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Geography

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Title: Geography


1
UNIT I
2
WELCOME TO GEOGRAPHY!
MS. JUNDELLE BAGIOEN / jmbagioen_at_gmail.com
3
GEOGRAPHY IS THE MOST
VISUAL
VITAL
VARIED
SUBJECT ON THE PLANET
4
GEOGRAPHY IS ALL ABOUT EVERYTHING!
5
BASIC GEOGRAPHY
MS. JUNDELLE BAGIOEN 0906-547-9094 jmbagioen_at_gmail
.com
6
  • Geography as a branch of knowledge
  • Nature of Geography
  • History of Geography
  • Branches of Geography
  • Importance of studying Geography

7
"The science concerned with the formulation of
the laws governing the spatial distribution of
certain features on the surface of the earth." -
Fred Schaefer, 1953
"Study of human ecology adjustment of man to
natural surroundings." - Harland Barrows, 1923
"Geography is the study of the patterns and
processes of human (built) and environmental
(natural) landscapes, where landscapes comprise
real (objective) and perceived (subjective)
space." - Gregg Wassmansdorf, 1995
"How environment apparently controls human
behavior." - Ellen Semple, c. 1911
"Geography is both science and art" - H.C. Darby,
1962
8
GEOGRAPHY GEOGRAPHY
GREEK WORDS GREEK WORDS
geo graphe
EARTH TO DRAW
WRITING ABOUT THE EARTH WRITING ABOUT THE EARTH
9
  • Geographers are scientists who study the
    relationship between people and their
    environments.

10
BRANCHES AND TYPES OF GEORAPHY
11
HUMAN GEOGRAPHY
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
12
BRANCHES AND TYPES OF GEORAPHY
  • Physical geographystudy of the physical features
    and changes on the earth's surface
  • Human geographystudy of humans and their ideas,
    and the impact of human ideas  and actions on the
    earth.

13
THE ELEMENTS OF GEOGRAPHY
PHYSICAL OR NATURAL ELEMENTS
CULTURAL OR HUMAN ELEMENTS
A. Weather and Climate B. Landforms 1.
Continents and Islands 2. Highlands 3.
Lowlands C. Waterforms 1. Oceans and Seas 2.
Waters of the Lands D. Plants and Animals E.
Natural Resources
A. Man 1. Population 2. Cultural Groups 3.
Cultural Institutions B. Works of Man 1.
Settlements 2. Economic or Ways of Life
3. Routes of Transportation 4.
Communication
14
IMPORTANCE OF GEOGRAPHY
15
GEOGRAPHY IS ALL ABOUT EVERYTHING!
16
  • help us know more about each other and our
    cultures,
  • help us understand our environment and problems
    associated with it,
  • help us better understand the ways in which each
    of us interacts with, and is dependent on others
    and the environment,

17
  • and help us solve environmental, political,
    economic, and social problems.

18
attitudes towards environments
balanced appreciation of world problems
information and facts about the world
challenge of problem solving
fundamental knowledge for planning, research...
preparation for allied fields (geology,
mapping, urban planning...)
19
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT
20
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT
HERODOTUS 485-425 B.C. TOPOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTIONS
ERATOSTHENES 3RD CENTURY B.C. EARTH IS ROUND
HIPPARCHUS 4TH CENTURY B.C. IMAGINARY LINES
THALES OF MILETUS 6TH CENTURY B.C. GEOMETRIC PRINCIPLES TO MEASURE THE LAND
ANAXIMANDER CYLINDER SHAPED EARTH
ARISTOTLE 384-322 B.C. EARTH WAS SPHERE
STRABO 64 B.C. - 20 A.D. GEOGRAPHICS
PTOLEMY A.D. 100-170 GUIDE TO GEOGRAPHY
21
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT
BERNHARD VARENIUS GEOGRAPHICA GENERALIS
IMMANUEL KANT
ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT WHERE AND WHY APPROACH
FRIEDRICH RATZEL ELLEN CHURCHILL SEMPLE HUMAN GEOGRAPHY (FOUNDER)
ELLSWORTH HUNTINGTON CLIMATE AS A DETERMINANT OF CIVILIZATION
PAUL VIDAL DE LA BLACHE REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY APPROACH
CARL SAVER
22
FIVE THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY
23
P LACE
R EGION
E NVIRONMENT
L OCATION
M OVEMENT
24
PLACE
  • includes physical and human characteristics of a
    place

25
REGION
  • areas with distinctive characteristics human
    characteristics, such as demographics or
    politics, and physical characteristics, such as
    climate and vegetation.

26
ENVIRONMENT
  • how people interact with the environment, and how
    the environment responds, with three key
    concepts
  • D-A-M

27
LOCATION
  • Absolute location
  • Relative location

28
MOVEMENT
  • the travel of people, goods, and ideas from one
    location to another, or political events

29
UNIT II
30
TOOLS OF GEOGRAPHY!
MS. JUNDELLE BAGIOEN / 0906-547-9094/
jmbagioen_at_gmail.com
31
Types of Maps and Their Interpretation The Globe
and Its Features Tables, Graphs and Charts
32

MAPS
  • a drawing or other representation, usually on a
    flat surface, of all or part of the earth's
    surface, ordinarily showing countries, bodies of
    water, cities, mountains, etc.

33
shows distance, direction, size and shape in
horizontal spatial relationship
illustrates different kinds of iinformation (popu
lation distribution land use, etc.)
MAP
best way of communicating information about
the earth
indespensable tools for geographers
34
Mercator
Map Projections
Equal-Area
Interrupted
35
Mercator
  • a.k.a. CYLINDRICAL PROJECTION
  • best used for navigating at sea

36
Equal-Area
  • shows true area which represents the same amount
    of the earth's surface
  • shows area in their proper proportion

37
Interrupted
  • like a peeled orange
  • with very little distortion in size/shape
  • more accurate than the first two

38
HYSICAL
OLITICAL
PECIAL-PURPOSE
OPOGRAPHIC
ARTOGRAM
39
HYSICAL
  • emphasizes the natural features of the Earth

40
OLITICAL
  • shows man-made features
  • boundaries
  • capitals
  • etc

41
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PECIAL-PURPOSE
  • shows information of a specific kind

43
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OPOGRAPHIC
  • shows the roughness of the Earth

47
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48
ARTOGRAM
  • exreme variation of the special-purpose map
    designed to send a strong pecific message to the
    map reader

49
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50

HOW TO READ MAPS
  • MAP SCALES
  • MAP LEGENDS
  • GRID
  • Meridians of Longitudes
  • Parallels of Latitudes
  • Remote Sensing
  • Landsat Images

51
Landsat
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MAP ELEMENTS
54
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GLOBE
  • A globe is a three-dimensional scale model of
    Earth.
  • The word "globe" comes from the Latin word
    globus, meaning round mass or sphere.

62

GLOBE
  • BEST REPRESENTATION OF THE EARTH
  • FEATURES
  • Lines of Latitude
  • Lines of Longitude
  • The Arctic and the Antarctic Circles
  • The International Date Line
  • Time Zones
  • Hemispheres
  • Continents and Oceans

63
Tables, Graphs and Charts
64
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65
GRAPHS
A kind of picture that makes the facts from the
table easier to understand. BAR GRAPH and LINE
GRAPH
66
PICTOGRAPH - chart that uses picture symbols to
stand for fixed amounts of selected things. PIE
CHART
CHARTS
67
Nature of Geography and Continents in the World
Continents and Landscapes in the World
68
Continents From Latin "continere" for "to hold
together", terra continens, the "continuous
land".
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70
Africa
  • A Roman term Africa terra "African land", the
    land of Africus, the northern part of Africa, a
    part of the Roman Empire. The Roman name has
    possibly its roots in the Phoenician term
    Afryqah, meaning "colony", as transliterated into
    Roman Latin.

71
America
  • The name America was first used in 1507 by the
    Cartographer Martin Waldseemüller in its treatise
    "Cosmographiae Introductio" to name the New
    World, after Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian
    navigator who made two (or four) trips to America
    with Spanish and Portuguese expeditions, it was
    Vespucci who first recognized that America was a
    new continent.

72
Asia
  • Latin and Greek origin - the "Eastern Land", it
    is speculated to be from the word asu "to go out,
    to rise," in reference to the sun, thus "the land
    of the sunrise."

73
Europe
  • Latin and Greek origin. Europa, Europe, often
    explained as "broad face," from eurys "wide" and
    ops "face." Some suggests a possible semantic
    origin by the Sumerian term erebu with the
    meaning of "darkness" and "to go down, set" (in
    reference to the sun) which would parallel
    Orient.

74
Australia
  • Latin - Terra Australis incognita the "Unknown
    Southern Land", an imaginary, hypothetical
    continent, a large landmass in the south of the
    Indian Ocean, the supposed counterpart of the
    Northern Hemisphere

75
Antarctic
  • Old French antartique, in Modern Latin
    antarcticus, in Greek antarktikos, from anti
    "opposite" arktikos "of the north".

76
  • Renick, D. Dahlman, C. (2014). Introduction to
    Geogaphy People, Places Environment 6th
    edition. Pearson Educaton Inc.
  • Blij H. , Muller, P. WinklerPrins A. (2010).
    Geography of the World 4th edition(International
    Student Version. John Wiley Sons, Inc.
  • Clifford, N., Holloway, S. et al. (2008). Key
    Concepts in Geography 2nd edition. SAGE
    Publications Inc.
  • https//www.google.com.ph/maps
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