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Trichogrammatids in biological control


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Title: Trichogrammatids in biological control

Presented By Mandeep Rathee (2014A18D)
  • Currently there are about 85 genera in the world
    (Viggiani, 2001)
  • In India, many species of Trichogramma
    and Trichogrammatoidea have been used in
    applied/augmentative biological control
    programmes (Singh and Jalali, 1994)
  • In India, about 28 species of Trichogramma and
    about 8 species of Trichogrammatoidea are known
    to occur naturally (Sithanantham, 2013)
  • Egg parasitoids belonging to the family
    Trichogrammatidae are among the most widely used
    biological control agents in the field against
    primarily parasitize eggs of moths and
    butterflies (Lepidoptera)
  • Of these, the genus Trichogramma Westwood, with
    about 250 species distributed across the world,
    is the most important one from the applied point
    of view

  • The first Trichogramma species was described by
    Charles V. Riley in North America in 1871 as
    Trichogramma minutum from eggs of the Viceroy
  • It was first mass reared in 1926 on eggs of
    Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella

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Importance of Quality Components in Trichogramma
production and use
Bigler, 2000
Classical Biological control and Exotic
Trichogrammatids introduced in India
Natural enemy Source/year ofintroduction Pest/crop/statusrelease
Trichogrammaaustralicum Taiwan, 1963Trinidad, West Indies, 1981 Released in sugarcane fields in Pugalur (Tamil Nadu) and recovered from eggs of sugarcane stem borer, Chilo sacchariphagus indicus
Trichogrammabrasiliense South America viaCalifornia, USA,1968 Released and recovered from sugarcane tissue borers Helicoverpa armigera on tomatoes, and cotton pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella on cotton, okra in Punjab
Trichogrammafasciatum Barbados, 1965 Released in sugarcane fields and recovered from eggs of Chilo spp. and Scirpophaga excerptalis
Trichogrammajaponicum Trinidad, WestIndies, 1979 Released in sugarcane fields and recovered from eggs of Gurdaspur borer, Acigona steniellus Chilo infuscatellus, Chilo spp. andScirpophaga spp.
(Singh, 2004)
Natural enemy Source/year ofintroduction Pest/crop/statusrelease
Trichogramma perkinsi Colombia, 1966 Introduced against tissue borers of sugarcane, recovered from eggs of Chilo tumidicostalis from Plassey (West Bengal) and Chilo auricillius
Trichogramma-toidea eldanae Trinidad, WestIndies, 1983 Released in sugarcane fields and recovered from eggs of Chilo infuscatellus at Shakar Nagar (Andhra Pradesh) and Chilo spp. At Pravaranagar (Maharashtra) and Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh)
Trichogramma- toidea bactrae Taiwan, 1992 Released and recovered from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella
Trichogrammaembryophagum Rumania, 1978Germany, 1988 Released and recovered from codling moth, Cydia pomonella on apple in Ladakh region of Jammu Kashmir state
Trichogrammatids used in augmentative biological
control in India
Role of Trichogrammatids in biolgical control of
cotton insect pests
The major target insect pests
Common Name Sc. Name Order Family
Spotted bollworm Earias vittella Earias insulana (Lepidoptera Noctuidae)
Pink Bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera Gelechiidae)
American Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera Noctuidae)
  • Card containing parasitized host eggs (Corcyra
    cephalonica) safely packed in packets indicating
    date of emergence of adult trichogrammatids
  • Each Trichocard contain about 20,000 parasitized
  • 6 day-old trichocards are prepared for field
  • Different dosages are recommended for different
    insects pests in particular crops

Precautions for field release
  • Trichocard should be packed keeping parasitized
    surface on inner side
  • Emergence date should be specified on cards
  • Cut piece of trichocard should be stapled on
    inner side of leaf to avoid direct sunlight
  • Use safer pesticides either 15 days before or
    after trichogramma release

PAU recommendations for trichogramma use
Crop Target pest Sc. Name Trichogramma species No. of release Dose (No./ha) Initiation (DAS)
Sugarcane Early Shoot Bore Chilo infus caellus T.chilonis 4-6 at 10 DI 50000 45
Top Borer Scirpophaga excerptallis T. japonicum 4-6 at 10 DI 50000 60
Stalk Borer Chilo auricilius T.chilonis 8-10 at 10 DI 50000 90
Rice Yellow Stem Borer, Leaf Folder Scirpophaga incertulas Cnaphalocrocis medinalis T.chilonis T. japonicum 5-6 at 7 DI 100000 30
Maize Maize Borer Chilo partellus T.chilonis Sinle 100000 10-15
Parasitoids of Earias spp.
Parasitoids of Pectinophora gossypiella
  • Cherian and Margabandhu (1943) recorded 60-100
    egg parasitism of E. vittella by Trichogramma
    spp. at Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu). According to
    them, field liberation of the parasitoid brought
    down the boll infestation by both Earias spp. by
  • In Punjab, release at the rate of 1.5 lakh/
    ha/release at 10-day intervals during
    July-October reduced bollworm damage by 20-45
    (Varma and Gill, 1992)
  • In large-scale field trials, field releases of T.
    achaeae and T. chilonis at the rate of 1-2
    lakh/ha/release at 7-10 days interval during
    effective boll formation period on cotton during
    1987-1990 resulted in better control of bollworms
    giving higher yield of seed cotton in comparison
    to control
  • T. achaeae was reported to parasitise 27.2 of
    eggs of E. vittella from Punjab (Sekhon and
    Varma, 1985)
  • Inundative releases of the parasitoid at the rate
    of 200,000/ha at 10 days interval reduced the
    incidence of bollworms by 55.7 and increased the
    yield by 43.6 (Brar et al. 1991)

  • Trichogramma parasitisation was enhanced by
    planting Cassia ccidentalis in close vicinity of
    cotton. The results revealed that there was a
    remarkable increase in the rate of parasitism
    (av. 88.6 ) in the eggs of E. vittella on
    cotton, which was planted along with C.
    occidentalis as compared to control plot (av.
    10.9 ) (Yadav and Jha ,2002)
  • Inundative releases of T. pretiosum, B.
    kirkpatricki and C. blackburni at 710 day
    interval parasitised 3789 and 6572 population
    of pink bollworm and spotted bollworms in Haryana
    and Punjab, respectively (Singh, 1985)
  • Seven releases of T. (brasiliense) pretiosum,
    Apanteles angaleti and C. blackburni at 10-day
    interval starting from the time when the crop was
    45 days old reduced the infestation of bollworms
    by 55.5 in Maharashtra (Dhumal et al. ,1982)

Field trial with MITS of T. chilonis against
cotton bollworms in Coimbatore
Treatment Mean parasitism Mean damage of fruiting bodies
Released plots 9.40 4.00
Control plots 0.00 10.50
CD at 5 3.35 0.42
Anon. (2003)
Field trial with MITS of T. chilonis against
cotton bollworms in Anand
Treatments Egg parasitism Square damage Boll damage Yield (q./ha.)
MITS 32.19 8.17 15.98 18.94
Local strain 28.25 8.23 16.32 18.05
GAU practices 8.71 6.65 15.32 17.36
Control 15.70 15.67 26.67 12.50
S.Em 0.89 0.26 0.19 0.28
CD at 5 3.10 0.90 0.65 1.00
Anon. (2003)
Field evaluation of pesticide tolerant strain of
T. chilonis on cotton in Ferozpur, Punjab
Treatments Incidence in Fruiting Bodies() Incidence in Green bolls () Parasitism in H. armigera eggs Yield (q./ha.)
PT strain 7.98 (16.31) 9.93 (18.34) 10.93 (19.28) 16.12
PAU strain 8.88 (17.29) 11.14 (19.46) 9.14 (17.57) 15.80
PAU spray schedule 10.40 (18.79) 15.12 (22.83) 0.00 (0.00) 15.10
Control 50.87 (45.48) 43.20 (41.05) 1.20 (6.21) 2.48
CD(P0.05) 2.33 3.00 1.20 0.71
(Values in the parentheses are original values
of arcsine transformation)
Parasitism of H. armigera eggs by
Trichogrammatid species in the laboratory
S. No. Trichogrammatid species Mean percent parasitism
1 Trichogramma chilonis 66.7 5.0 (55.2)a
2 Trichogramma brasiliense 50.1 3.3 (45.2)b
3 Trichogramma pretiosum 76.7 4.5 (61.6)a
LSD at Plt0.05 LSD at Plt0.05 13.1
Ballal and Singh, 2003
Effect of different release rates of
Trichogrammatid species on H. armigera
parasitization in sunflower
Ballal and Singh, 2003
Effect of different release rates of
Trichogrammatid species on H. armigera
parasitization in red gram
Ballal and Singh, 2003
Role of Trichogrammatids in biolgical control of
Sugarcane Borers
The major target insect pests
Common Name Sc. Name
Early Shoot Borer Chilo infuscatellus Snellen
Inter node Borer Chilo sacchariphagus indicus (Kapur)
Top Shoot Borer Scirpophaga excerptalis Walker
Stalk Borer Chilo auricilius Dudgeon
Root Borer Emmalocera depressella Swinhoe
Gurdaspur Borer Acigona steniellus (Hampson)
Pink Borer Sesamia inferens Walker
  • In Mysore State, Rao et al. (1956) reported that
    Trichogramma releases led to high levels of
    parasitisation (62-90) of eggs of C.
    infuscatellus, besides increase in cane yield by
    about 3 t/acre
  • Trichogramma japonicum was observed as an egg
    parasite of the internode borer, Proceras indicus
    Kapur, on sugarcane during1965 at Cuddalore (TN)
    with 7 to 55 parasitization (Venugopal et al.,
  • Kalyanasundaram et al. (1992,1993) demonstrated
    that six releases of T. chilonis, at fortnightly
    intervals at 40,000/ha, significantly lowered the
    incidence of INB on internode basis, it was
    reduced from 12.6 to 2.9 , the extent of
    reduction being 77

  • Kamalakara Rao (1980) reported that 2-4 releases
    of Trichogramma brought downt he dead hearts
    (shoots killed due to infestation by ESB) by
    about 58 the INB incidence on cane basis was
    lower by 28 in Andhra Pradesh
  • Patil et al. (1996) studied efficacy of different
    dosages of T. chilonis for management of ESB
    Among the 4 doses of 75,000, 125,000, 187,500 and
    250,000 adults/ha, the highest dose showed the
    best results with highest reduction in dead heart
    incidence and increase in cane yield
  • The inundative releases of an egg parasitoid, T.
    chilonis, at 50,000 per ha at 1015-day intervals
    from late July 1989 onwards reduced the incidence
    of sugarcane stalk borer, C. auricilius, to 12.6
    in the colonized areas (Varma et al., 1991)

  • The mean parasitizations of the early shoot
    borer, C. infuscatellusi n by TTS of T. chilonis
    (31.69) and Ludhiana strain treatment (31.12)
    were significantly higher than the untreated
    control (4.92) and chemical control (4.61)
    (Virk et al., 2008)
  • In Punjab (Ludhiana), T. japonicum released 6
    times at 10-day intervals at 50,000/ha against S.
    excerptalis showed that the incidence of top
    borer was significantly reduced in
    parasitoid-released plots (7.52) compared to
    unreleased control (15.72 ) (Anonymous, 2005)
  • The release of Ludhiana strain of T. chilonis at
    50,000/ha at 10-day intervals from April to June
    against early shoot borer showed that the
    incidence in parasitoid release field (9.80 )
    and in chemical control field (9.40) was on par
    and significantly less than that in control
    (21.40). The reduction in damage was 54.2 over
    chemical control and 56.1 over untreated control
    at Ludhiana (Anonymous, 2004)

Role of Trichogrammatids in biolgical control of
other plantation crop pests
  • On castor, Trichogramma chilonis Ishii and
    Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti
    parasitised the eggs of Achaea janata by up to
    100 (Patel and Yadav, 1979)
  • Rao et al. (1980) observed Trichogrammatoidea
    bactrae Nagaraja parasitising 9.1-14 eggs of A.
    janata on castor crop in Kamataka
  • T. chilonis was also recorded on the coconut
    black headed caterpillar Opisina arenosella
    Walker (Nirula, 1956)

Field evaluation of T. chilonis (Temp. Tolerant
Strain) against Chilo infuscatellus of sugarcane
in Nawanshahar, Punjab
Treatments Incidence () Reduction over control () Parasitism () Yield (q/ha) CBR
TTS 6.4a 52.9 31.04b 771.7a 18.60
Local strain 6.6a 51.5 27.68b 759.5b 16.99
Chemical control 6.2a 54.4 0.00a 762.3ab 13.98
Control 13.6b - 0.00a 706.4c -
C.V.() 8.78 - 9.67 9.87 -
Role of Trichogrammatids in biolgical control of
pests of cereal crops
The major target insect pests
Common Name Sc. Name Crop
Yellow Stem Borer (YSB) Scirpophaga incertulas Rice
Leaf Folder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Rice
Rown Plant Hopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens Rice
Shoot Fly Atherigona soccata Maize and Sorghum
Maize Stem Borer Chilo partellus Maize and Sorghum
  • Multilocational studies under the AICRP on
    biological control have revealed that egg
    parasitism of S. incertulas by T. chilonis during
    rabi ranged from 22.4 to 82.2 during 2005
  • The releases of T. japonicum were far more
    effective in controlling S. incertulas than
    endosulfan in Maharashtra (Shirke and Bade 1997)
  • Inundative releases of T. japonicum resulted in
    3.759.0 decrease in leaf damage due to leaf
    folder (Bentur et al. 1994)
  • Taley and Thakare (1979) reported T. chilonis
    caused up to 2060 parasitisation of shootfly
    eggs in Sorghum
  • Rao and Ali (1976) reported that the eggs of stem
    borer, Chilo partellus, were parasitised by
    Trichogramma sp. Bhatnagar and Davies (19741979)
    observed that the egg parasitoid was active in
    the months of July to October and up to 68
    parasitisation was recorded

  • T. japonicum is preferred over T. chilonis for
    the pests whichhave their egg masses covered
    with moth scales as in the rice yellow stem borer
    Scirpophaga incertulas and the sugarcane top
    shoot borer S. excerptalis
  • Singh and Jalali (1994) reported that inundative
    releases of T. chilonis at 20,000/acre at 1015
    days interval reduced the incidence of C.
    partellus to 9.7 and 5.3 in the colonised areas
    compared to 21.7 and 19.8 in no-release areas
    during 1992 and 1993, respectively
  • Jalali and Singh (2003) reported the release
    rates of natural enemies for management of Chilo
    partellus in maize under net house for field
    evaluation and found that out of four species of
    trichogrammatids, T. chilonis parasitised 77.9
    of Chilo partellus eggs compared to other species
    (38.155.7 )

Effect of different release rates of
Trichogrammatid species on H. armigera
parasitization in sunflower
Ballal and Singh, 2003
Role of Trichogrammatids in biolgical control of
pests of vegetable crops
The major target insect pests
Common Name Sc. Name Crop
Pod borer Helicoverpa armigera Tomato, potato, okra
Spotted boll worm Earias vittella Tomato
Tobacco caterpillar Spodoptera litura Cabbage/cauliflower
Diamond back moth Plutella xylostella Cabbage/cauliflower
Til hawk moth Acherontia styx Brinjal
Cut worm Agrotis ipsilon Tomato
Brinjal shoot and fruit borer Leucinodes orbonalis Brinjal
TABLE 2. Exotic egg parasitoids utilizedfor
the control of pests of vegetable crops
Krishnamoorthy et al.,, 2013
TABLE 2 Species of egg parasitoids being
utilised for the control of pests of vegetable
Krishnamoorthy et al., 2013
  • T. chilonis and T. achaeae were recorded for the
    first time from eggs of Helicoverpa armigera
    (280 ) from tomato in Anand, Gujarat (Manjunath
    et al., 1970)
  • About 8 parasitism of H. armigera eggs by T.
    chilonis on okra was observed in Karnataka in
    1977 (Thontadarya et al., 1978)
  • T. chilonis was found to parasitize 98.2 of eggs
    in 1973-1974 and 84.2 in 1974-1975 in Gujarat
    on the eggs of H. armigera collected from potato,
    tomato, etc. when weekly released _at_ 250,000
    adults ha-1 (Yadav et al., 1985)
  • Trichogramma pretiosum released at 50,000 adults
    ha-1 at 7-10-day interval against H. armigera in
    tomato at Solan produced 27.893.4 parasitism
    in the field (Gupta and Babu, 1998)
  • Trichogramma chilonis was used for the control of
    H. armigera and E. vittella on okra and released
    at fortnightly intervals, which significantly
    reduced the pest damage in okra and produced
    fruit yield 20.30 t as against 13.06 t in control
    (Raja et al.1998)

  • In Bangalore total parasitism of Acherontia styx
    eggs in brinjal was 5464 . Of this, 80 was by
    T. chilonis, 17 by T. achaeae and 3 by other
    parasitoids (Krishnamoorthy et al., 1999)
  • A total of 250,000 adults of T. bactrae ha-1,
    released at 40,00050,000 adults per week ha-1,
    from transplanting for 6-7 weeks, reduced the DBM
    infestation by 30 in cabbage (Krishnamoorthy,
  • Trichogramma japonicum has been used for the
    control of brinjal shoot and fruit borer (BSFB),
    Leucinodes orbonalis, and found that about 28
    fruits were damaged in release plot as against
    52.5 in control (Sasikala et al. 1999)
  • The borer damage was 19 in brinjal when egg
    parasitoid was released at 2.5 lakh adults ha-1.
    But this was further brought down to 10 when
    rate of release was increased to 5.0 lakh adults
    ha-1 (Krishnamoorthy and Mani 1999)

Role of Trichogrammatids in biolgical control of
pests of Fruit crops
The major target insect pests
Common Name Sc. Name Crop
Codling Moth Cydia pomonella Apple, pear, peach , plum
Indian Gypsy Moth Lymantria obfuscate Apple, peach, plum, cherry
Lemon Butterfly Papilio demoleus Citrus
Fruit Sucking Moths Othreis matern Citrus and pomegranate
Anar Butterfly Deudorix isocrates Pomogranate
Ber Fruit Borer Meridarchis scyrodes Ber
  • Trichogramma embryophagum at 2,000 adults/tree at
    weekly intervals (first release to be made when
    the first moth is caught in pheromone trap) was
    found useful in suppressing the codling moth
    (Singh, 2000)
  • Releases of T. embryophagum twice at 4,000
    adults/tree resulted in 35-45 reduction in
    fruit borer damage by codling moth in H.P.
    (Anonymous, 2011)
  • Trichogramma chilonis readily parasitised
    1-2-day-old eggs of Papilio spp. On citrus
    plants. Each parasitised egg yielded 8-1 adults.
    (Krishnamoorthy and Singh, 1986)
  • Trichogramma chilonis was observed to be a
    parasitoid of Othreis materna in Bangalore,
    causing a mean of 21-50 parasitism (Bhumannavar
    and Viraktamath, 2001)
  • Release of T. chilonis at 2.5 lakh/ha four times
    at 10 days interval had resulted in up to 50
    parasitism on the pomegranate fruit borer,
    Deudorix isocrates in Tamil Nadu (Karuppuchamy et
    al. , 2001)

Role of Trichogrammatids in biolgical control of
pests of Fruit crops
The major target insect pests
Common Name Sc. Name Crop
Pod borer Helicoverpa armigera Chickpea, pigeon pea, soyabean, pea, black gram, leucerne
Tobacco caterpillar Spodoptera litura Chickpea
Bihar hairy caterpillar Spilosoma obliqua Soyabean, leucerne, black gram
Trichogrammatids reported on the Helicoverpa
armigera in India
  • Tandon and Bakthavatsalam (2003) recorded 1.3-8.3
    parasitisation of H. armigera eggs by T.
    chilonis on different pigeon pea genotypes
  • T. chilonis was described as a successful
    biological control agent against S. litura on
    soyabean crop (Joshi et al., 1980)
  • In groundnut Trichogramma sp. provided 28.0 egg
    parasitism of S. litura (Kalyana Sundaram et al.
    ,1993), released at the rate of 100,000 adults/ha
  • H. armigera eggs collected from lucerne fields
    were heavily parasitised by T. chilonis, up to
    98.2 in 19731974 and 84.2 in 1974-1975
    (Yadav et al., 1985)
  • Laxman (1986) reported that T. achaeae Nagaraja
    and Nagarkatti when released at 25 lakhs/ha to
    control H. armigera in chickpea gave 34.8
    parasitisation and when released at 20 lakhs/ha
    gave 28.7 parasitization

International Status of Trichogrammatids
  • Novapro (1988) reported that the use of
    Trichogramma exiguum Pinto and Platner resulted
    in up to 75 parasitism of Tuta absoluta
    (Meyrick) on tomato in Colombia
  • In China, releases of Trichogramma dendrolimi,
    the main agent for controlling Adoxophyes orana
    and Lampronadata cristata in fruit and oak trees
    resulted in parasitism of 80.0 to 95.0
  • In Germany, release of Trichogramma evanescens
    against corn borer resulted in reduction of
    pyralid larvae by 76-84.9 and increase in grain
    weight by 9-15 (Hassan et al., 1990)

  • In the USA, Hoffmann et al. (1990) reported that
    egg parasitism of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) on
    tomatoes by Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and
    three other species was to the tune of 83.0 .
  • Thornton et al. (1975) reported T. japonicum as a
    major mortality factor of eggs of rice borer
    Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) in Hong Kong
  • Huo et al. (1991) reported that eggs of cabbage
    butterfly Pieris rapae (Linnaeus) were
    parasitized to the tune of 63.0 by Trichogramma
    evanescens Westwood

Constraints in Success of Trichogrammatids
  • Adoption has been slow because of
  • variable levels of pest control in the field
  • high production costs
  • lack of application technology
  • incompatibility with insecticides applied for
    other pests
  • Research institutes and other government
    organizations are unable to supply natural
    enemies to the farmers

Ecological constraints in maintaining released
  • Parasitism represents replaceable
    mortalitybecause of competition with predators
    for eggs
  • Wasp mortality caused by egg predators
  • Potential density dependent predation of
  • Difficulty in maintaining field populations

Future Prospects for Trichogrammatids
  • Understand and quantify the relationship between
    numbers of parasitesreleased and their impact on
    the pest population and on the level of crop
  • Ensure that the most suitable species or biotype
    is selected for augmentative use
  • Determine the optimal size of the release area
  • Develop pest management systems that eliminate or
    limit insecticideinterference with natural
  • Develop efficient methods of producing
    Trichogramma and define environmental parameters
    and specifications for storage, shipment and
    field release.
  • Development of multi resistant strains

  • Trichogrammatids paratsitize number of damaging
    lepidopteran insect pests naturally in cotton,
    rice, chick pea, sunflower, tomato, okra and many
    more crops
  • Trichogrammatids offer a eco-friendly, less
    costly and more effective plant protection option
    in comparison to insecticides
  • Biointensive IPM approach and deveopment of
    multi resistant and tolerant strains are bright
    sides of exploiting trichogrammatids in coming
    future to save crops from insect pests

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