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Leadership style in nursing

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Title: Leadership style in nursing


1
  • LEADERSHIP STYLe
  • P.Meena,M.Sc(N)

2
LEADERSHIP
  • Leadership may be defined as the process of
    influencing the activities of a group or
    individual toward the achievement of goal in a
    given situation.
  • A leader tries to influence the followers or
    group of people so that the purpose and objective
    of organization can be fulfilled .

3
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD LEADER
  • He or she is permissive with little or no
    control.
  • Motivate by support when requested by the group
    or individual .
  • Little or no direction is provided .
  • Communication is between members of group and
    upward and downward

4
FUNCTIONS OF LEADER
  • Serving as a link between the group and top
    management .
  • Counselling and guidance to the member of group.
  • Ensuring timeliness in performance or time
    management is an other function of leadership.

5
  • Gaining maximum contribution from group members
    towards goal fulfillment through the
    participation, decision making provision of
    adequate resources and effective communication .

6
LEADERSHIP STYLE
  • It is a leaders style of providing direction
    implementing plans and motivating people
  • OR
  • It is defined as different combinations of task
    and relationship behaviour used to influence
    other to accomplish goals .

7
TYPES OF LEADERSHIP STYLE
  1. AUTOCRATIC / DIRECTIVE .
  2. ABDICATRIC / LAISSEZ FAIRA.
  3. DEMOCRATIC / CREATIVE.
  4. PARTICIPATIVE STYLE .

8
1) AUTOCRATIC STYLE
  • In this style leader takes all decisions and
    assigns all responsibilities to himself . He is
    self assured and dominating .
  • The subordinates are made aware of what to do
    , but not why .

9
  • The leader set his / her goal and expects them to
    accept along with his / her method of achieving
    them. This method is used in emergency when the
    leader has to take immediate action .

10
  • In this leader is characterised by following
    behaviour
  • -gt Strong control is maintained over the
    group.
  • -gt Communication flows downward .
  • -gt Decision making does not involve others
    .

11
2) DEMOCRATIC STYLE
  • This type of leadership believes in working with
    cooperation with workers.
  • It is people centered approach and allows greater
    individual participation in decision making.

12
  • Leader exhibits following behaviours
  • -gtLess control is maintained.
  • -gtcommunication flow up to down.
  • -gtDecision making involves other.
  • -gtEmphasis in we rather than I and we
  • .

13
PARTICIPATIVE STYLE
  • It is compromised between autocratic and
    democratic style.In this style,the manager
    presents her/his analysis of problem and
    proposals for action to employees inviting their
    criticism and comments.

14
ADVANTAGES
15
  • It is a successful style of leadership because it
    is based on positive assumption about human
    being.
  • It encourages cooperative spirit and development
    of subordinate for better performance of their
    work.
  • Participative in decision making will lead to
    better leader sub-ordinate relationship and also
    satisfection.

16
LAISSEZ FAIRE
17
  • This style is also reffrred as freedom style.This
    type of leader denies responsibility and abdicate
    authority to the group that is the leader have
    all decision making and responsibilities to the
    grow.

18
  • Everything is lift on workers about the
    determination of objectives,achievement of
    activities and for running the administration
    voluntary.

19
BASIC LEADERSHIP STYLES
  • DirectingDirecting the people with control over
    him in a structurally way.
  • Coachingdirecting and supporting the people in
    achieving the goals.

20
  • SupportingIn this type the leader should praise,
    listen,facilitate the follower.
  • DelegatingIt means giving some of the authority
    to high competent people for day to day
    decisions.In other words,turn over
    responsibility.

21
Changing Ones Leadership Style
  • 1) Attending management seminars.
  • 2) By working with an understanding
    or assistant to an effective leader and
    learning his behaviour.
  • 3) By attending several training programme.
  • 4) Direct counselling by psychologist.

22
LEADERSHIP SKILLS
  • 1) Skills of personal behaviour.
  • 2) Skills of communication.
  • 3) Skills of organise.
  • 4) Skills of self awareness.

23
1) SKILLS OF PERSONAL BEHAVIOUR
  • Sensitive to feeling of group.
  • Identifies self with the need of the group.
  • Does not criticize other suggestions.
  • Help others feel important and needed.
  • Does not argue.

24
2)SKILLS OF COMMUNICATION
  • Listen attentively.
  • Makes sure every one understands what is needed
    and reason why.
  • Recognise that everyones contribution is
    important.

25
3) SKILLS TO ORGANISE
  • The effective leader helps the group to
  • -gtDevelop long and short time objectives.
  • -gtBreakup big problems into small one and
    then solve.

26
  • -gtShare responsibilities and opportunities.
  • -gtBe attentive and do detail.

27
4) SKILLS OF SELF AWARENESS
  • Is aware of group members,their qualities
    limitation.
  • Help the group to be aware of their attitude and
    values.

28
Theories of Leadership
  1. TRAIT THEORIES
  2. LEADERSHIP STYLE THEORIES
  3. TRAIT- SITUATION MATCH THEORIES
  4. LEADERSHIP STYLE- SITUATION MATCH THEORIES

29
THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP
  • Trait Theories individual characteristics
    separate effective leaders from everyone else.
  • Leadership style theories it forms the most
    significant basis for effective leadership.

30
  • Trait-situation match theoriesWhen the leaders
    characteristics match the situational needthe
    leader is more effective.
  • Leadership style-situation match theories When
    the leaders leadership style matches the
    situational needs,the leader is more effective.

31
TRAIT THEORIES
  • Theories about leadership were based on the
    belief that a person was born with leadership
    characteristics.
  • The belief that leadership qualities were passed
    on in the genes became the basis for royal
    succession.

32
  • There were no.of traits for a leader have been
    suggested including greater intelligence than the
    group,initiative creativity ,emotional
    maturity,energy, drive, good health, self
    confidence, communication skills,perception
    helpfulness, trustworthiness loyality

33
  • Early theories in this maintained that traits are
    inherited but later theories suggested that
    traits could be obtained through learning and
    experience.
  • Researcher arrived at different conclusion , but
    identified some common leadership traits

34
  • -gt Leaders need to be more intelligent than the
    group they lead.
  • -gt Leaders must possess initiative the ability
    to perceive and start courses of action not
    considered by others.

35
  • -gtHaving originality the ability to think of
    new solutions to problems and ideas of new ways
    to be productive is helpful.
  • -gt Emotional imaturity with intigration-a sense
    of purpose and direction dependability and
    objectivity is another important trait.

36
  • -gt Communication skills are important the
    leader needs to understand others, speak and
    write clearly.
  • -gt Leaders participate in social activities
    they can socialize with all kinds of people and
    adopt to various groups.

37
LEADERSHIP STYLE THEORIES
  • Leadership behaviour influence group climate and
    outcomes.
  • Patterns or styles they used were labeled ,
    authoritarian, democratic and laissez-faire.
  • Descrimination between authoritarian and
    democratic leadership was based on four factors

38
  • 1) Sharing of decision making (democratic).
  • 2) Concern for followers (democratic).
  • 3)Maintenance of social distance (authoritarian).

39
  • 4) Use punishment or coercion (authoritarian).
  • Studies focus on two bipolar factors that affect
    leadership style.These factors were originally
    given the label initiating structure(task
    oriented) and consideration (relationship
    oriented).

40
  • Nurse administrator are classified into five
    basic categories (Black and Moulton)
  • 1) I am the staff members friends who will do
    anything so that they will like me.(Showing
    minimum concern for hospital services and maximum
    concern for the staff).

41
  • 2) I consult with staff member to work on mutual
    goals and mutual problems solving and they
    understand their roles and responsibilities(Showin
    g both high concern for delivery of services and
    high concern for staff).

42
  • 3) I am a middle of the roader nurse and avoid
    controversies or taking sides , the hospitals
    rules and regulations provide guidelines for my
    supervision (showing moderate concern for both
    the delivery of services and the staff comitted
    only to rules and regulations)

43
  • 4) I have little concern for staff service the
    hospitals provides me with a job which is all I
    ask (showing that concern for both services and
    staff are at a low level).
  • I expect staff members to do what I think they
    ought to do (Showing high concern for hospital
    services coupled with little or no concern for
    staff).

44
  • Reddin (1970) describes four basic styles of
    leaders based on the degree of emphasis on
    orientation toward tasks or orientation toward
    relationship
  • Separated Representing low relationship
    orientation low task orientation.

45
  • 2)Dedicated Representing high task orientation
    and low relationship orientation.
  • 3) Related Representing high relationship
    orientation low task orientation.
  • 4) Integrated Representing high relationship
    orientation and high task orientation

46
GREAT MAN THEORY
  • This theory argues that a few people born with
    the necessary characteristics to be great
    leader,leaders are well rounded and
    simultaneously display both instrumental and
    supportive leadership behaviour.

47
  • Instrumental activities include planning ,
    organizing and controlling the activities of
    subordinates to accomplish the organizations
    goals. Supportive leadership is socially oriented
    and allows for participation and consultation
    from subordinates for decision that affect them

48
  • People who use both instrumental and supportive
    leadership behaviour are considered great man
    and supposedly are effective leaders in any
    situation.
  • Many finds this theory unattractive because of
    its premise that leaders are born and not made,
    which suggests that leadership cannot be
    available.

49
CHARISMATIC THEORY
  • People may be leader because they are
    charismatic but relatively little is known about
    this intangible characteristic.
  • The charismatic leader inspires others by
    obtaining emotional commitement from followers

50
  • and by arousing strong feelings from followers
    and by arousing strong feeling of loyality .
  • Under charismatic leadership , one may overcome
    obstacles not thought possible . However ,
    because charisma is so elusive , some may sense
    it while others do not

51
SITUATIONAL THEORY
  • Situational theories become popular during the
    1950s these theories suggest that the traits
    required of a leader differ according to varying
    situation.

52
  • Among the variables that determine the
    effectiveness of leadership style are factors
    such as the personality of the leader , the
    performance requirement of both the leader and
    followers , the attitudes , degree of
    interpersonal contact possible , time pressures ,
    physical environment , organizational structure
    etc.

53
SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY
  • Situational leadership theory encourages managers
    to combine leader task behaviour ,

54
  • follower maturity levels into 4 options of
    leadership style (TEASLEY 1987)
  • 1) High task-low relationship.
  • 2) High task-high relationship.
  • 3) Low task-high relationship.
  • 4)Low task-low relationship.

55
  • 1) High task-low relationshipLeadership style
    may be used when the followers have low maturity
    level.
  • 2) High task-high relationshipLeadership style
    may be used when the staff now more familiar with
    the system is revealing problems with the system .

56
  • 3) Low task- low relation Leadership style are
    used when a follower has a high job maturity
    level that is proficient , interested and
    motivated.

57
  • In this situation the leader may delegate certain
    activities and be available as a consultant.
  • 4) Low task-high relationshipStyle would be
    necessary in situation that create frustation and
    call for participation and communication.

58
LEADERSHIP STYLE IN NURSING
  • 1) Charismatic leadership
  • 2) Authoritarian leadership
  • 3) Democratic leadership
  • 4) Situational leadership
  • 5) Transactional leadership
  • 6) Laissez faire

59
1) Charismatic leadership
  • This is characterised by an emotional
    relationship between the leader and group members
    in which leader inspires other by obtaining an
    emotional commitement from followers and by
    arousing strong feeling of loyality.

60
2) Authoritarian leadership
  • In this leader makes all the decision for the
    group.
  • The leader determines all the policies , giving
    orders and directions to the group members.

61
3) Democratic leadership
  • The leader acts as a facilitator and guiding the
    people towards achieving the group goals.
  • This is based on following principles

62
  • -gt Every group member should participate in the
    decision making.
  • -gt Each individual is responsible for
    himself/herself and for the welfare of group.
  • -gt There should be concern and consideration
    for each group member as a unique individual.

63
4) Situational leadership
  • In this level of direction and support varying
    according to the level of maturity of the group.
  • The leader assumes one of four styles
  • directive
  • 2) Coaching
  • 3) Supporting
  • 4) delegating

64
5) Transactional leadership
  • This represents the traditional manager focused
    on the day-to-day achieving organizational goals.
  • The transactional leader understand and meet the
    need of the group

65
6) Laissez faire
  • Group members may act independently of each other
    and suffer from a lack of co-operation.
  • This is described as inactive , passive and
    offering few commands , questions.

66
  • THANK YOU
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