Auto Power Supply from 4 Different Sources using PIC - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Auto Power Supply from 4 Different Sources using PIC

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This project is used to provide uninterrupted power supply to a load by selecting the supply source automatically from any available one out of 4 sources. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Updated: 16 June 2016
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Title: Auto Power Supply from 4 Different Sources using PIC


1
Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
2
Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
Introduction
  • The main objective of this project is to provide
    uninterrupted power supply to a load,
    by selecting the supply source automatically from
    any available one  out of 4 such as mains,
    generator, inverter and solar in the absence of
    power supply. The demand for electricity is
    increasing every day and frequent power cut is
    causing many problem in various areas like
    industries, hospitals and houses. An alternative
    arrangement for power source is thus desirable.

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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
Block Diagram
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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
Hardware Requirements
  • PIC16F8 series Microcontroller
  • Relay Driver IC
  • Relays
  • LCD
  • Lamp
  • Push Buttons
  • Transformer
  • Diodes
  • Voltage Regulator
  • Crystal
  • LEDS
  • Capacitors
  • Resistors.

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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
Software Requirements
  • MPLAB CCS C Compiler
  • Languages Embedded C or Assembly

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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
Embedded System
  • Embedded System is a combination of hardware and
    software used to achieve a single specific task.
  • An embedded system is a microcontroller-based,
    software driven, reliable, real-time control
    system, autonomous, or human or network
    interactive.
  • Operating on diverse physical variables and in
    diverse environments and sold into a competitive
    and cost conscious market. 

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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
Embedded System
  • An embedded system is not a computer system that
    is used primarily for processing, not a software
    system on PC or UNIX, not a traditional business
    or scientific application.
  • High-end embedded lower end embedded systems.
  • High-end embedded system - Generally 32, 64 Bit
    Controllers used with OS.
  • Examples Personal Digital Assistant and Mobile
    phones etc .

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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
Embedded System
  • Lower end embedded systems - Generally 8,16 Bit
    Controllers used with an minimal operating
    systems and hardware layout designed for the
    specific purpose.
  • Examples Small controllers and devices in our
    everyday life like Washing Machine, Microwave
    Ovens, where they are embedded in.

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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
Characteristics of Embedded System
  • An embedded system is any compute system hidden
    inside a product other than a computer.
  • There will encounter a number of difficulties
    when writing embedded system software in addition
    to those we encounter when we write applications.

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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
Applications of Embedded System
  • Throughput
  • Our system may need to handle a lot of data in a
    short period of time.
  • Response
  • Our system may need to react to events quickly.
  • Testability
  • Setting up equipment to test embedded software
    can be difficult.
  • Debugability
  • Without a screen or a keyboard, finding out what
    the software is doing wrong (other than not
    working) is a troublesome problem.

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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
Applications of Embedded System
  • Reliability
  • Embedded systems must be able to handle any
    situation without human intervention.
  • Memory space
  • Memory is limited on embedded systems, and you
    must make the software and the data fit into
    whatever memory exists.
  • Program installation
  • You will need special tools to get your software
    into embedded systems.

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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
Micro Controller
  • Compatible with MCS-51 products
  • 8K bytes of in-system programmable (ISP)
  • flash memory
  • 4.0V to 5.5V operating range
  • Crystal frequency 11.0592mhz
  • Three-level program memory lock
  • 256 x 8-bit internal RAM
  • 32 programmable I/O lines

AT89S52
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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
Relay
  • It is A electro magnetic switch
  • Used to control the electrical devices
  • Copper core magnetic flux plays main role here

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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
Relay Driver ULN2003
  • ULN is relay driver application
  • The ULN2003 is A monolithic high voltage and high
    current darlington transistor arrays.
  • It consists of seven NPN darlington pairs that
    features high-voltage outputs with common-cathode
    clamp diode for switching inductive loads.
  • The collector-current rating of a single
    darlington pair is 500ma.
  • The darlington pairs may be paralleled for higher
    current capability.

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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
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Relay Driver ULN2003
  • The ULN functions as an inverter.
  • If the logic at input 1b is high then the output
    at its corresponding pin 1c will be low.

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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
Circuit Diagram
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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
Circuit Description
  • The circuit diagram of A simple 100 watt inverter
    using IC CD4047 and MOSFET IRF540
  • Cd4047 is a low power CMOS astable multivibrator
    ic
  • Here it is wired as an astable multivibrator
    producing two pulse trains of 0.01s which are 180
    degree out of phase at the pins 10 and 11 of the
    IC.

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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
Bridge Rectifier
  • A diode bridge is an arrangement of four (or
    more) diodes in a bridge circuit configuration.
  • It provides the same polarity of output for
    either polarity of input.
  • When used in its most common application, for
    conversion of an alternating current (AC) input
    into a direct current (DC) output.
  • It is known as a bridge rectifier.

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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
Bridge Rectifier
  • A bridge rectifier provides full-wave
    rectification from a two-wire AC input.
  • Resulting in lower cost and weight as compared to
    a rectifier with a 3-wire input from a
    transformer with a center-tapped secondary
    winding.
  • According to the conventional model of current
    flow, current is assumed to flow through
    electrical conductors from the positive to the
    negative pole. 

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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
Voltage Regulator
  • A voltage regulator is designed to automatically
    maintain a constant voltage level.
  • A voltage regulator may be a simple
    "feed-forward" design or may include negative
    feedback control loops.
  • It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or
    electronic components.
  • Depending on the design, it may be used to
    regulate one or more AC or DC voltages.
  • Electronic voltage regulators are found in
    devices such as computer power supplies.

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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
Voltage Regulator
  • Where they stabilize the DC voltages used by the
    processor and other elements.
  • In automobile alternators and central power
    station generator plants, voltage regulators
    control the output of the plant.
  • In an electric power distribution system, voltage
    regulators may be installed at a substation or
    along distribution lines.
  • So that all customers receive steady voltage
    independent of how much power is drawn from the
    line.

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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
Voltage Regulator
  • 7805 is a voltage regulator integrated circuit.
    It is a member of 78xx series of fixed linear
    voltage regulator ICs.
  • The voltage source in a circuit may have
    fluctuations and would not give the fixed voltage
    output.
  • The voltage regulator IC maintains the output
    voltage at a constant value.
  • The xx in 78xx indicates the fixed output voltage
    it is designed to provide 7805 provides 5V
    regulated power supply.
  • Capacitors of suitable values can be connected at
    input and output pins depending upon the
    respective voltage levels.

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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
Working Principle
  • This project uses an arrangement of 4 different
    sources of supply which are channelized to a load
    so as to have an uninterrupted operation of the
    load.
  • As it is not practicable to get 4 sources of
    supply such as mains supply, generator supply,
    inverter supply.
  • And Solar supply, we used one source and a set of
    relays.
  • We have taken first source with mains supply and
    assumed as if being fed from 4 different sources
    by connecting all the 4 incoming sources in
    parallel.

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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
Working Principle
  • The ac source to the lamp is connected to four
    relays by making the entire normally open
    contacts parallel and all the common contacts in
    parallel. 
  • 4 push button switches are used which represent
    failure of corresponding supply respectively and
    are interfaced to the controller.
  • Initially we have given high input signal to the
    microcontroller, so as a result the controller
    generates a low output to activate the first
    relay driver.
  • Which will result in the relay being energized
    and the lamp glows.

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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
Working Principle
  • While the push button for mains is pressed that
    represents failure of mains supply as a result
    the supply is provided from the next source
  • And the microcontroller receive high input and
    generates low output to activate the second relay
    driver.
  • Which will result in the second relay being
    energized and the lamp glows .
  • When we press the generator button, it indicates
    the generator fails to operate and the supply
    comes from the next source.
  • The next source will supply high input to the
    controller and which will provide low signal to
    the third relay and the lamp switches ON.

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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
Working Principle
  • When we press the third push button the supply
    will chose next source now the fourth source will
    provide input to the microcontroller.
  • Controller activates the fourth relay and the
    load will get the supply and the  lamp continues
    to glow.
  • When all the relays are off leaving no supply to
    the lamp, the lamp is switched off.
  • One 16 x 2 lines LCD is used to display the
    condition of the supply sources and the load on
    real time basis.

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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
Applications
  • Power supply can be control in
  • Industries
  • Hospitals
  • Schools
  • Multiplexes
  • Banks etc.

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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
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Advantage
  • Power supply can be controlled from four
    different sources.
  • if any problem occurred in one source then other
    sources can be used.

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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
Disadvantages
  • Cost of equipment is very high.
  • Its very difficult to install and maintain the
    kit.

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Auto Power Supply Control from 4 Different
Sources using PIC Microcontroller
Conclusion
  • The main scope of this project is to provide a
    continuous power supply control to the output
    load through any of the sources from which we are
    operating the device, i.e. , generator, and
    inverter and solar automatically in the absence
    of any of the source. The complete operation of
    Auto power supply control from 4 different
    sources is based on the microcontroller. This
    project is a low-cost, reliable, effective and
    efficient system. 

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