name -
Anupam pandey
Pursuing bsC 2ND YEAR
COLLEGE- DR. GHANSHYAM SINGH PG COLLEGE
2
WARNING !
WATCH THIS PRESENTATION CAREFULLY OTHERWISE YOU
WILL FEEL TO LOCK THE STABLE-DOOR WHEN THE
STEED IS STOLEN
3
The Grand Unification Theory
The idea of a GUT seems to attract many people
who think they can explain it all.
Naturally, when their ideas dont get accepted,
its because of some grand conspiracy against
them.
Keep that in mind while browsing the web.
Actually, the electromagnetic and weak forces
have been shown to be different manifestations of
the electroweak force...
4
so you might be justified in saying there are
only three fundamental forces in nature...
but for now lets say our four forces are all
that are needed to explain the universe as we
know it. There are no more or no less.
.
About 1986, some distinguished physicists thought
they had found experiments which necessitated a
fifth force. To understand their work, we need to
revisit the idea of mass
5
What is mass?
The thing that goes into Fma?
The thing that goes into F Gm1m2/r2?
Are these two things (inertial mass and
gravitational mass) the same?
OR! Is there even a theoretical or experimental
basis for demanding they are the same?
6
Hungarian physicist, Lorand Eötvös, carried out
precise experiments between 1906 and 1909 to
compare gravitational and inertial mass.
He concluded the two were the same to within 1 or
2 parts in 200,000,000.
A 1964 experiment1 showed the two were the same
to within 1 part in 100,000,000,000.
7
This experimental result is the basis for one of
the postulates of general relativity
The Principle of Equivalence an observer in a
closed laboratory cannot distinguish between the
effects produced by a gravitational field and
those produced by an acceleration of the
laboratory.
8
The original Eötvös experiment was designed to
measure the ratio of the gravitational mass to
the inertial mass of different substances.
Eötvös found the ratio to be one, to within
approximately one part in a million.
Fischbach and his collaborators reanalyzed
Eötvös data and found a composition dependent
effect, which they interpreted as evidence for a
Fifth Force.
What do you think of this?
Remember right now we believe there are only
four fundamental forces strong, weak, EM, and
gravitational.
9
Physicists at the Institute for Nuclear Research
in Debrecen, Hungary, say this apparatus an
electron-positron spectrometer has found
evidence for a new particle.
10
Heres some of the data supporting the fifth
force.
11
Fischbach and his collaborators reanalyzed1
Eötvös' data and found a composition dependent
effect, which they interpreted as evidence for a
Fifth Force.
If this is true, two 1-kilogram masses of copper
attract each other with a different force than
two 1-kilogram masses of aluminum!
Revolutionary! Instant Nobel Prize (on
confirmation)! Your name goes down in the annals
of physics next to Newton, Maxwell, and Einstein!
Two experiments carried out in 1987 gave
conflicting results one for the fifth force, one
against it.
Whats a responsible physicist to do?
12
Suspend judgment until experiment (supported by
theory) offers conclusive evidence.
Ultimately, many experiments were carried out and
(eventually) demonstrated conclusively that there
is no fifth force.
In the reanalysis of the Eötvös experiment, a
trend in the data which suggested the fifth force
turned out to be a result of statistical
fluctuations. The data had a trend, but it was
accidental and statistically insignificant.
Physics works!
13
dark matter -
Astronomers have examined dark matter in the
galaxy cluster Abell 3827, by observing how its
mass warps light coming from a more distant
galaxy behind. The image hints that in one
region, dark matter is not moving with the galaxy
itself, possibly implying unknown interactions
between dark matter clumps.
14
A study of four colliding galaxies for the first
time suggests that the dark matter in them may be
interacting with itself through some unknown
force other than gravity that has no effect on
ordinary matter. The finding could be a
significant clue as to what comprises the
invisible stuff that is thought to contribute 24
percent of the universe.
For dark matter to interact with itself requires
not only dark matter particles but also a dark
force to govern their interactions and dark boson
particles to carry this force.
Dark Matter may feel DARK FORCE that the rest
of Universe does not
15
Possible evidence !
In 2015, Attila Krasznahorkay at the Hungarian
Academy of Sciences Institute for Nuclear
Research in Debrecen, Hungary, and his colleagues
posited the existence of a new, light boson only
34 times heavier than the electron. In an effort
to find a Dark photon, the Hungarian team fired
protons at thin targets of lithium-7, which
created unstable beryllium-8 nuclei that then
decayed and spat out pairs of electrons and
positrons. At 140º, a 'bump' was created that
indicated that a small fraction of beryllium-8
will shed excess energy in the form a new
particle.
16
Clues -
Researchers think that the FIFTH FORCE of
nature be a vital clue to understand DARK MATTER
17
SOME PHYSICISTS CLAIM A NEW FORCE OF NATURE
MIGHT HAVE BEEN DISCOVERED. IF TRUE, THAT WOULD
MEAN THAT WE HAVE TO REWRITE THE TEXTBOOKS.

- ANUPAM PANDEY
18
THANKS FOR WATCHING ME !!!!
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